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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822000/effects-of-fusariotoxin-co-exposure-on-thp-1-human-immune-cells
#1
Marie-Caroline Smith, Stéphanie Madec, Samuel Troadec, Emmanuel Coton, Nolwenn Hymery
Deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin (T2), fumonisin B1 (FB1), zearalenone (ZEA), and moniliformin (MON) mycotoxins are common food and feed contaminants produced by Fusarium spp. However, while they are usually found to co-occur in a large range of commodities, only few data are available on mycotoxin co-exposure effects and cellular response mechanisms. In this study, the individual and combined toxic effects of these fusariotoxins were evaluated on the THP-1 human immune cell line as major fusariotoxins are mostly potent immunomodulators...
August 18, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820044/determination-of-fusarium-toxins-in-functional-vegetable-milks-applying-salting-out-assisted-liquid-liquid-extraction-combined-with-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#2
Ahmed M Hamed, Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares, Ana M García-Campaña, Laura Gámiz-Gracia
Vegetable milks are considered as functional foods due to their physiological benefits. Although the consumption of these products has significantly increased, they have received little attention in legislation, as regard to contaminants. However, they may contain mycotoxins resulting from the use of contaminated raw materials. In this work, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been proposed for the determination of the most relevant Fusarium toxins (fumonisin B1 and B2, HT-2 and T-2 toxins, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and fusarenon-X) in different functional beverages based on cereals, legumes and seeds...
August 18, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819684/comparison-of-transcriptome-profiles-by-fusarium-oxysporum-inoculation-between-fusarium-yellows-resistant-and-susceptible-lines-in-brassica-rapa-l
#3
Naomi Miyaji, Motoki Shimizu, Junji Miyazaki, Kenji Osabe, Maho Sato, Yusuke Ebe, Satoko Takada, Makoto Kaji, Elizabeth S Dennis, Ryo Fujimoto, Keiichi Okazaki
Resistant and susceptible lines in Brassica rapa have different immune responses against Fusarium oxysporum inoculation. Fusarium yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (Foc) is an important disease of Brassicaceae; however, the mechanism of how host plants respond to Foc is still unknown. By comparing with and without Foc inoculation in both resistant and susceptible lines of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis), we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the bulked inoculated (6, 12, 24, and 72 h after inoculation (HAI)) and non-inoculated samples...
August 17, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811758/pathological-interrelations-of-soil-borne-diseases-in-cucurbits-caused-by-fusarium-species-and-meloidogyne-incognita
#4
Yunhee Seo, Young Ho Kim
Pathological interrelations of two soil-borne diseases in cucurbits (watermelon, oriental melon, shintosa and cucumber) caused by Fusarium isolates (FI) and the root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita were characterized by the fusarium disease severity index (DI), RKN gall index (GI) and eggmass index (EI) in inoculation tests using FI and RKN. Virulence of FI as determined by DI at 4 weeks after inoculation was mostly in the higher order of Fusarium proliferatum F6, F5 and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp...
August 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811531/the-selective-antifungal-activity-of-drosophila-melanogaster-metchnikowin-reflects-the-species-dependent-inhibition-of-succinate-coenzyme-q-reductase
#5
Mohammad-Reza Bolouri Moghaddam, Thomas Gross, Annette Becker, Andreas Vilcinskas, Mohammad Rahnamaeian
Insect-derived antifungal peptides have a significant economic potential, particularly for the engineering of pathogen-resistant crops. However, the nonspecific antifungal activity of such peptides could result in detrimental effects against beneficial fungi, whose interactions with plants promote growth or increase resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. The antifungal peptide metchnikowin (Mtk) from Drosophila melanogaster acts selectively against pathogenic Ascomycota, including Fusarium graminearum, without affecting Basidiomycota such as the beneficial symbiont Piriformospora indica...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807876/molecular-insights-on-xenoestrogenic-potential-of-zearalenone-14-glucoside-through-a-mixed-in-vitro-in-silico-approach
#6
Luca Dellafiora, Roberta Ruotolo, Alessio Perotti, Martina Cirlini, Gianni Galaverna, Pietro Cozzini, Annamaria Buschini, Chiara Dall'Asta
The mycotoxin zearalenone may contaminate food and feed worldwide upon infections by Fusarium spp. of plants and raw materials intended for human and animal consumption. Currently, contamination by zearalenone and congeners pose concern for health due to xenoestrogenic effects. However, while zearalenone and the main reduced metabolites are well-known xenoestrogens, some plant metabolites that may enter the food chain have been observed aside. Among them, zearalenone-14-glucoside may be abundant in the edible parts of infected plants, thereby entering significantly the human diet and animal feeding...
August 11, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806765/pka-activity-is-essential-for-relieving-the-suppression-of-hyphal-growth-and-appressorium-formation-by-mosfl1-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#7
Yang Li, Xue Zhang, Shuai Hu, Huiquan Liu, Jin-Rong Xu
In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, the cAMP-PKA pathway regulates surface recognition, appressorium turgor generation, and invasive growth. However, deletion of CPKA failed to block appressorium formation and responses to exogenous cAMP. In this study, we generated and characterized the cpk2 and cpkA cpk2 mutants and spontaneous suppressors of cpkA cpk2 in M. oryzae. Our results demonstrate that CPKA and CPK2 have specific and overlapping functions, and PKA activity is essential for appressorium formation and plant infection...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802024/the-cereal-pathogen-fusarium-pseudograminearum-produces-a-new-class-of-active-cytokinins-during-infection
#8
Jens Laurids Sørensen, Aurelie H Benfield, Rasmus Dam Wollenberg, Klaus Westphal, Reinhard Wimmer, Mikkel Rank Nielsen, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Jason Carere, Lorenzo Covarelli, Giovanni Beccari, Jonathan Powell, Takafumi Yamashino, Herbert Kogler, Teis Esben Sondergaard, Donald Max Gardiner
The fungal pathogen Fusarium pseudograminearum causes important diseases of wheat and barley. During a survey of secondary metabolites produced by this fungus, a novel class of cytokinins, herein termed Fusarium cytokinins, was discovered. Cytokinins are known for their growth promoting and anti-senescence activities and the production of a cytokinin mimic by what was once considered a necrotrophic pathogen that promotes cell death and senescence challenges the simple view that this pathogen invades its hosts by employing a barrage of lytic enzymes and toxins...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802020/investigating-the-diversity-of-effector-genes-in-the-banana-pathogen-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-cubense-reveals-evidence-of-horizontal-gene-transfer
#9
Elizabeth Czislowski, Sam Fraser-Smith, Manuel Zander, Wayne T O'Neill, Rachel A Meldrum, Lucy T T Tran-Nguyen, Jacqueline Batley, Elizabeth A B Aitken
It is hypothesised that the virulence of phytopathogenic fungi is mediated through the secretion of small effector proteins that interfere with the defence responses of the host plant. In Fusarium oxysporum, one family of effectors, the secreted in xylem (SIX) genes, have been identified. We sought to characterise the diversity and evolution of the SIX genes in the banana-infecting lineages of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc). Whole-genome sequencing data was generated for the 23 genetic lineages of Foc, which were subsequently queried for the 14 known SIX genes (SIX1-SIX14)...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802018/characterization-of-two-catalase-peroxidase-encoding-genes-in-fusarium-verticillioides-reveals-differential-responses-to-in-vitro-versus-in-planta-oxidative-challenges
#10
Shan Gao, Scott E Gold, Anthony E Glenn
Catalase/peroxidases (KatGs) are a superfamily of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-degrading enzymes believed to be horizontally acquired by ancient Ascomycota from bacteria. Subsequent gene duplication resulted in two KatG paralogs in ascomycetes: the widely distributed intracellular KatG1 group, and the phytopathogen-dominated extracellular KatG2 group. To functionally characterize FvCP01 (KatG1) and FvCP02 (KatG2) in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides, single and double gene deletion mutants were examined in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800849/rnai-mediated-silencing-of-map-kinase-signalling-genes-fmk1-hog1-and-pbs2-in-fusarium-oxysporum-reduces-pathogenesis-on-tomato-plants
#11
Manish Pareek, Manchikatla Venkat Rajam
Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne plant fungal pathogen, and causes colossal losses in several crop plants including tomato. Effective control measures include the use of harmful fungicides and resistant cultivars, but these methods have shown limited success. Conventional methods to validate fungal pathogenic genes are labour intensive. Therefore, an alternative strategy is required to efficiently characterize unknown pathogenic genes. RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a potential tool to functionally characterize novel fungal pathogenic genes and also to control fungal diseases...
September 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800710/synergistic-effect-of-different-plant-cell-wall-degrading-enzymes-is-important-for-virulence-of-fusarium-graminearum
#12
Maria Chiara Paccanaro, Luca Sella, Carla Castiglioni, Francesca Giacomello, Ana Lilia Martinez-Rocha, Renato D'Ovidio, Wilhelm Schäfer, Francesco Favaron
Endo-polygalacturonases (PGs) and xylanases have been shown to play an important role during pathogenesis of some fungal pathogens of dicot plants, whilst their role in monocot pathogens is less defined. Pg1 and xyr1 genes of the wheat pathogen Fusarium graminearum encode the main PG and the major regulator of xylanase production, respectively. Single and double disrupted mutants for these genes were obtained to assess their contribution to fungal infection. Compared to wild-type strain, the ∆pg mutant showed a nearly abolished PG activity, slight reduced virulence on soybean seedlings but no significant difference in disease symptoms on wheat spikes; the ∆xyr mutant was strongly reduced in xylanase activity and moderately reduced in cellulase activity but was as virulent as wild-type on both soybean and wheat plants...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800607/rna-sequencing-based-transcriptome-and-biochemical-analyses-of-steroidal-saponin-pathway-in-a-complete-set-of-allium-fistulosum-a-cepa-monosomic-addition-lines
#13
Mostafa Abdelrahman, Magdi El-Sayed, Shusei Sato, Hideki Hirakawa, Shin-Ichi Ito, Keisuke Tanaka, Yoko Mine, Nobuo Sugiyama, Minoru Suzuki, Naoki Yamauchi, Masayoshi Shigyo
The genus Allium is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and its medicinal properties have been attributed to these bioactive compounds. The saponin compounds with diverse structures play a pivotal role in Allium's defense mechanism. Despite numerous studies on the occurrence and chemical structure of steroidal saponins, their biosynthetic pathway in Allium species is poorly understood. The monosomic addition lines (MALs) of the Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum, FF) with an extra chromosome from the shallot (A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799776/mycotoxin-contamination-of-foods-in-southern-africa-a-10-year-review-2007-2016
#14
J M Misihairabgwi, C N Ezekiel, M Sulyok, G S Shephard, R Krska
Major staple foods in Southern Africa are prone to mycotoxin contamination, posing health risks to consumers and consequent economic losses. Regional climatic zones favor the growth of one or more main mycotoxin producing fungi, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium. Aflatoxin contamination is mainly reported in maize, peanuts and their products, fumonisin contamination in maize and maize products and patulin in apple juice. Lack of awareness of occurrence and risks of mycotoxins, poor agricultural practices and undiversified diets predispose populations to dietary mycotoxin exposure...
August 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799700/expression-of-hopai-interferes-with-map-kinase-signaling-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#15
Xue Zhang, Wende Liu, Yang Li, Guotian Li, Xu Jin-Rong
The Pmk1 and Mps1 MAP kinases are essential for appressorium formation and plant infection in Magnaporthe oryzae. However, their exact roles during invasive growth are not clear because pmk1 and mps1 mutants are defective in penetration. To further characterize their functions after penetration, in this study we expressed the Pseudomonas syringae effector HopAI known to inactivate plant MAP kinases in M. oryzae. Constitutive expression of HopAI with the RP27 or TrpC promoter resulted in defects in hyphal growth, conidiation, appressorium penetration, and pathogenicity, which is similar to the phenotype of the mps1 mutant...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798320/chickpea-fusarium-oxysporum-interaction-transcriptome-reveals-differential-modulation-of-plant-defense-strategies
#16
Medha L Upasani, Bhakti M Limaye, Gayatri S Gurjar, Sunitha M Kasibhatla, Rajendra R Joshi, Narendra Y Kadoo, Vidya S Gupta
Fusarium wilt is one of the major biotic stresses reducing chickpea productivity. The use of wilt-resistant cultivars is the most appropriate means to combat the disease and secure productivity. As a step towards understanding the molecular basis of wilt resistance in chickpea, we investigated the transcriptomes of wilt-susceptible and wilt-resistant cultivars under both Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri (Foc) challenged and unchallenged conditions. Transcriptome profiling using LongSAGE provided a valuable insight into the molecular interactions between chickpea and Foc, which revealed several known as well as novel genes with differential or unique expression patterns in chickpea contributing to lignification, hormonal homeostasis, plant defense signaling, ROS homeostasis, R-gene mediated defense, etc...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797818/synthesis-characterization-and-antifungal-activity-of-coumarin-functionalized-chitosan-derivatives
#17
Guoyu Yang, Qiu Jin, Cuilian Xu, Sufang Fan, Caixia Wang, Puhui Xie
Four novel coumarin-functionalized chitosan derivatives 4a∼4d were synthesized via condensation reactions of thiosemicarbazide chitosan with coumarin derivatives. Their structures were confirmed by FT-IR, (13)C NMR, XRD and elemental analysis. Their antifungal activities against three kinds of phytopathogens, Alternaria solani sorauer (A. solani), Fusarium oxysporum f.sp vasinfectum (F. oxysporum) and fusarium moniliforme (F. moniliforme), were tested using the mycelial growth rate in vitro at 0.1, 0.5, and 1...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797495/emergence-of-the-molds-other-than-aspergillus-in-immunocompromised-patients
#18
REVIEW
Sana Arif, John R Perfect
Immunocompromised patients are at high risk for invasive fungal infections (IFIs); although Aspergillus remains the most common IFI caused by molds, other fungi, such as Mucorales, dematiaceous molds, and Fusarium spp, are being seen with increasing frequency. Presentations can vary, but sinopulmonary and disseminated infections are common. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of these infections is rudimentary. Fungal cultures and histopathology remain the backbone of diagnostics, as no good serologic markers are available...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795317/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids-inhibit-the-growth-and-reproduction-of-chaetomium-globosum-and-other-fungi-associated-with-water-damaged-buildings
#19
Kelsey Dalmont, Charles L Biles, Heather Konsure, Sujita Dahal, Tyler Rowsey, Matthew Broge, Shubhra Poudyal, Tara Gurung, Sabina Shrestha, Caleb L Biles, Terry Cluck, Alisha Howard
Indoor mold due to water damage causes serious human respiratory disorders, and the remediation to homes, schools, and businesses is a major expense. Prevention of mold infestation of building materials would reduce health problems and building remediation costs. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit yeasts and a limited number of filamentous fungi. The purpose of this research was to determine the possible inhibitory activity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on germination, fungal growth, and reproduction of Chaetomium globosum and other important filamentous fungi that occur in water-damaged buildings...
August 9, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794968/successful-salvage-chemotherapy-and-allogeneic-transplantation-of-an-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patient-with-disseminated-fusarium-solani-infection
#20
Sheenu Sheela, Sawa Ito, Jeffrey R Strich, Maura Manion, Celina Montemayor-Garcia, Hao-Wei Wang, Karolyn A Oetjen, Kamile A West, Austin J Barrett, Mark Parta, Juan Gea-Banacloche, Steven M Holland, Christopher S Hourigan, Catherine Lai
Disseminated Fusarium infection is associated with high mortality in immunocompromised patients. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) often have an extended duration of neutropenia during intensive induction chemotherapy, consolidation chemotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). There is no consensus regarding management of invasive disseminated Fusarium infections in the setting of prolonged neutropenia (Tortorano et al., 2014) [1]. We report a case of disseminated Fusarium in a patient with relapsed AML who underwent successful chemotherapy and haplo-identical allogeneic SCT with administration of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte infusions...
2017: Leukemia Research Reports
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