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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913420/multiple-evolutionary-trajectories-have-led-to-the-emergence-of-races-in-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-lycopersici
#1
Biju V Chellappan, Like Fokkens, Petra M Houterman, Martijn Rep, Ben J C Cornelissen
: Race 1 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) are characterized by the presence of AVR1 in their genome. The product of this gene, Avr1, triggers resistance in tomato cultivars carrying resistance gene I In Fol race 2 and race 3 isolates, AVR1 is absent and hence they are virulent on tomato cultivars carrying I In this study, we analyze an approximately 100 kb genomic fragment containing the AVR1 locus of race 1 isolate Fol004, and compare it to the sequenced genome of Fol race 2 isolate 4287 (Fol4287)...
December 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912916/potentially-toxic-filamentous-fungi-associated-to-the-economically-important-nodipecten-nodosus-linnaeus-1758-scallop-farmed-in-southeastern-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#2
Antônia Santos, Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis, Manoel José Soares Santos, Salvatore Giovani De Simone
Numerous countries have been confronted with infectious diseases in mariculture activities, including fungi infections, although reports in scallops are scarce. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the occurrence of filamentous fungi in Nodipecten nodosus specimens from three marine farms in Southeastern Brazil. Eight fungi genera were observed in the branchial arches, intestine and muscle tissue of the scallop specimens. These include potentially toxin-producing species, such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium...
November 29, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910758/antimicrobial-coumarins-from-the-oyster-culinary-medicinal-mushroom-pleurotus-ostreatus-agaricomycetes-from-kenya
#3
Lilechi D Baraza, Wekesa Neser, Korir Cheruiyot Jackson, Juma B Fredrick, Ochieno Dennis, Kamau R Wairimu, Aggrey Osogo Keya, Matthias Heydenreich
Pleurotus ostreatus has been widely used as food because of its nutritional and medicinal properties. These have been attributed to the presence of macronutrients, minerals, vitamins, and amino acids, among other secondary metabolites. There are, however, few reports on the antimicrobial activities of different classes of purified compounds from P. ostreatus. This led to the current study, the objective of which was to chemically characterize the antibiotic activities of P. ostreatus against selected human pathogenic bacteria and endophytic fungi...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907048/chemical-defence-in-a-millipede-evaluation-and-characterization-of-antimicrobial-activity-of-the-defensive-secretion-from-pachyiulus-hungaricus-karsch-1881-diplopoda-julida-julidae
#4
Slaviša Stanković, Ivica Dimkić, Ljubodrag Vujisić, Sofija Pavković-Lučić, Zvezdana Jovanović, Tatjana Stević, Ivana Sofrenić, Bojan Mitić, Vladimir Tomić
The chemical defence of the millipede Pachyiulus hungaricus is reported in the present paper, in which a chemical characterization is given and antimicrobial activity is determined. In total, independently of sex, 44 compounds were identified. All compounds belong to two groups: quinones and pentyl and hexyl esters of long-chain fatty acids. The relative abundances of quinones and non-quinones were 94.7% vs. 5.3% (males) and 87.3% vs. 12.7% (females), respectively. The two dominant quinones in both sexes were 2-methyl-1,4,-benzoquinone and 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905064/a-mini-survey-of-moulds-and-mycotoxins-in-locally-grown-and-imported-wheat-grains-in-nigeria
#5
Ayotokunbo O Egbontan, Clement G Afolabi, Iyabode A Kehinde, Ololade A Enikuomehin, Chibundu N Ezekiel, Michael Sulyok, Benedikt Warth, Rudolf Krska
A preliminary survey involving limited sample size was conducted to determine the spectrum of moulds and mycotoxins in wheat grains from flour mills and local markets in Nigeria. Fourteen wheat samples were analyzed for moulds using standard mycological methods and for toxic fungal metabolites using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. Fusarium (range of incidence 12.5-61.7%) dominated in the wheat grains though species of Aspergillus (range of incidence 2.24-3.86%) were also recovered from the samples...
November 30, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901448/phylogeny-and-haplotype-analysis-of-fungi-within-the-fusarium-incarnatum-equiseti-species-complex
#6
H Ramdial, R K Latchoo, F N Hosein, S N Rampersad
Fusarium spp. are ranked among the top 10 most economically and scientifically important plant-pathogenic fungi in the world and are associated with plant diseases that include fruit decay of a number of crops. Fusarium isolates infecting bell pepper in Trinidad were identified based on sequence comparisons of the translation elongation factor gene (EF-1a) with sequences of Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC) verified in the FUSARIUM-ID database. Eighty-two isolates were identified as belonging to one of four phylogenetic species within the subclades FIESC-1, FIESC-15, FIESC-16, and FIESC-26, with the majority of isolates belonging to FIESC-15...
November 30, 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899917/insights-into-the-regulation-of-rhizosphere-bacterial-communities-by-application-of-bio-organic-fertilizer-in-pseudostellaria-heterophylla-monoculture-regime
#7
Linkun Wu, Jun Chen, Hongmiao Wu, Xianjin Qin, Juanying Wang, Yanhong Wu, Muhammad U Khan, Sheng Lin, Zhigang Xiao, Xiaomian Luo, Zhongyi Zhang, Wenxiong Lin
The biomass and quality of Pseudostellariae heterophylla suffers a significant decline under monoculture. Since rhizosphere miobiome plays crucial roles in soil health, deep pyrosequencing combined with qPCR was applied to characterize the composition and structure of soil bacterial community under monoculture and different amendments. The results showed compared with the 1st-year planted (FP), 2nd-year monoculture of P. heterophylla (SP) led to a significant decline in yield and resulted in a significant increase in Fusarium oxysporum but a decline in Burkholderia spp...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899093/microbiological-profile-of-corneal-ulcer-cases-diagnosed-in-a-tertiary-care-ophthalmological-institute-in-nepal
#8
Sharmila Suwal, Dinesh Bhandari, Pratigya Thapa, Mohan Krishna Shrestha, Jyoti Amatya
BACKGROUND: Corneal ulcer, a major cause of monocular blindness in developing countries has consistently been listed as the major cause of blindness and visual disability in many of the developing nations in Asia, Africa and the Middle East, ranking second only to cataract. This study was carried out to determine the microbiological profile of corneal ulcer cases diagnosed among patients visiting Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology (TIO), Nepal. METHODS: A total of 101 corneal scrapping samples were tested for routine culture and antibiotic susceptibility at the pathology department of TIO Nepal from April to October 2014...
November 29, 2016: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899061/evaluating-three-commonly-used-growth-media-for-assessing-fumonisin-analogues-fb1-fb2-and-fb3-production-by-nine-fusarium-verticillioides-isolates
#9
A Schoeman, B C Flett, B Janse van Rensburg
Maize is most often infected by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium verticillioides. Total fumonisins of natural infected grain is made up of FB1, FB2 and FB3 with FB1 occurring naturally at higher levels. A maize plant can be infected with more than one F. verticillioides isolate, and finding a reliable method to elucidate the toxigenic potential of these isolates is important to extrapolate the possible fumonisin risk to consumers of grain. It is not clear whether F. verticillioides produce similar fumonisin levels, as well as fumonisin analogue ratios across media...
November 30, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898982/evaluation-of-corneal-cross-linking-for-treatment-of-fungal-keratitis-using-confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy-on-an-ex-vivo-human-corneal-model
#10
Jawaher M Alshehri, David Caballero-Lima, M Chantal Hillarby, Susan G Shawcross, Arun Brahma, Fiona Carley, Nick D Read, Hema Radhakrishnan
Purpose: Some previous reports have established the use of photoactivated chromophore-induced corneal cross-linking (PACK-CXL) in treating fungal keratitis. The results of these case reports have often been conflicting. To systematically study the effect of PACK-CXL in the management of Fusarium keratitis, we have developed an ex vivo model of human corneal infection using eye-banked human corneas. Methods: Sixteen healthy ex vivo human corneas were divided into four study groups: (1) untreated control, (2) cross-linked, (3) infected with fungal spores, and (4) infected with fungal spores and then cross-linked...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898754/genome-wide-association-mapping-of-fusarium-head-blight-resistance-in-wheat-using-genotyping-by-sequencing
#11
Marcio P Arruda, Patrick Brown, Gina Brown-Guedira, Allison M Krill, Carrie Thurber, Keith R Merrill, Bradley J Foresman, Frederic L Kolb
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most important wheat ( L.) diseases worldwide, and host resistance displays complex genetic control. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 273 winter wheat breeding lines from the midwestern and eastern regions of the United States to identify chromosomal regions associated with FHB resistance. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) was used to identify 19,992 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering all 21 wheat chromosomes. Marker-trait associations were performed with different statistical models, the most appropriate being a compressed mixed linear model (cMLM) controlling for relatedness and population structure...
March 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897983/effects-of-polysaccharide-elicitors-from-endophytic-fusarium-oxysporum-fat9-on-the-growth-flavonoid-accumulation-and-antioxidant-property-of-fagopyrum-tataricum-sprout-cultures
#12
Lingyun Zhong, Bei Niu, Lin Tang, Fang Chen, Gang Zhao, Jianglin Zhao
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four different fungal polysaccharides, named water-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (WPS), sodium hydroxide-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (SPS), hydrochloric-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (APS), and exo-polysaccharide (EPS) obtained from the endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Fat9 on the sprout growth, flavonoid accumulation, and antioxidant capacity of tartary buckwheat. Without visible changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous polysaccharide elicitors strongly stimulated sprout growth and flavonoid production, and the stimulation effect was closely related with the polysaccharide (PS) species and its treatment dosage...
November 25, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890967/airborne-pollen-and-fungal-spores-in-garki-abuja-north-central-nigeria
#13
Dimphna Nneka Ezike, Catherine V Nnamani, Oluwatoyin T Ogundipe, Olushola H Adekanmbi
The ambient atmosphere is dominated with pollen and spores, which trigger allergic reactions and diseases and impact negatively on human health. A survey of pollen and fungal spores constituents of the atmosphere of Garki, Abuja (North-Central Nigeria) was carried out for 1 year (June 1, 2011-May 31, 2012). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and abundance of pollen and fungal spores in the atmosphere and their relationship with meteorological parameters. Airborne samples were trapped using modified Tauber-like pollen trap, and the recipient solutions were subjected to acetolysis...
2016: Aerobiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890085/detection-of-n2o-producing-fungi-in-environment-using-nitrite-reductase-gene-nirk-targeting-primers
#14
Huaihai Chen, Fangbo Yu, Wei Shi
Fungal denitrification has been increasingly investigated, but its community ecology is poorly understood due to the lack of culture-independent tools. In this work, four pairs of nirK-targeting primers were designed and evaluated for primer specificity and efficiency using thirty N2O-producing fungal cultures and an agricultural soil. All primers amplified nirK from fungi and soil, but their efficiency and specificity were different. A primer set, FnirK_F3/R2 amplified ∼80 % of tested fungi, including Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, and Trichoderma, as compared to ∼40-70 % for other three primers...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889531/sirt1-protects-cardiac-cells-against-apoptosis-induced-by-zearalenone-or-its-metabolites-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-zearalenol-through-an-autophagy-dependent-pathway
#15
Intidhar Ben Salem, Manel Boussabbeh, Julie Pires Da Silva, Arnaud Guilbert, Hassen Bacha, Salwa Abid-Essefi, Christophe Lemaire
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium in cereals and agricultural products. The major ZEN metabolites are α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZOL). In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of the toxicity induced by ZEN, α-ZOL and β-ZOL in cardiac cells (H9c2). We show that treatment with ZEN or its metabolites induces the activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis as characterized by an increase in ROS generation, a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and an activation of caspases...
November 23, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888554/a-high-resolution-genetic-map-of-the-cereal-crown-rot-pathogen-fusarium-pseudograminearum-provides-a-near-complete-genome-assembly
#16
Donald M Gardiner, Aurelie H Benfield, Jiri Stiller, Stuart Stephen, Karen Aitken, Chunji Liu, Kemal Kazan
Fusarium pseudograminearum is an important pathogen of wheat and barley, particularly in semi-arid environments. Previous genome assemblies for this organism were based entirely on short read data and are highly fragmented. In this work, a genetic map of F. pseudograminearum has been constructed for the first time based on a mapping population of 178 individuals. The genetic map, along with long read scaffolding of a short read-based genome assembly, was used to give a near complete assembly of the four F. pseudograminearum chromosomes...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888409/duplications-in-the-3-termini-of-three-segments-of-fusarium-graminearum-virus-china-9
#17
Christine Blum, Stefanie Götsch, Cornelia Heinze
The hypovirulence-inducing Fusarium graminearum virus China 9 (FgV-ch9) was described recently and is closely related to the Fusarium graminearum mycovirus-2 (FgV2). Both viruses share common properties of viruses belonging to the family Chrysoviridae. Re-sequencing of FgV-ch9 revealed duplications of the 3' non-coding regions of segments 2 and 3. Both duplications are arranged in a head-to-tail array, are attached to the complete terminus, and do not affect the encoded gene. An internal duplication was found in segment 5...
November 25, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885727/growth-inhibitory-and-proapoptotic-effects-of-l-asparaginase-from-fusarium-culmorum-asp-87-on-human-leukemia-cells-jurkat
#18
Anil Kumar Meghavarnam, Maryam Salah, Meenakshisundaram Sreepriya, Savitha Janakiraman
The objective of this study was to evaluate the anticancer properties of L-asparaginase purified from fungal isolate Fusarium culmorum ASP-87 against human T-cell leukemia cell line (Jurkat). The growth inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of purified L-asparaginase on Jurkat cell lines were investigated by determining its influence on cell viability, colony formation, DNA fragmentation and cell cycle progression. The results revealed that purified L- asparaginase showed significant decrease in cell survival with IC50 value of 90μg/ml(9 IU/ml)...
November 25, 2016: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885556/influence-of-selenium-on-the-production-of-t-2-toxin-by-fusarium-poae
#19
Bolun Cheng, Yan Zhang, Bei Tong, Hong Yin
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium on the production of T-2 toxin by a Fusarium poae strain cultured in a synthetic medium containing different concentrations of selenium. The T-2 toxin contents in fermentative products were evaluated by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the production of T-2 toxin was correlated with the concentration of selenium added to the medium. In all three treatments, the addition of 1 mg/L selenium to the medium resulted in a lower toxin yield than the control (0 mg/L); the yield of the toxin began to increase when selenium concentration was 10 mg/L, while it decreased again at 20 mg/L...
November 24, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883966/influence-of-temperature-water-activity-and-incubation-time-on-fungal-growth-and-production-of-ochratoxin-a-and-zearalenone-by-toxigenic-aspergillus-tubingensis-and-fusarium-incarnatum-isolates-in-sorghum-seeds
#20
Amani Lahouar, Sonia Marin, Ana Crespo-Sempere, Salem Saïd, Vicente Sanchis
The major objective of this study was to describe the effect of water activity and temperature on radial growth and production of ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEA) on sorghum grains of three Aspergillus tubingensis and three Fusarium incarnatum isolates. The water activity range was 0.91-0.99 aw for F. incarnatum isolates and 0.88-0.99 aw for A. tubingensis isolates. Temperatures of incubation were 15, 25 and 37°C for both species. Mycotoxin production was determined after 7, 14, 21 and 28days depending on the growth rate of the six isolates...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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