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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214450/in-silico-structural-and-functional-analysis-of-mesorhizobium-acc-deaminase
#1
Krishnendu Pramanik, Tithi Soren, Soumik Mitra, Tushar Kanti Maiti
Nodulation is one of the very important processes of legume plants as it is the initiating event of fixing nitrogen. Although ethylene has essential role in normal plant metabolism but it has also negative impact on plants particularly in nodule formation in legume plants. It is also produced due to a variety of biotic or abiotic stresses. 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase is a rhizobial enzyme which cleaves ACC (immediate precursor of ethylene) into α-ketobutyrate and ammonia. As a result, the level of ethylene from the plant cells is decreased and the negative impact of ethylene on nodule formation is reduced...
February 11, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208729/altered-intracellular-milieu-of-adar2-deficient-motor-neurons-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#2
REVIEW
Takenari Yamashita, Megumi Akamatsu, Shin Kwak
Transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) pathology, and failure of A-to-I conversion (RNA editing) at the glutamine/arginine (Q/R) site of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluA2, are etiology-linked molecular abnormalities that concomitantly occur in the motor neurons of most patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) specifically catalyzes GluA2 Q/R site-RNA editing. Furthermore, conditional ADAR2 knockout mice (AR2) exhibit a progressive ALS phenotype with TDP-43 pathology in the motor neurons, which is the most reliable pathological marker of ALS...
February 8, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208661/differential-binding-of-three-major-human-adar-isoforms-to-coding-and-long-non-coding-transcripts
#3
Josephine Galipon, Rintaro Ishii, Yutaka Suzuki, Masaru Tomita, Kumiko Ui-Tei
RNA editing by deamination of adenosine to inosine is an evolutionarily conserved process involved in many cellular pathways, from alternative splicing to miRNA targeting. In humans, it is carried out by no less than three major adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs): ADAR1-p150, ADAR1-p110, and ADAR2. However, the first two derive from alternative splicing, so that it is currently impossible to delete ADAR1-p110 without also knocking out ADAR1-p150 expression. Furthermore, the expression levels of ADARs varies wildly among cell types, and no study has systematically explored the effect of each of these isoforms on the cell transcriptome...
February 11, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199836/bcr-and-endosomal-tlr-signals-synergize-to-increase-aid-expression-and-establish-central-b-cell-tolerance
#4
Masayuki Kuraoka, Pilar B Snowden, Takuya Nojima, Laurent Verkoczy, Barton F Haynes, Daisuke Kitamura, Garnett Kelsoe
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required to purge autoreactive immature and transitional-1 (immature/T1) B cells at the first tolerance checkpoint, but how AID selectively removes self-reactive B cells is unclear. We now show that B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and endosomal Toll-like receptor (TLR) signals synergize to elicit high levels of AID expression in immature/T1 B cells. This synergy is restricted to ligands for endocytic TLR and requires phospholipase-D activation, endosomal acidification, and MyD88...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199309/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-%C3%AE-blockade-increases-genomic-instability-in-b-cells
#5
Mara Compagno, Qi Wang, Chiara Pighi, Taek-Chin Cheong, Fei-Long Meng, Teresa Poggio, Leng-Siew Yeap, Elif Karaca, Rafael B Blasco, Fernanda Langellotto, Chiara Ambrogio, Claudia Voena, Adrian Wiestner, Siddha N Kasar, Jennifer R Brown, Jing Sun, Catherine J Wu, Monica Gostissa, Frederick W Alt, Roberto Chiarle
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a B-cell-specific enzyme that targets immunoglobulin genes to initiate class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. In addition, through off-target activity, AID has a much broader effect on genomic instability by initiating oncogenic chromosomal translocations and mutations involved in the development and progression of lymphoma. AID expression is tightly regulated in B cells and its overexpression leads to enhanced genomic instability and lymphoma formation...
February 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199207/assessing-the-potential-function-of-adar1-in-virus-associated-sepsis
#6
Yugang Zhuang, Hu Peng, Yuanzhuo Chen, Shuqin Zhou, Yanqing Chen
Sepsis syndrome is a common and frequently fatal clinical condition. It is defined by the presence of both infection and an uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response. It represents a major, although largely unappreciated, healthcare problem worldwide. It is especially problematic in infants and toddlers who show markedly increased susceptibility to severe infections caused by various pathogens, including viruses. Viruses are important causative agents of sepsis. Host adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) catalyzes adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) editing of RNA transcripts, thus changing viral RNAs and exerting antiviral and proviral effects...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195308/ca-2-permeable-ampa-receptors-associated-with-epileptogenesis-of-hypothalamic-hamartoma
#7
Hiroki Kitaura, Masaki Sonoda, Sayaka Teramoto, Hiroshi Shirozu, Hiroshi Shimizu, Tadashi Kimura, Hiroshi Masuda, Yosuke Ito, Hitoshi Takahashi, Shin Kwak, Shigeki Kameyama, Akiyoshi Kakita
Hypothalamic hamartoma (HH), composed of neurons and glia without apparent cytologic abnormalities, is a rare developmental malformation in humans. Patients with HH often have characteristic medically refractory gelastic seizures, and intrinsic epileptogenesis within the lesions has been speculated. Herein we provide evidence to suggest that in HH neurons, Ca(2+) permeability through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors is aberrantly elevated. In needle biopsy specimens of HH tissue, field potential recordings demonstrated spontaneous epileptiform activities similar to those observed in other etiologically distinct epileptogenic tissues...
February 13, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194615/how-we-manage-adenosine-deaminase-deficient-severe-combined-immune-deficiency-ada-scid
#8
Donald B Kohn, H Bobby Gaspar
Adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immune deficiency (ADA SCID) accounts for 10-15% of cases of human SCID. From what was once a uniformly fatal disease, the prognosis for infants with ADA SCID has improved greatly based on the development of multiple therapeutic options, coupled with more frequent early diagnosis due to implementation of newborn screening for SCID. We review the various treatment approaches for ADA SCID including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling or family member or from a matched unrelated donor or a haplo-identical donor, autologous HSCT with gene correction of the hematopoietic stem cells (gene therapy-GT), and enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with polyethylene glycol-conjugated adenosine deaminase...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194158/role-and-regulation-of-acc-deaminase-gene-in-sinorhizobium-meliloti-is-it-a-symbiotic-rhizospheric-or-endophytic-gene
#9
Alice Checcucci, Elisa Azzarello, Marco Bazzicalupo, Anna De Carlo, Giovanni Emiliani, Stefano Mancuso, Giulia Spini, Carlo Viti, Alessio Mengoni
Plant-associated bacteria exhibit a number of different strategies and specific genes allow bacteria to communicate and metabolically interact with plant tissues. Among the genes found in the genomes of plant-associated bacteria, the gene encoding the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (acdS) is one of the most diffused. This gene is supposed to be involved in the cleaving of plant-produced ACC, the precursor of the plant stress-hormone ethylene toning down the plant response to infection...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192180/deletion-of-cd73-in-mice-leads-to-aortic-valve-dysfunction
#10
P Zukowska, B Kutryb-Zajac, A Jasztal, M Toczek, M Zabielska, T Borkowski, Z Khalpey, R T Smolenski, E M Slominska
Aortic stenosis is known to involve inflammation and thrombosis. Changes in activity of extracellular enzyme - ecto-5'-nucleotidase (referred also as CD73) can alter inflammatory and thrombotic responses. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of CD73 deletion in mice on development of aortic valve dysfunction and to compare it to the effect of high-fat diet. Four groups of mice (normal-diet Wild Type (WT), high-fat diet WT, normal diet CD73-/-, high-fat diet CD73-/-) were maintained for 15weeks followed by echocardiographic analysis of aortic valve function, measurement of aortic surface activities of nucleotide catabolism enzymes as well as alkaline phosphatase activity, mineral composition and histology of aortic valve leaflets...
February 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191901/increasing-the-genome-targeting-scope-and-precision-of-base-editing-with-engineered-cas9-cytidine-deaminase-fusions
#11
Y Bill Kim, Alexis C Komor, Jonathan M Levy, Michael S Packer, Kevin T Zhao, David R Liu
Base editing induces single-nucleotide changes in the DNA of living cells using a fusion protein containing a catalytically defective Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9, a cytidine deaminase, and an inhibitor of base excision repair. This genome editing approach has the advantage that it does not require formation of double-stranded DNA breaks or provision of a donor DNA template. Here we report the development of five C to T (or G to A) base editors that use natural and engineered Cas9 variants with different protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) specificities to expand the number of sites that can be targeted by base editing 2...
February 13, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188287/a-to-i-rna-editing-up-regulates-human-dihydrofolate-reductase-in-breast-cancer
#12
Masataka Nakano, Tatsuki Fukami, Saki Gotoh, Miki Nakajima
Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) plays a key role in folate metabolism and is a target molecule of methotrexate. An increase in the cellular expression level of DHFR is one of the mechanisms of tumor resistance to methotrexate. The present study investigated the possibility that adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing, which causes nucleotide conversion by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, might modulate DHFR expression. In human breast adenocarcinoma-derived MCF-7 cells, 26 RNA editing sites were identified in the 3'-UTR of DHFR...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188246/cutting-edge-the-transcription-factor-sox2-regulates-aid-expression-in-class-switched-b-cells
#13
Lauren J DiMenna, Wei-Feng Yen, Laura Nicolas, Rahul Sharma, Zara N Saldanha, Jayanta Chaudhuri
IgH class switch recombination (CSR) occurs through the deliberate introduction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-instigated DNA double-strand breaks into the IgH loci. Because double-strand breaks are generally highly toxic, mechanisms that regulate AID expression are of much relevance to CSR and genomic integrity; however, effectors of such regulatory processes are still poorly understood. In this article, we show that the transcription factor sex determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2) is expressed in activated B cells, but almost exclusively in those that have undergone CSR...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186676/acc-deaminase-containing-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-protect-papaver-somniferum-from-downy-mildew
#14
Deepti Barnawal, Shiv Shanker Pandey, Nidhi Bharti, Alok Pandey, Tania Ray, Sucheta Singh, Chandan Singh Chanotiya, Alok Kalra
AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine whether ACC deaminase-containing bacterial treatments could enhance the tolerance of poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants against biotic stress of downy mildew caused by Peronospora spp. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three different genotypes of P. somniferum i.e. Sampada, J-16 and I-14 were included in the experiment. The ACC deaminase-containing bacteria Pseudomonas putida (WPTe) reduced the downy mildew disease severity and significantly improved the growth and yield of P...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185616/tuberculous-peritonitis
#15
Urvashi Vaid, Gregory C Kane
Tuberculous peritonitis is rare in the United States but continues to be reported to occur in certain high-risk populations, which include patients with AIDS or cirrhosis, patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, recent immigrants from areas of high endemicity, and those who are immunosuppressed. The diagnosis of this disease requires a high clinical index of suspicion and should be considered in the differential of ascites with a lymphocyte predominance and serum-ascitic albumin gradient of <1...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183639/prodrug-encapsulated-albumin-nanoparticles-as-an-alternative-approach-to-manifest-anti-proliferative-effects-of-suicide-gene-therapy
#16
Bulbul Tirkey, Bharat Bhushan, S Uday Kumar, P Gopinath
Conventional anticancer agents are associated with limited therapeutic efficacy and substantial nonspecific cytotoxicity. Thus, there is an imminent need for an alternative approach that can specifically annihilate the cancer cells with minimal side effects. Among such alternative approaches, CD::UPRT (cytosine deaminase uracil phosphoribosyl transferase) suicide gene therapy has tremendous potential due to its high efficacy. Prodrug 5-Fluorocytosine (5-FC) used in combination with CD::UPRT suicide gene suffers from limited solubility which subsequently leads to decline in therapeutic efficacy...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182305/hepatitis-b-virus-covalently-closed-circular-dna-homeostasis-is-independent-of-the-lymphotoxin-pathway-during-chronic-hbv-infection
#17
Marie-Anne Meier, Aleksei Suslov, Sylvia Ketterer, Markus H Heim, Stefan F Wieland
Current treatment options for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are not curative as they are not effective in eliminating covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). cccDNA is a stable template for HBV transcription in the nucleus of hepatocytes and is thought to be one of the main factors responsible for HBV persistence. Recently, activation of the lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTβR) has been shown to trigger degradation of cccDNA through induction of cytidine deaminases of the APOBEC3 family in HBV cell culture model systems...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179988/ips-derived-mscs-from-an-expandable-bank-to-deliver-a-prodrug-converting-enzyme-that-limits-growth-and-metastases-of-human-breast-cancers
#18
M Ullah, Y Kuroda, T J Bartosh, F Liu, Q Zhao, C Gregory, R Reger, J Xu, R H Lee, D J Prockop
One attractive strategy to treat cancers is to deliver an exogenous enzyme that will convert a non-toxic compound to a highly toxic derivative. The strategy was tested with viral vectors but was disappointing because the efficiency of transduction into tumor cells was too low. Recent reports demonstrated that the limitation can be addressed by using tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to deliver enzyme/prodrug systems that kill adjacent cancer cells through bystander effects. Here we addressed the limitation that tissue-derived MSCs vary in their properties and are difficult to generate in the large numbers needed for clinical applications...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174583/accumulation-and-transport-of-1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid-acc-in-plants-current-status-considerations-for-future-research-and-agronomic-applications
#19
REVIEW
Lisa Vanderstraeten, Dominique Van Der Straeten
1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is a non-protein amino acid acting as the direct precursor of ethylene, a plant hormone regulating a wide variety of vegetative and developmental processes. ACC is the central molecule of ethylene biosynthesis. The rate of ACC formation differs in response to developmental, hormonal and environmental cues. ACC can be conjugated to three derivatives, metabolized in planta or by rhizobacteria using ACC deaminase, and is transported throughout the plant over short and long distances, remotely leading to ethylene responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173770/screening-for-genital-tuberculosis-in-a-limited-resource-country-case-report
#20
Sadie Namani, Emine Qehaja-Buçaj, Diellëza Namani
BACKGROUND: Screening for benign or malignant process of pelvis in young females is a challenge for a physician in a limited resource country. Tuberculosis should be always considered in the differential diagnosis of a pelvic mass in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis. Negative results of analysis of peritoneal fluid for acid-fast staining, late cultures, and unavailability of new diagnostics methods such as polymerase chain reaction and adenosine deaminase of the aspirated fluid from peritoneal cavity can often result in invasive diagnostic procedures such as laparotomy...
February 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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