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Randa Zeidan, Zahoor Ul-Hassan, Roda Al-Thani, Virgilio Balmas, Samir Jaoua
Mycotoxins are important contaminants of food and feed. In this study, low fermenting yeast ( Lachancea thermotolerans ) and its derivatives were applied against toxigenic fungi and their mycotoxins. A. parasiticus , P. verrucosum and F. graminearum and their mycotoxins were exposed to yeast volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and cells, respectively. VOCs reduced significantly the fungal growth (up to 48%) and the sporulation and mycotoxin synthesis (up to 96%). Very interestingly, it was shown that even 7 yeast colonies reduced Fusarium’s growth and the synthesis of its mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON)...
June 14, 2018: Toxins
Alberto Gianinetti, Franca Finocchiaro, Fabio Maisenti, Dailly Kouongni Satsap, Caterina Morcia, Roberta Ghizzoni, Valeria Terzi
Seed persistence in the soil is threatened by microorganisms, but the seed coat helps protect the seed from them. Although modern rice ( Oryza sativa L.) cultivars have a whitish caryopsis, some varieties have a red caryopsis coat, a trait typical of wild Oryza species. The red colour is due to the oxidation of proanthocyanidins, a class of flavonoids that is found in the outer layers of the seed in many species. We aimed to assess whether these natural compounds (proanthocyanidins and proanthocyanidin-derived pigment) have some protective effect against microbial attacks...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Zhi-Wei Bai, Li-Mei Pu, Bi-Feng Tang, Qian Wang, Xiu-Ming Cui, Di-Qiu Liu
Chitinases, a glycosidase enzyme that hydrolyzes chitin to N-acetylglucosamine, are widely found in plant cells, and they are an important part of plant antifungal defense system. The function of a Panax notoginseng chitinase gene PnCHI1 was characterized in this paper. Expression vector of PnCHI1 was constructed and transiently expressed in onion epidermal cells, and laser scanning confocal microscopy demonstrated that PnCHI1 was localized in the cell wall. Prokaryotic expression vector of PnCHI1 was also constructed, and recombinant protein of PnCHI1 was induced and purified...
May 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Ye Xia, Amna Amna, Stephen Obol Opiyo
Plants have a diverse endophytic microbiome that is functionally important for their growth, development, and health. In this study, the diversity and specificity of culturable endophytic fungal communities were explored in one of the most important biofuel crops, switchgrass plants (Panicum virgatum L.), which have been cultivated on a reclaimed coal-mining site for more than 20 years. The endophytic fungi were isolated from the surface-sterilized shoot (leaf and stem), root, and seed tissues of switchgrass plants and then cultured for identification...
2018: PloS One
Yun Chen, Shiyu Zheng, Zhenzhen Ju, Chengqi Zhang, Guangfei Tang, Jing Wang, Ziyue Wen, Wei Chen, Zhonghua Ma
Peroxisomal proliferation is highly stimulated during the biosynthesis of mycotoxins and plant infection by Fusarium graminearum. Currently, the functions of the peroxisome in these cellular processes are poorly understood. In this study, we applied genetic, cell biological and biochemical analyses to investigate the functions of the peroxisomes. We constructed targeted deletion of docking machinery components, including FgPex13, FgPex14 and the filamentous fungal specific peroxin FgPex33. Our results indicated that peroxisome dysfunction resulted in a shortage of acetyl-CoA, the precursor of trichothecene biosynthesis, and subsequently decreased deoxynivalenol (DON) production...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Jörg Bormann, Cornelia Heinze, Christine Blum, Michael Mentges, Anke Brockmann, Arne Alder, Svenja Kim Landt, Brian Josephson, Daniela Indenbirken, Michael Spohn, Birte Plitzko, Sandra Loesgen, Michael Freitag, Wilhelm Schäfer
Infections of fungi by mycoviruses are often symptomless but sometimes also fatal as they perturb sporulation, growth, and, if applicable, virulence of the fungal host. Hypovirulence-inducing mycoviruses, therefore, represent a powerful mean to defeat fungal epidemics on crop plants. Infection with Fusarium graminearum virus China 9 (FgV-ch9), a dsRNA chrysovirus-like mycovirus, debilitates Fusarium graminearum , the causal agent of Fusarium Head Blight. In search for potential symptom alleviation or aggravation factors in F...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
Gregory A DeIulio, Li Guo, Yong Zhang, Jonathan M Goldberg, H Corby Kistler, Li-Jun Ma
The Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) is a group of soilborne pathogens causing severe disease in more than 100 plant hosts, while individual strains exhibit strong host specificity. Both chromosome transfer and comparative genomics experiments have demonstrated that lineage-specific (LS) chromosomes contribute to the host-specific pathogenicity. However, little is known about the functional importance of genes encoded in these LS chromosomes. Focusing on signaling transduction, this study compared the kinomes of 12 F...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Zhihao Cheng, Xiang Yu, Shuxia Li, Qiong Wu
BACKGROUND: Bananas (Musa spp.) are the most important fruit crops worldwide due to their high nutrition value. Fusarium wilt of banana, caused by fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc 4), is considered as the most destructive disease in the world and results in extensive damage leading to productivity loss. The widespread use of plant resistance inducers (PRIs), such as benzothiadiazole (BTH), is a novel strategy to stimulate defense responses in banana plants to protect against pathogens infection...
June 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
Denis Anthony Shah, Erick De Wolf, Pierce A Paul, Laurence V Madden
In past efforts, input weather variables for Fusarium head blight (FHB) prediction models in the United States were identified after following some version of the window-pane algorithm, which discretizes a continuous weather time series into fixed-length windows before searching for summary variables associated with FHB risk. Functional data analysis, on the other hand, reconstructs the assumed continuous process (represented by a series of recorded weather data) by using smoothing functions, and is an alternative way of working with time series data with respect to FHB risk...
June 13, 2018: Phytopathology
Shaan Bibi Jaffri, Khuram Shahzad Ahmad
Present study has for the first time reported Prunus cerasifera leaf extract mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles in a green and one pot synthetic mode without utilization of any chemical reducing agents. Synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). UV-Vis peak was detected at 380 nm due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Variety of biomolecules were revealed by FTIR involved in reduction cum stabilization of zinc oxide nanoparticles...
June 13, 2018: Environmental Technology
A Erler, D Riebe, T Beitz, H-G Löhmannsröben, D Grothusheitkamp, T Kunz, F-J Methner
Mold fungi on malting barley grains cause major economic loss in malting and brewery facilities. Possible proxies for their detection are volatile and semivolatile metabolites. Among those substances, characteristic marker compounds have to be identified for a confident detection of mold fungi in varying surroundings. The analytical determination is usually carried out through passive sampling with SPME, gas chromatographic separation and detection by EI-MS, which often does not allow a confident determination due to the absence of molecular ions...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Elisabeth Wehrle-Wieland, Kristina Affolter, Daniel Goldenberger, Sarah Tschudin Sutter, Joerg Halter, Jakob Passweg, Michael Tamm, Nina Khanna, Daiana Stolz
BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis of invasive mold diseases (IMD) remains challenging. Here, the performance of panfungal PCR, Aspergillus and Mucorales PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was evaluated. METHODS: We conducted a single-center study including 167 hematologic patients at risk for IMD with BAL performed 2011-2014. Diagnostic performance of single tests (Aspergillus-, Mucorales-and panfungal PCR, galactomannan (GM)≥0.5 and ≥1, culture/cytology) or in combination was calculated for predicting IMD comparing proven/probable or proven/probable/possible IMD versus no IMD, respectively...
June 13, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Keerthi S Guruge, Ryuichi Uegaki
The present study employed a next-generation sequencing method to assemble a de novo transcriptome database designed to distinguish gene expression changes exhibited by the fumonisin-producing fungus Fusarium fujikuroi when grown under 'fumonisin-producing' compared to 'non-fumonisin-producing' conditions. The raw data of this study have been deposited at DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) under the accession ID DRA006146.
June 2018: Data in Brief
Joël E T Ateba, Rufin M K Toghueo, Angelbert F Awantu, Brice M Mba'ning, Sebastian Gohlke, Dinkar Sahal, Edson Rodrigues-Filho, Etienne Tsamo, Fabrice F Boyom, Norbert Sewald, Bruno N Lenta
There is continuing need for new and improved drugs to tackle malaria, which remains a major public health problem, especially in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Natural products represent credible sources of new antiplasmodial agents for antimalarial drug development. Endophytes that widely colonize healthy tissues of plants have been shown to synthesize a great variety of secondary metabolites that might possess antiplasmodial benefits. The present study was carried out to evaluate the antiplasmodial potential of extracts from endophytic fungi isolated from Symphonia globulifera against a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum (PfINDO )...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
David Kälvö, Audrius Menkis, Anders Broberg
Three cyclopentanoids (phlebiopsin A⁻C), one glycosylated p -terphenyl (methyl-terfestatin A), and o -orsellinaldehyde were isolated from the biocontrol fungus Phlebiopsis gigantea , and their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis, as well as by LC-HRMS. The biological activity of the compounds against the root rot fungus Heterobasidion occidentale , as well as against Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium canescens , was also investigated, but only o -orsellinaldehyde was found to have any antifungal activity in the concentration range tested...
June 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Y Zhang, Z Q Wang, X G Sun
Objective: To analyze the etiology, drug susceptibility and etiological changes of fungal keratitis so as to to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods: Retrospective case series study. A total of 5 654 copies of specimens for fungal culture were collected from Outpatients suspected of fungal keratitis in Beijing Tongren Ophthalmic Center during January 2007 and December 2016. Specimens were inoculated on Potato dextrose agar (PDA) slant medium, incubated at 30℃ and 40% humidity constantly for 3 to 10 days...
June 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Marcelo Sandoval-Denis, Wijnand J Swart, Pedro W Crous
Three new Fusarium species, F. convolutans , F. fredkrugeri , and F. transvaalense (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are described from soils collected in a catena landscape on a research supersite in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. The new taxa, isolated from the rhizosphere of three African herbaceous plants, Kyphocarpa angustifolia , Melhania acuminata , and Sida cordifolia , are described and illustrated by means of morphological and multilocus molecular analyses based on sequences from five DNA loci (CAL, EF-1 α, RPB1, RPB2 and TUB)...
2018: MycoKeys
A Sevastos, I F Kalampokis, A Panagiotopoulou, M Pelecanou, K A Aliferis
Fungal metabolomics is a field of high potential but yet largely unexploited. Focusing on plant-pathogenic fungi, no metabolomics studies exist on their resistance to fungicides, which represents a major issue that the agrochemical and agricultural sectors are facing. Fungal infections cause quantitative, but also qualitative yield losses, especially in the case of mycotoxin-producing species. The aim of the study was to correlate metabolic changes in Fusarium graminearum strains' metabolomes with their carbendazim-resistant level and discover corresponding metabolites-biomarkers, with primary focus on its primary metabolism...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Sevcan Mamur, Deniz Yuzbasioglu, Serkan Yılmaz, Esra Erikel, Fatma Unal
Enniatin A (EN-A) is a Fusarium mycotoxin which is a common contaminant in grains and especially in maize and it causes serious loss of product. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in human cervix carcinoma (HeLa) cell line, and genotoxic effects of EN-A using chromosome aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), micronuclei (MN) and comet assays in human lymphocytes. The cells were treated with 0...
June 11, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Huifang Lv, Haishun Cao, Muhammad A Nawaz, Hamza Sohail, Yuan Huang, Fei Cheng, Qiusheng Kong, Zhilong Bie
A fungus Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. niveum (FON) is the causal organism of Fusarium wilt in watermelon. In this study, we evaluated the effect of wheat intercropping on the Fusarium wilt of watermelon. Our results showed that wheat intercropping decreases the incidence of Fusarium wilt of watermelon, likely due to the secretion of coumaric acid from the roots of wheat that dramatically inhibits FON spore germination, sporulation, and growth. The secretion of p -hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid from the roots of watermelon stimulates FON spore germination, sporulation, and growth...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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