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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915450/molecular-signature-and-functional-analysis-of-uterine-ilcs-in-mouse-pregnancy
#1
Minmin Li, Yimin Gao, Liang Yong, Dake Huang, Jijia Shen, Miao Liu, Cuiping Ren, Xin Hou
In addition to natural killer cells, other innate lymphoid cells have recently been identified in the mouse and human uterus, but their roles in successful pregnancy remain poorly defined. In this study, we examined the dynamic changes of uterine innate lymphoid cells throughout pregnancy in mice. We found that the total number of uterine innate lymphoid cells markedly increased at early-gestation. Among the three groups of uterine innate lymphoid cells, the number of the group 2 uterine innate lymphoid cells increased the most during pregnancy...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915434/neutralization-of-viral-infectivity-by-zebrafish-c-reactive-protein-isoforms
#2
Melissa Bello-Perez, Alberto Falco, Regla Medina-Gali, Patricia Pereiro, Jose Antonio Encinar, Beatriz Novoa, Luis Perez, Julio Coll
This work explores the unexpected in vivo and in vitro anti-viral functions of the seven c-reactive protein (crp1-7) genes of zebrafish (Danio rerio). First results showed heterogeneous crp1-7 transcript levels in healthy wild-type zebrafish tissues and organs and how those levels heterogeneously changed not only after bacterial but also after viral infections, including those in adaptive immunity-deficient rag1(-/-) mutants. As shown by microarray hybridization and proteomic techniques, crp2/CRP2 and crp5/CRP5 transcripts/proteins were among the most modulated during in vivo viral infection situations including the highest responses in the absence of adaptive immunity...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910320/differential-gene-expression-following-tlr-stimulation-in-rag1-mutant-zebrafish-tissues-and-morphological-descriptions-of-lymphocyte-like-cell-populations
#3
Preeti J Muire, Larry A Hanson, Robert Wills, Lora Petrie-Hanson
In the absence of lymphocytes, rag1-/- mutant zebrafish develop protective immunity to bacteria. In mammals, induction of protection by innate immunity can be mediated by macrophages or natural killer (NK) cells. To elucidate potential responsive cell populations, we morphologically characterized lymphocyte-like cells (LLCs) from liver, spleen and kidney hematopoietic tissues. In fish, these cells include NK cells and Non-specific cytotoxic cells (NCCs). We also evaluated the transcriptional expression response of select genes that are important indicators of NK and macrophage activation after exposure to specific TLR ligands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882611/generation-and-crispr-cas9-editing-of-transformed-progenitor-b-cells-as-a-pseudo-physiological-system-to-study-dna-repair-gene-function-in-v-d-j-recombination
#4
Hélène Lenden Hasse, Chloé Lescale, Joy J Bianchi, Wei Yu, Marie Bedora-Faure, Ludovic Deriano
Antigen receptor gene assembly is accomplished in developing lymphocytes by the V(D)J recombination reaction, which can be separated into two steps: DNA cleavage by the recombination-activating gene (RAG) nuclease and joining of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) by components of the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. Deficiencies for NHEJ factors can result in immunodeficiency and a propensity to accumulate genomic instability, thus highlighting the importance of identifying all players in this process and deciphering their functions...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880403/natural-igm-initiates-an-inflammatory-response-important-for-both-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-regeneration
#5
Keely Marshall, Junfei Jin, Carl Atkinson, Ali Alawieh, Fei Qiao, Biao Lei, Kenneth D Chavin, Songqing He, Stephen Tomlinson
RATIONALE: Complement plays a role in both hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury (IRI) and liver regeneration, but it is not clear how complement is activated in either process. We investigated the role of self-reactive IgM antibodies in activating complement after hepatic IR and liver resection. MAIN RESULTS: Natural IgM antibodies that recognize danger associated molecular patterns (neoepitopes) activate complement following both hepatic IR and liver resection...
September 7, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877980/nad-metabolism-fuels-human-and-mouse-intestinal-inflammation
#6
Romana R Gerner, Victoria Klepsch, Sophie Macheiner, Kathrin Arnhard, Timon E Adolph, Christoph Grander, Verena Wieser, Alexandra Pfister, Patrizia Moser, Natascha Hermann-Kleiter, Gottfried Baier, Herbert Oberacher, Herbert Tilg, Alexander R Moschen
OBJECTIVE: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT, also referred to as pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor or visfatin) is critically required for the maintenance of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) supply catalysing the rate-limiting step of the NAD salvage pathway. NAMPT is strongly upregulated in inflammation including IBD and counteracts an increased cellular NAD turnover mediated by NAD-depleting enzymes. These constitute an important mechanistic link between inflammatory, metabolic and transcriptional pathways and NAD metabolism...
September 6, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877966/t-cell-mediation-of-pregnancy-analgesia-affecting-chronic-pain-in-mice
#7
Sarah F Rosen, Boram Ham, Shannon Drouin, Nadia Boachie, Anne-Julie Chabot-Dore, Jean-Sebastien Austin, Luda Diatchenko, Jeffrey S Mogil
It has been consistently reported that many female chronic pain sufferers have an attenuation of symptoms during pregnancy. Rats display increased pain tolerance during pregnancy, due to an increase in opioid receptors in the spinal cord. These past studies did not consider the role of non-neuronal cells, now appreciated to play an important role in chronic pain processing. Using an inflammatory (complete Freund's adjuvant) or neuropathic (spared nerve injury) model of persistent pain, we observe that young adult female mice in early pregnancy switch from a micgrolia-independent to a microglia-dependent pain hypersensitivity mechanism...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867784/the-complex-interplay-between-dna-injury-and-repair-in-enzymatically-induced-mutagenesis-and-dna-damage-in-b-lymphocytes
#8
REVIEW
Mahnoush Bahjat, Jeroen E J Guikema
Lymphocytes are endowed with unique and specialized enzymatic mutagenic properties that allow them to diversify their antigen receptors, which are crucial sensors for pathogens and mediators of adaptive immunity. During lymphocyte development, the antigen receptors expressed by B and T lymphocytes are assembled in an antigen-independent fashion by ordered variable gene segment recombinations (V(D)J recombination), which is a highly ordered and regulated process that requires the recombination activating gene products 1 & 2 (RAG1, RAG2)...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855314/il-1%C3%AE-and-il-23-promote-extrathymic-commitment-of-cd27-cd122-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-to-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t17-cells
#9
Andreas Muschaweckh, Franziska Petermann, Thomas Korn
γδT17 cells are a subset of γδ T cells committed to IL-17 production and are characterized by the expression of IL-23R and CCR6 and lack of CD27 expression. γδT17 cells are believed to arise within a narrow time window during prenatal thymic development. In agreement with this concept, we show in this study that adult Rag1(-/-) recipient mice of Il23r(gfp/+) (IL-23R reporter) bone marrow selectively lack IL-23R(+) γδT17 cells. Despite their absence in secondary lymphoid tissues during homeostasis, γδT17 cells emerge in bone marrow chimeric mice upon induction of skin inflammation by topical treatment with imiquimod cream (Aldara)...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837391/na%C3%A3-ve-b-cells-reduce-fungal-dissemination-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-infected-rag1-mice
#10
Chad Dufaud, Johanna Rivera, Soma Rohatgi, Liise-Anne Pirofski
IgM and B-1 cell deficient mice exhibit early C. neoformans dissemination from lungs to brain, but a definitive role for B cells in conferring resistance to C. neoformans dissemination has not been established. To address this question, we developed an intranasal (i.n.) C. neoformans infection model in B and T cell deficient Rag1(-/-) mice and found they also exhibit earlier fungal dissemination and higher brain CFU than wild-type C57Bl/6 (wild-type) mice. To probe the effect of B cells on fungal dissemination, Rag1(-/-) mice were given splenic (intravenously) or peritoneal (intraperitoneally) B cells from wild-type mice and infected i...
August 24, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830581/severe-dermatitis-associated-with-spontaneous-staphylococcus-xylosus-infection-in-rag-tpl2-mice
#11
Nicole V Acuff, Monica LaGatta, Tamas Nagy, Wendy T Watford
Staphylococcus xylosus is a commensal bacterium found on the skin and mucosal surfaces of SPF mice. S. xylosus is rarely pathogenic, most often causing skin lesions and dermatitis in immunocompromised mice, particularly those with impaired NADPH oxidase function. Here we report spontaneous infection with S. xylosus in Rag1-/-Tpl2-/- mice. Infection was characterized by the presence of alopecia, crusts, and scaly skin. S. xylosus was detected in the feces, skin, lymph nodes, and lungs of Rag1-/-Tpl2-/- mice and led to mortality or euthanasia due to humane endpoints...
August 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830578/characterization-of-demodex-musculi-infestation-associated-comorbidities-and-topographic-distribution-in-a-mouse-strain-with-defective-adaptive-immunity
#12
Melissa A Nashat, Kerith R Luchins, Michelle L Lepherd, Elyn R Riedel, Joanna N Izdebska, Neil S Lipman
A colony of B6.Cg-Rag1tm1Mom Tyrp1B-w Tg(Tcra,Tcrb)9Rest (TRP1/TCR) mice presented with ocular lesions and ulcerative dermatitis. Histopathology, skin scrapes, and fur plucks confirmed the presence of Demodex spp. in all clinically affected and subclinical TRP1/TCR mice examined (n = 48). Pasteurella pneumotropica and Corynebacterium bovis, both opportunistic pathogens, were cultured from the ocular lesions and skin, respectively, and bacteria were observed microscopically in abscesses at various anatomic locations (including retroorbital sites, tympanic bullae, lymph nodes, and reproductive organs) as well as the affected epidermis...
August 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826609/a-droplet-digital-pcr-method-for-severe-combined-immunodeficiency-newborn-screening
#13
Noemi Vidal-Folch, Dragana Milosevic, Ramanath Majumdar, Dimitar Gavrilov, Dietrich Matern, Kimiyo Raymond, Piero Rinaldo, Silvia Tortorelli, Roshini S Abraham, Devin Oglesbee
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) benefits from early intervention via hematopoietic cell transplantation to reverse T-cell lymphopenia (TCL). Newborn screening (NBS) programs use T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) levels to detect SCID. Real-time quantitative PCR is often performed to quantify TRECs in dried blood spots (DBSs) for NBS. Yet, real-time quantitative PCR has inefficiencies necessitating normalization, repeat analyses, or standard curves. To address these issues, we developed a multiplex, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) method for measuring absolute TREC amounts in one DBS punch...
September 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790360/comprehensive-validation-of-t-and-b-cell-deficiency-in-rag1-null-zebrafish-implication-for-the-robust-innate-defense-mechanisms-of-teleosts
#14
Yumie Tokunaga, Masamichi Shirouzu, Ryota Sugahara, Yasutoshi Yoshiura, Ikunari Kiryu, Mitsuru Ototake, Takahiro Nagasawa, Tomonori Somamoto, Miki Nakao
rag1 (-/-) zebrafish have been employed in immunological research as a useful immunodeficient vertebrate model, but with only fragmentary evidence for the lack of functional adaptive immunity. rag1-null zebrafish exhibit differences from their human and murine counterparts in that they can be maintained without any specific pathogen-free conditions. To define the immunodeficient status of rag1 (-/-) zebrafish, we obtained further functional evidence on T- and B-cell deficiency in the fish at the protein, cellular, and organism levels...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783691/characterization-of-t-and-b-cell-repertoire-diversity-in-patients-with-rag-deficiency
#15
Yu Nee Lee, Francesco Frugoni, Kerry Dobbs, Irit Tirosh, Likun Du, Francesca A Ververs, Heng Ru, Lisa Ott de Bruin, Mehdi Adeli, Jacob H Bleesing, David Buchbinder, Manish J Butte, Caterina Cancrini, Karin Chen, Sharon Choo, Reem A Elfeky, Andrea Finocchi, Ramsay L Fuleihan, Andrew R Gennery, Dalia H El-Ghoneimy, Lauren A Henderson, Waleed Al-Herz, Elham Hossny, Robert P Nelson, Sung-Yun Pai, Niraj C Patel, Shereen M Reda, Pere Soler-Palacin, Raz Somech, Paolo Palma, Hao Wu, Silvia Giliani, Jolan E Walter, Luigi D Notarangelo
Recombination-activating genes 1 and 2 (RAG1 and RAG2) play a critical role in T and B cell development by initiating the recombination process that controls the expression of T cell receptor (TCR) and immunoglobulin genes. Mutations in the RAG1 and RAG2 genes in humans cause a broad spectrum of phenotypes, including severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with lack of T and B cells, Omenn syndrome, leaky SCID, and combined immunodeficiency with granulomas or autoimmunity (CID-G/AI). Using next-generation sequencing, we analyzed the TCR and B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire in 12 patients with RAG mutations presenting with Omenn syndrome (n = 5), leaky SCID (n = 3), or CID-G/AI (n = 4)...
December 16, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783681/the-orphan-nuclear-receptor-ror%C3%AE-and-group-3-innate-lymphoid-cells-drive-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-crohn-s-disease
#16
Bernard C Lo, Matthew J Gold, Michael R Hughes, Frann Antignano, Yanet Valdez, Colby Zaph, Kenneth W Harder, Kelly M McNagny
Fibrosis is the result of dysregulated tissue regeneration and is characterized by excessive accumulation of matrix proteins that become detrimental to tissue function. In Crohn's disease, this manifests itself as recurrent gastrointestinal strictures for which there is no effective therapy beyond surgical intervention. Using a model of infection-induced chronic gut inflammation, we show that Rora-deficient mice are protected from fibrosis; infected intestinal tissues display diminished pathology, attenuated collagen deposition, and reduced fibroblast accumulation...
September 2, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783045/macrophage-derived-il-10-mediates-mucosal-repair-by-epithelial-wisp-1-signaling
#17
Miguel Quiros, Hikaru Nishio, Philipp A Neumann, Dorothee Siuda, Jennifer C Brazil, Veronica Azcutia, Roland Hilgarth, Monique N O'Leary, Vicky Garcia-Hernandez, Giovanna Leoni, Mingli Feng, Gabriela Bernal, Holly Williams, Priya H Dedhia, Christian Gerner-Smidt, Jason Spence, Charles A Parkos, Timothy L Denning, Asma Nusrat
In response to injury, epithelial cells migrate and proliferate to cover denuded mucosal surfaces and repair the barrier defect. This process is orchestrated by dynamic crosstalk between immune cells and the epithelium; however, the mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that IL-10 was rapidly induced following intestinal mucosal injury and was required for optimal intestinal mucosal wound closure. Conditional deletion of IL-10 specifically in CD11c-expressing cells in vivo implicated macrophages as a critical innate immune contributor to IL-10-induced wound closure...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776702/species-richness-in-the-african-pike-genus-hepsetus-a-perfect-match-between-genetics-and-morphology
#18
E Decru, E Vreven, K De Gelas, E Verheyen, J Snoeks
In this study, morphological differences were found that corroborate earlier results that showed the existence of six species within the previously monospecific African pike genus Hepsetus. Additional genetic data (coI, mtDNA and rag1, nDNA) confirm the morphology-based species delineations. Deep genetic divergences imply a relatively old age for diversification within the genus. An identification key for the six species is provided in the present study.
August 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775298/sexual-and-vertical-transmission-of-zika-virus-in-anti-interferon-receptor-treated-rag1-deficient-mice
#19
Clayton W Winkler, Tyson A Woods, Rebecca Rosenke, Dana P Scott, Sonja M Best, Karin E Peterson
Although Zika virus (ZIKV) is primarily transmitted to humans by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, human-to-human transmission has also been observed from males-to-females as well as mother-to-offspring. In the current study, we studied both sexual transmission (STx) and vertical transmission (VTx) of ZIKV using anti-IFNAR1-treatment of Rag1 (-/-) (AIR) mice. These mice have suppressed type I IFN responses and lack adaptive immune responses, leading to a prolonged infection prior to clinical disease. STx of ZIKV from infected AIR males to naive Ifnar1 (-/-) females was observed with greater than 50% incidence, with infection observed in the vaginal tract at early time points...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769923/natural-killer-cells-from-patients-with-recombinase-activating-gene-and-non-homologous-end-joining-gene-defects-comprise-a-higher-frequency-of-cd56-bright-nkg2a-cells-and-yet-display-increased-degranulation-and-higher-perforin-content
#20
Kerry Dobbs, Giovanna Tabellini, Enrica Calzoni, Ornella Patrizi, Paula Martinez, Silvia Clara Giliani, Daniele Moratto, Waleed Al-Herz, Caterina Cancrini, Morton Cowan, Jacob Bleesing, Claire Booth, David Buchbinder, Siobhan O Burns, Talal A Chatila, Janet Chou, Vanessa Daza-Cajigal, Lisa M Ott de Bruin, MaiteTeresa de la Morena, Gigliola Di Matteo, Andrea Finocchi, Raif Geha, Rakesh K Goyal, Anthony Hayward, Steven Holland, Chiung-Hui Huang, Maria G Kanariou, Alejandra King, Blanka Kaplan, Anastasiya Kleva, Taco W Kuijpers, Bee Wah Lee, Vassilios Lougaris, Michel Massaad, Isabelle Meyts, Megan Morsheimer, Benedicte Neven, Sung-Yun Pai, Alessandro Plebani, Susan Prockop, Ismail Reisli, Jian Yi Soh, Raz Somech, Troy R Torgerson, Yae-Jaen Kim, Jolan E Walter, Andrew R Gennery, Sevgi Keles, John P Manis, Emanuela Marcenaro, Alessandro Moretta, Silvia Parolini, Luigi D Notarangelo
Mutations of the recombinase-activating genes 1 and 2 (RAG1 and RAG2) in humans are associated with a broad range of phenotypes. For patients with severe clinical presentation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) represents the only curative treatment; however, high rates of graft failure and incomplete immune reconstitution have been observed, especially after unconditioned haploidentical transplantation. Studies in mice have shown that Rag(-/-) natural killer (NK) cells have a mature phenotype, reduced fitness, and increased cytotoxicity...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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