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Tomohiro Furukawa, Tomoya Yoshinari, Shohei Sakuda
The intracellular superoxide level is a clue to clarification of the regulatory mechanism for mycotoxin production in Fusarium graminearum. In this study, we focused on two manganese superoxide dismutases (SODs) of the fungus, FgSOD2 and FgSOD3, to investigate the relationship of the superoxide level to trichothecene production. Recombinant FgSOD2 and FgSOD3 showed SOD activity, and they were localized mainly in the mitochondria and cytoplasm, respectively. Trichothecene production and mRNA levels of Tri5 and Tri6, which encode a trichothecene biosynthetic enzyme and a key regulator of trichothecene production, respectively, were greatly reduced in gene-deletion mutants of FgSod2 and FgSod3 (ΔFgSod2 and ΔFgSod3)...
October 5, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Lucas William Mendes, Jos M Raaijmakers, Mattias de Hollander, Rodrigo Mendes, Siu Mui Tsai
The rhizosphere microbiome has a key role in plant growth and health, providing a first line of defense against root infections by soil-borne pathogens. Here, we investigated the composition and metabolic potential of the rhizobacterial community of different common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars with variable levels of resistance to the fungal root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Fox). For the different bean cultivars grown in two soils with contrasting physicochemical properties and microbial diversity, rhizobacterial abundance was positively correlated with Fox resistance...
October 13, 2017: ISME Journal
Maria Buerstmayr, Barbara Steiner, Christian Wagner, Petra Schwarz, Klaus Brugger, Delfina Barabaschi, Andrea Volante, Giampiero Valè, Luigi Cattivelli, Hermann Buerstmayr
The Qfhs.ifa-5A allele, contributing to enhanced Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat, resides in a low recombinogenic region of chromosome 5A close to the centromere. A near isogenic RIL population segregating for the Qfhs.ifa-5A resistance allele was developed and among 3650 lines as few as four recombined within the pericentromeric C-5AS1-0.40 bin, yielding only a single recombination point. Genetic mapping of the pericentromeric region using a recombination dependent approach was thus not successful...
October 11, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Feng Liu, Tingting Sun, Ling Wang, Weihua Su, Shiwu Gao, Yachun Su, Liping Xu, Youxiong Que
BACKGROUND: Sugarcane smut caused by Sporisorium scitamineum is one of the most severe fungal diseases in the sugarcane industry. Using a molecular biological technique to mine sugarcane resistance genes can provide gene resources for further genetic engineering of sugarcane disease-resistant breeding. Jasmonate ZIM (zinc-finger inflorescence meristem) domain (JAZ) proteins, which involved in the responses to plant pathogens and abiotic stresses, are important signaling molecules of the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway...
October 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
Robert King, Martin Urban, Rebecca P Lauder, Nichola Hawkins, Matthew Evans, Amy Plummer, Kirstie Halsey, Alison Lovegrove, Kim Hammond-Kosack, Jason J Rudd
Pathogenic fungi must extend filamentous hyphae across solid surfaces to cause diseases of plants. However, the full inventory of genes which support this is incomplete and many may be currently concealed due to their essentiality for the hyphal growth form. During a random T-DNA mutagenesis screen performed on the pleomorphic wheat (Triticum aestivum) pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici, we acquired a mutant unable to extend hyphae specifically when on solid surfaces. In contrast "yeast-like" growth, and all other growth forms, were unaffected...
October 11, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Sumera Yasmin, Fauzia Y Hafeez, Muhammad S Mirza, Maria Rasul, Hafiz M I Arshad, Muhammad Zubair, Mazhar Iqbal
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is widely prevalent and causes Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB) in Basmati rice grown in different areas of Pakistan. There is a need to use environmentally safe approaches to overcome the loss of grain yield in rice due to this disease. The present study aimed to develop inocula, based on native antagonistic bacteria for biocontrol of BLB and to increase the yield of Super Basmati rice variety. Out of 512 bacteria isolated from the rice rhizosphere and screened for plant growth promoting determinants, the isolate BRp3 was found to be the best as it solubilized 97 μg/ mL phosphorus, produced 30 μg/mL phytohormone indole acetic acid and 15 mg/ L siderophores in vitro...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Theresa Lee, Dami Park, Kihyun Kim, Seong Mi Lim, Nan Hee Yu, Sosoo Kim, Hwang-Yong Kim, Kyu Seok Jung, Ja Yeong Jang, Jong-Chul Park, Hyeonheui Ham, Soohyung Lee, Sung Kee Hong, Jin-Cheol Kim
In an attempt to develop a biological control agent against mycotoxigenic Fusarium species, we isolated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain DA12 from soil and explored its antimicrobial activities. DA12 was active against the growth of mycotoxigenic F. asiaticum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides both in vitro and in planta (maize). Further screening using dual culture extended the activity range of strain DA12 against other fungal pathogens including Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum coccodes, Endothia parasitica, Fusarium oxysporum, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and Rhizoctonia solani...
October 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Frank M You, Gaofeng Jia, Jin Xiao, Scott D Duguid, Khalid Y Rashid, Helen M Booker, Sylvie Cloutier
Assessment of genetic variability of plant core germplasm is needed for efficient germplasm utilization in breeding improvement. A total of 391 accessions of a flax core collection, which preserves the variation present in the world collection of 3,378 accessions maintained by Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) and represents a broad range of geographical origins, different improvement statuses and two morphotypes, was evaluated in field trials in up to 8 year-location environments for 10 agronomic, eight seed quality, six fiber and three disease resistance traits...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
M M Phasha, B D Wingfield, M P A Coetzee, Q C Santana, G Fourie, E T Steenkamp
Removal of introns from transcribed RNA represents a crucial step during the production of mRNA in eukaryotes. Available whole-genome sequences and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) has increased our knowledge of this process and revealed various commonalities among eukaryotes. However, certain aspects of intron structure and diversity are taxon-specific, which can complicate the accuracy of in silico gene prediction methods. Using core genes, we evaluated the distribution and architecture of Fusarium circinatum spliceosomal introns and linked these characteristics to the accuracy of the predicted gene models of the genome of this fungus...
October 9, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Raquel Salvador-Guirao, Patricia Baldrich, Detlef Weigel, Ignacio Rubio-Somoza, Blanca San Segundo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21-24 nucleotide short non-coding RNAs that trigger gene silencing in eukaryotes. In plants, miRNAs play a crucial role in a wide range of developmental processes and adaptive responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this work, we investigated the role of miR773 in modulating resistance to infection by fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana. Interference with miR773 activity by target mimics (in MIM773 plants) and concomitant up-regulation of the miR773 target gene METHYLTRANSFERASE 2 (MET2) increased resistance to infection by necrotrophic (Plectosphaerrella cucumerina) and hemibiotrophic (Fusarium oxysporum, Colletototrichum higginianum) fungal pathogens...
October 9, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Consuelo M Forero-Reyes, Angela M Alvarado-Fernández, Ana M Ceballos-Rojas, Lady C González-Carmona, Melva Y Linares-Linares, Rubiela Castañeda-Salazar, Adriana Pulido-Villamarín, Manuel E Góngora-Medina, Jesús A Cortés-Vecino, María X Rodríguez-Bocanegra
The genus Fusarium is widely recognized for its phytopathogenic capacity. However, it has been reported as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Thus, it can be considered a microorganism of interest in pathogenicity studies on different hosts. Therefore, this work evaluated the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolates from different origins in plants and animals (murine hosts). Twelve isolates of Fusarium spp. from plants, animal superficial mycoses, and human superficial and systemic mycoses were inoculated in tomato, passion fruit and carnation plants, and in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed BALB/c mice...
October 5, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Frankie K Crutcher, Lorraine S Puckhaber, Robert D Stipanovic, Alois A Bell, Robert L Nichols, Katheryn S Lawrence, Jinggao Liu
Fusaric acid (FA) produced by Fusarium oxysporum plays an important role in disease development in plants, including cotton. This non-specific toxin also has antibiotic effects on microorganisms. Thus, one expects a potential pool of diverse detoxification mechanisms of FA in nature. Bacteria and fungi from soils infested with Fusarium and from laboratory sources were evaluated for their ability to grow in the presence of FA and to alter the structure of FA into less toxic compounds. None of the bacterial strains were able to chemically modify FA...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jian Li, Jessica Chitwood, Naama Menda, Lukas Mueller, Samuel F Hutton
The negative association between the I - 3 gene and increased sensitivity to bacterial spot is due to linkage drag (not pleiotropy) and may be remedied by reducing the introgression size. Fusarium wilt is one of the most serious diseases of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) throughout the world. There are three races of the pathogen (races 1, 2 and 3), and the deployment of three single, dominant resistance genes corresponding to each of these has been the primary means of controlling the disease. The I-3 gene was introgressed from S...
October 6, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Olayide Obidi, Foluke Okekunjo
Microbial induced discolorations are an unsightly feature occurring on painted walls in Lagos, the commercial hub of Nigeria. Very few studies have been carried out conventionally about the microbial community structure of discolored painted walls in Nigeria therefore, knowledge of the true microbial diversity is elusive. To further our understanding of the phylogenetic diversity of representative microbial community on 40 discolored and three clean-looking buildings, a comparative DNA sequence analysis of 16S rDNA genes was undertaken...
October 5, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Swatishree Sradhanjali, Bandana Yein, Savitri Sharma, Sujata Das
AIM: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of voriconazole and natamycin, alone and in combination, against the clinical isolates of Fungus and to evaluate the synergy between the drugs in an experimental in vitro study. METHODS: In an experimental in vitro study, clinical isolates of Fusarium, Aspergillus, Candida and Curvularia spp were maintained on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and used for the study. The MICs of natamycin and voriconazole, used alone and in combination, were evaluated by checkerboard microdilution technique based on the standard protocol proposed by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute...
October 5, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Juliana Galletti, Flávia K Tobaldini-Valerio, Sónia Silva, Érika Seki Kioshima, Larissa Trierveiler-Pereira, Marcos Bruschi, Melyssa Negri, Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski
AIM: The present study evaluated the capacity of three species of Fusarium isolated from onychomycosis to form biofilms and the antibiofilm effect of propolis extract on these biofilms. MATERIALS & METHODS: The biofilms and antibiofilm effects were evaluated by quantifying the colony-forming units, mitochondrial metabolic activity assays, total biomass by crystal violet staining and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Propolis extract demonstrated significant antibiofilm efficiency on Fusarium spp...
October 4, 2017: Future Microbiology
Minglu Gao, Anthony E Glenn, Alex A Blacutt, Scott E Gold
Fungi are absorptive feeders and thus must colonize and ramify through their substrate to survive. In so doing they are in competition, particularly in the soil, with myriad microbes. These microbes use xenobiotic compounds as offensive weapons to compete for nutrition, and fungi must be sufficiently resistant to these xenobiotics. One prominent mechanism of xenobiotic resistance is through production of corresponding degrading enzymes. As typical examples, bacterial β-lactamases are well known for their ability to degrade and consequently confer resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, a serious emerging problem in health care...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xiaogang Li, Ya'nan Zhang, Changfeng Ding, Wenhua Xu, Xingxiang Wang
Cotton diseases caused by soil-borne pathogenic fungi present a major constraint to cotton production not only in China but also worldwide. A long-term field inventory was made of the prevalence of Fusarium and Verticillium wilt of cotton in the Jiangsu coastal area of China from 2000 to 2014. Various factors (crop varieties, rotation and weather) were analyzed to explore the dynamics of these diseases in cotton. The results showed that the prevalence of Fusarium and Verticillium wilt increased before 2005 and that Verticillium wilt remained at a high incidence over most of the past 10 years, while Fusarium wilt began to gradually decrease after 2005...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jongguk Lim, Giyoung Kim, Changyeun Mo, Kyoungmin Oh, Hyeonchae Yoo, Hyeonheui Ham, Moon S Kim
The purpose of this study is to use near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy equipment to nondestructively and rapidly discriminate Fusarium-infected hulled barley. Both normal hulled barley and Fusarium-infected hulled barley were scanned by using a NIR spectrometer with a wavelength range of 1175 to 2170 nm. Multiple mathematical pretreatments were applied to the reflectance spectra obtained for Fusarium discrimination and the multivariate analysis method of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used for discriminant prediction...
September 30, 2017: Sensors
Lorenzo Poncini, Ines Wyrsch, Valérie Dénervaud Tendon, Thomas Vorley, Thomas Boller, Niko Geldner, Jean-Pierre Métraux, Silke Lehmann
Plants interpret their immediate environment through perception of small molecules. Microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) such as flagellin and chitin are likely to be more abundant in the rhizosphere than plant-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). We investigated how the Arabidopsis thaliana root interprets MAMPs and DAMPs as danger signals. We monitored root development during exposure to increasing concentrations of the MAMPs flg22 and the chitin heptamer as well as of the DAMP AtPep1...
2017: PloS One
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