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Qili Zhu, Ling Sun, Jiajie Lian, Xuli Gao, Lei Zhao, Mingyu Ding, Jing Li, Yuancun Liang
Phospholipase C (PLC) is an important phospholipid hydrolase that plays critical roles in various biological processes in eukaryotic cells. To elucidate the functions of PLC in morphogenesis and pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum, deletion mutants were constructed of all six FgPLC genes identified in this study. Deletion of FgPLC1, but not the other five FgPLC genes, affected hyphal growth and conidiation. The FgPLC1 deletion mutant (Δplc1) also was defective in conidium germination and germ tube growth...
October 21, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Nidhi Rawat, Michael O Pumphrey, Sixin Liu, Xiaofei Zhang, Vijay K Tiwari, Kaori Ando, Harold N Trick, William W Bockus, Eduard Akhunov, James A Anderson, Bikram S Gill
Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat and barley that leads to reduced yield and mycotoxin contamination of grain, making it unfit for human consumption. FHB is a global problem, with outbreaks in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia and South America. In the United States alone, total direct and secondary economic losses from 1993 to 2001 owing to FHB were estimated at $7.67 billion. Fhb1 is the most consistently reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) for FHB resistance breeding...
October 24, 2016: Nature Genetics
Usama W Hawas, Radwan Al-Farawati, Lamia T Abou El-Kassem, Adnan J Turki
The endophytic fungus Fusarium equiseti was isolated from the brown alga Padina pavonica, collected from the Red Sea. The fungus was identified by its morphology and 18S rDNA. Cultivation of this fungal strain in biomalt-peptone medium led to isolation of 12 known metabolites of diketopeprazines and anthraquinones. The organic extract and isolated compounds were screened for their inhibition of hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease (HCV PR). As a result, the fungal metabolites showed inhibition of HCV protease (IC50 from 19 to 77 μM), and the fungus was subjected to culture on Czapek's (Cz) media, with a yield of nine metabolites with potent HCV protease inhibition ranging from IC50 10 to 37 μM...
October 20, 2016: Marine Drugs
Zhigang Li, Chao Zu, Can Wang, Jianfeng Yang, Huan Yu, Huasong Wu
Soil microorganisms have important influences on plant growth and health. In this study, four black pepper fields consecutively monocultured for 12, 18, 28 and 38 years were selected for investigating the effect of planting age on rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil microbial communities and soil physicochemical properties. The results revealed that the relative abundance of the dominant bacterial phyla in rhizosphere soil increased considerably with long-term consecutive monoculture but decreased in non-rhizosphere soil with a significant decline in Firmicutes...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shakeela Yasmeen, Sajjad Hussain Sumrra, Muhammad Safwan Akram, Zahid H Chohan
A novel series of thiophene derived Schiff bases and their transition metal- [Co(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II)] based compounds are reported. The Schiff bases act as tridentate ligands toward metal ions via azomethine-N, deprotonated-N of ammine substituents and S-atom of thienyl moiety. The synthesized ligands along with their metal complexes were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against six bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and for antifungal activity against six fungal pathogens (Trichophytonlongifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Ananya Tupaki-Sreepurna, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Anupma J Kindo, Murugan Sundaram, G Sybren de Hoog
In this study, we aimed to present the first molecular epidemiological data from Chennai, India, analyse keratitis cases that have been monitored in a university hospital during 2 years, identify the responsible Fusarium species and determine antifungal susceptibilities. A total of 10 cases of keratitis were included in the study. Fusarium isolates were identified using the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase gene (RPB2) and the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1). Antifungal susceptibility was tested by the broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methodology...
October 21, 2016: Mycoses
Tomasz Góral, Halina Wiśniewska, Piotr Ochodzki, Dorota Walentyn-Góral
Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
Guanhua Fu, Junfei Ma, Lihong Wang, Xin Yang, Jeruei Liu, Xin Zhao
Zearalenone (ZEA), an estrogenic mycotoxin, is mainly produced by Fusarium fungi. In this study, Bacillus licheniformis CK1 isolated from soil with the capability of degrading ZEA was evaluated for its efficacy in reducing the adverse effects of ZEA in piglets. The gilts were fed one of the following three diets for 14 days: a basic diet for the control group; the basic diet supplemented with ZEA-contaminated basic diet for the treatment 1 (T1) group; and the basic diet supplemented with fermented ZEA-contaminated basic diet by CK1 for the treatment 2 (T2) group...
October 17, 2016: Toxins
Richard J Bennett, B Gillian Turgeon
This article provides an overview of sexual reproduction in the ascomycetes, a phylum of fungi that is named after the specialized sacs or "asci" that hold the sexual spores. They have therefore also been referred to as the Sac Fungi due to these characteristic structures that typically contain four to eight ascospores. Ascomycetes are morphologically diverse and include single-celled yeasts, filamentous fungi, and more complex cup fungi. The sexual cycles of many species, including those of the model yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the filamentous saprobes Neurospora crassa, Aspergillus nidulans, and Podospora anserina, have been examined in depth...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Sandhya, Sandeep Kumar, Dinesh Kumar, Neeraj Dilbaghi
Synthesis and controlled release study of polymeric nanoformulation of carbendazim (2-benzimidazole carbamic acid methyl ester) using chitosan and pectin is reported in this article. The formulation was subjected to morphological, physiological, in vitro fungicide release and bio-efficacy evaluation studies. The average size of nanoparticles was found to be in the range of 70-90 nm as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The in vitro fungicide release of nanoformulated carbendazim was compared with pure carbendazim at different pH values...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xiaokui Gu, Wei Xue, Yajing Yin, Hongwei Liu, Shaojie Li, Xianyun Sun
Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) is essential for tumor progression in humans and drug resistance in fungi. However, the roles of its many co-chaperones in antifungal resistance are unknown. In this study, by susceptibility test of Neurospora crassa mutants lacking each of 18 Hsp90/Calcineurin system member genes (including 8 Hsp90 co-chaperone genes) to antifungal drugs and other stresses, we demonstrate that the Hsp90 co-chaperones Sti1 (Hop1 in yeast), Aha1, and P23 (Sba1 in yeast) were required for the basal resistance to antifungal azoles and heat stress...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marcelo E Fuentes, Renato A Quinones
Facultative marine filamentous fungi have recently emerged as a functional component in coastal marine systems. However, little is known about their ecological role and functions in biogeochemical cycles. Penicillium decumbens, S. strictum, and F. fujikuroi were isolated from the coastal upwelling zone off south-central Chile. Their carbon profiles were characterized using Biolog FF MicroPlates. These species used a wide range of carbon sources, mainly carbohydrates, but also amino acids, suggesting the use of metabolic routes that include glycolysis/gluconeogenesis...
October 19, 2016: Mycologia
Micheline N Ngaki, Bing Wang, Binod B Sahu, Subodh K Srivastava, Mohammad S Farooqi, Sekhar Kambakam, Sivakumar Swaminathan, Madan K Bhattacharyya
Fusarium virguliforme causes the serious disease sudden death syndrome (SDS) in soybean. Host resistance to this pathogen is partial and is encoded by a large number of quantitative trait loci, each conditioning small effects. Breeding SDS resistance is therefore challenging and identification of single-gene encoded novel resistance mechanisms is becoming a priority to fight this devastating this fungal pathogen. In this transcriptomic study we identified a few putative soybean defense genes, expression of which is suppressed during F...
2016: PloS One
Rachael M Hiebert, Robert C Welliver, Zhongxin Yu
Fusarium species are ubiquitous fungi causing a wide array of infections, including invasive disease in the immunosuppressed. We present a fusarium bone infection in a child with Pearson syndrome and review the literature. Ten cases of fusarium osteomyelitis were reported in the past 40 years, and we review the treatments.
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Cameron S Gordon, Nandhakishore Rajagopalan, Eddy P Risseeuw, Marci Surpin, Fraser J Ball, Carla J Barber, Leann M Buhrow, Shawn M Clark, Jonathan E Page, Chris D Todd, Suzanne R Abrams, Michele C Loewen
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a well-characterized plant hormone, known to mediate developmental aspects as well as both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Notably, the exogenous application of ABA has recently been shown to increase susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, the causative agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and other cereals. However roles and mechanisms associated with ABA's modulation of pathogen responses remain enigmatic. Here the identification of putative ABA receptors from available genomic databases for Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) and Brachypodium distachyon (a model cereal) are reported...
2016: PloS One
María Karina Manzo-Valencia, Laura Valdés-Santiago, Lino Sanchez-Segura, Doralinda Guzman-de-Pena
The response to exogenous addition of Naphthalene Acetic Acid potassium salt (NAA-K+ ) to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp radici-lycopersici ATCC 60095 and F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense isolated from Michoacan Mexico soil is reported. The in vitro study showed that NAA-K+ might be effective in the control of Fusarium oxysporum. Exogenous application of NAA-K+ affected both, spores and mycelium stages of the fungi. Viability testing using acridine orange and propidium iodide showed that NAA-K+ possess fungal killing properties, doing it effective in the destruction of conidia of this phytopathogenic fungi...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Daniel Carrillo, Luisa F Cruz, Paul E Kendra, Teresa I Narvaez, Wayne S Montgomery, Armando Monterroso, Charlotte De Grave, Miriam F Cooperband
Members of a complex of cryptic species, that correspond morphologically to the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), were recently found attacking avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in Israel and California. In early 2016, an outbreak of another member of this species complex was detected infesting approximately 1500 avocado trees in an avocado orchard at Homestead, Florida. An area-wide survey was conducted in commercial avocado groves of Miami-Dade County, Florida to determine the distribution and abundance of E...
October 14, 2016: Insects
Elisabeth Varga, Gerlinde Wiesenberger, Philipp Fruhmann, Alexandra Malachová, Thomas Svoboda, Marc Lemmens, Gerhard Adam, Franz Berthiller
Trichothecenes are a class of structurally diverse mycotoxins with more than 200 naturally occurring compounds. Previously, a new compound, pentahydroxyscirpene (PHS), was reported as a byproduct of a nivalenol producing Fusarium strain, IFA189. PHS contains a hydroxy group at C-8 instead of the keto group of type B trichothecenes. In this work, we demonstrate that IFA189 belongs to the species Fusarium kyushuense using molecular tools. Production of PHS in vitro was also observed for several isolates of other Fusarium species producing nivalenol...
October 14, 2016: Toxins
Renwen Zhang, Xiaoxue Han, Zhanfeng Xia, Xiaoxia Luo, Chuanxing Wan, Lili Zhang
A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 49605(T), was isolated from a desert soil sample from Lop Nur, Xinjiang, north-west China, and characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain exhibited antifungal activity against the following strains: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium citrinum, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis; Antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus; and no antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli...
October 17, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Eva-Maria Niehaus, Lena Studt, Katharina W von Bargen, Wiebke Kummer, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Gunter Reuter, Bettina Tudzynski
In this study, we compared the secondary metabolite profile of Fusarium fujikuroi and the histone deacetylase mutant ΔHDA1. We identified a novel peak in ΔHDA1, which was identified as beauvericin (BEA). Going in line with a 1000-fold increased BEA production, the respective non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-encoding gene (BEA1), as well as two adjacent genes (BEA2-BEA3), were significantly up-regulated in ΔHDA1 compared to the wild type. A special role was revealed for the ABC transporter Bea3: deletion of the encoding gene resulted in significant up-regulation of BEA1 and BEA2 and drastically elevated product yields...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
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