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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167585/prospectus-towards-the-development-of-high-fidelity-models-of-wall-turbulence-at-large-reynolds-number
#1
J C Klewicki, G P Chini, J F Gibson
Recent and on-going advances in mathematical methods and analysis techniques, coupled with the experimental and computational capacity to capture detailed flow structure at increasingly large Reynolds numbers, afford an unprecedented opportunity to develop realistic models of high Reynolds number turbulent wall-flow dynamics. A distinctive attribute of this new generation of models is their grounding in the Navier-Stokes equations. By adhering to this challenging constraint, high-fidelity models ultimately can be developed that not only predict flow properties at high Reynolds numbers, but that possess a mathematical structure that faithfully captures the underlying flow physics...
March 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167583/a-self-sustaining-process-model-of-inertial-layer-dynamics-in-high-reynolds-number-turbulent-wall-flows
#2
G P Chini, B Montemuro, C M White, J Klewicki
Field observations and laboratory experiments suggest that at high Reynolds numbers Re the outer region of turbulent boundary layers self-organizes into quasi-uniform momentum zones (UMZs) separated by internal shear layers termed 'vortical fissures' (VFs). Motivated by this emergent structure, a conceptual model is proposed with dynamical components that collectively have the potential to generate a self-sustaining interaction between a single VF and adjacent UMZs. A large-Re asymptotic analysis of the governing incompressible Navier-Stokes equation is performed to derive reduced equation sets for the streamwise-averaged and streamwise-fluctuating flow within the VF and UMZs...
March 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153334/resolving-an-ostensible-inconsistency-in-calculating-the-evaporation-rate-of-sessile-drops
#3
S F Chini, A Amirfazli
This paper resolves an ostensible inconsistency in the literature in calculating the evaporation rate for sessile drops in a quiescent environment. The earlier models in the literature have shown that adapting the evaporation flux model for a suspended spherical drop to calculate the evaporation rate of a sessile drop needs a correction factor; the correction factor was shown to be a function of the drop contact angle, i.e. f(θ). However, there seemed to be a problem as none of the earlier models explicitly or implicitly mentioned the evaporation flux variations along the surface of a sessile drop...
June 4, 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147278/the-nuclear-receptor-lxr-limits-bacterial-infection-of-host-macrophages-through-a-mechanism-that-impacts-cellular-nad-metabolism
#4
Jonathan Matalonga, Estibaliz Glaria, Mariana Bresque, Carlos Escande, José María Carbó, Kerstin Kiefer, Ruben Vicente, Theresa E León, Susana Beceiro, Mónica Pascual-García, Joan Serret, Lucía Sanjurjo, Samantha Morón-Ros, Antoni Riera, Sonia Paytubi, Antonio Juarez, Fernando Sotillo, Lennart Lindbom, Carme Caelles, Maria-Rosa Sarrias, Jaime Sancho, Antonio Castrillo, Eduardo N Chini, Annabel F Valledor
Macrophages exert potent effector functions against invading microorganisms but constitute, paradoxically, a preferential niche for many bacterial strains to replicate. Using a model of infection by Salmonella Typhimurium, we have identified a molecular mechanism regulated by the nuclear receptor LXR that limits infection of host macrophages through transcriptional activation of the multifunctional enzyme CD38. LXR agonists reduced the intracellular levels of NAD(+) in a CD38-dependent manner, counteracting pathogen-induced changes in macrophage morphology and the distribution of the F-actin cytoskeleton and reducing the capability of non-opsonized Salmonella to infect macrophages...
January 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124896/heteroleptic-chini-type-platinum-clusters-synthesis-and-characterization-of-bis-phospine-derivatives-of-pt3n-co-6n-2-n-2-4
#5
Cristiana Cesari, Iacopo Ciabatti, Cristina Femoni, Maria Carmela Iapalucci, Federica Mancini, Stefano Zacchini
The reactions of [Pt3n(CO)6n](2-) (n = 2-4) homoleptic Chini-type clusters with stoichiometric amounts of Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2 (dppe) result in the heteroleptic Chini-type clusters [Pt6(CO)10(dppe)](2-), [Pt9(CO)16(dppe)](2-), and [Pt12(CO)20(dppe)2](2-). Their formation is accompanied by slight amounts of neutral species such as Pt4(CO)4(dppe)2, Pt6(CO)6(dppe)3, and Pt(dppe)2. A similar behavior was observed with the chiral ligand R-Ph2PCH(Me)CH2PPh2 (R-dppp), and two isomers of [Pt9(CO)16(R-dppp)](2-) were identified...
January 26, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090281/successful-treatment-of-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-related-hemophagocytic-syndrome-in-an-hiv-patient-with-primary-effusion-lymphoma
#6
Markela-P Zorzou, Maria Chini, Athina Lioni, Georgios Tsekes, Thomas Nitsotolis, Ioannis Tierris, Nicolaos Panagiotou, Dimitra Rontogianni, Nicolaos Harhalakis, Marios Lazanas
Although the connection of [secondary hemophagocytic syndrome (sHS)] with HIV has been well documented, optimal treatment regimen is not well established. This is due not only to the rarity of the syndrome, but also to the heterogeneity of the involved population. Most cases are related to opportunistic infections or malignancies in advanced stage, but many cases are also related to seroconversion, in the primary infection setting. Moreover, in the [antiretroviral treatment (ART)] era, rare cases of ART-related sHS have been reported...
November 2, 2016: Hematology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067005/phosphorus-in-agricultural-soils-drivers-of-its-distribution-at-the-global-scale
#7
Bruno Ringeval, Laurent Augusto, Hervé Monod, Dirk van Apeldoorn, Lex Bouwman, Xiaojuan Yang, David L Achat, Louise P Chini, Kristof Van Oost, Bertrand Guenet, Rong Wang, Bertrand Decharme, Thomas Nesme, Sylvain Pellerin
Phosphorus (P) availability in soils limits crop yields in many regions of the world, while excess of soil P triggers aquatic eutrophication in other regions. Numerous processes drive the global spatial distribution of P in agricultural soils, but their relative roles remain unclear. Here, we combined several global datasets describing these drivers with a soil P dynamics model to simulate the distribution of P in agricultural soils and to assess the contributions of the different drivers at the global scale...
January 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005270/jaz2-controls-stomata-dynamics-during-bacterial-invasion
#8
Selena Gimenez-Ibanez, Marta Boter, Andrés Ortigosa, Gloria García-Casado, Andrea Chini, Mathew G Lewsey, Joseph R Ecker, Vardis Ntoukakis, Roberto Solano
Coronatine (COR) facilitates entry of bacteria into the plant apoplast by stimulating stomata opening. COR-induced signaling events at stomata remain unclear. We found that the COR and jasmonate isoleucine (JA-Ile) co-receptor JAZ2 is constitutively expressed in guard cells and modulates stomatal dynamics during bacterial invasion We analyzed tissue expression patterns of AtJAZ genes and measured stomata opening and pathogen resistance in loss- and gain-of-function mutants. Arabidopsis jaz2 mutants are partially impaired in pathogen-induced stomatal closing and more susceptible to Pseudomonas...
December 22, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995932/intranasal-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-modulate-divergent-brainwide-functional-substrates
#9
Alberto Galbusera, Alessia De Felice, Stefano Girardi, Giacomo Bassetto, Marta Maschietto, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Bice Chini, Francesco Papaleo, Stefano Vassanelli, Alessandro Gozzi
The neuropeptides oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been identified as modulators of emotional social behaviors and associated with neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by social dysfunction. Experimental and therapeutic use of OXT and AVP via the intranasal route is the subject of extensive clinical research. However, the large-scale functional substrates directly engaged by these peptides and their functional dynamics remain elusive. By using cerebral blood volume (CBV) weighted fMRI in the mouse, we show that intranasal administration of OXT rapidly elicits the transient activation of cortical regions and a sustained activation of hippocampal and forebrain areas characterized by high oxytocin receptor density...
January 18, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986479/prospective-nonrandomized-study-to-evaluate-endovascular-repair-of-pararenal-and-thoracoabdominal-aortic-aneurysms-using-fenestrated-branched-endografts-based-on-supraceliac-sealing-zones
#10
Gustavo S Oderich, Mauricio Ribeiro, Jan Hofer, Jean Wigham, Stephen Cha, Julia Chini, Thanila A Macedo, Peter Gloviczki
PURPOSE: To investigate outcomes of manufactured fenestrated and branched endovascular aortic repair (F-BEVAR) endografts based on supraceliac sealing zones to treat pararenal aortic aneurysms and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs). METHODS: A total of 127 patients (91 male, mean age 75 ± 10 years old) were enrolled in a prospective, nonrandomized single-center study using manufactured F-BEVAR (November 2013-March 2015). Stent design was based on supraceliac sealing zone in all patients with ≥ four vessels in 111 (89%)...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924492/progression-of-gait-ataxia-in-patients-with-degenerative-cerebellar-disorders-a-4-year-follow-up-study
#11
Mariano Serrao, Giorgia Chini, Carlo Casali, Carmela Conte, Martina Rinaldi, Alberto Ranavolo, Christian Marcotulli, Luca Leonardi, Gaia Fragiotta, Fabiano Bini, Gianluca Coppola, Francesco Pierelli
In the present study, the progression of gait impairment in a group of patients with primary degenerative cerebellar ataxias was observed over a period of 4 years. A total of 30 patients underwent an initial gait analysis study, and thereafter only 12 were evaluated because they completed the 2- and 4-year follow-up evaluations. Time-distance parameters, trunk and joint range of motion (RoM), and variability parameters (e.g., coefficients of variation) were measured at the baseline and at each follow-up evaluation...
December 6, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831935/white-light-emission-by-phonon-assisted-coherent-mixing-of-excitons-in-au8-cds-hybrid-nanorods
#12
S Rath, O Halder, A Pradhani, B Satpati, A Maity, T K Chini, N Gogurla, S K Ray
Gold cluster (Au8) coated CdS hybrid nanorods (HNRs), synthesized using a sonication assisted assembly route, exhibit phonon assisted coherent mixing of excitons. As observed from optical absorption, Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic studies, the Au8 modulates the crystal-and electronic-structure of the CdS nanorods, effecting enhancement of exciton-phonon (e-p) interactions. The e-p interaction and entropy effect mediated phase matching of the excitonic transitions, leading-via cooperative and coherent mixing of the excitons' color-to the emission of white light, has been confirmed from room temperature and time resolved photoluminescence measurements...
December 9, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830758/contribution-of-sleep-to-the-repair-of-neuronal-dna-double-strand-breaks-evidence-from-flies-and-mice
#13
Michele Bellesi, Daniel Bushey, Mattia Chini, Giulio Tononi, Chiara Cirelli
Exploration of a novel environment leads to neuronal DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). These DSBs are generated by type 2 topoisomerase to relieve topological constrains that limit transcription of plasticity-related immediate early genes. If not promptly repaired, however, DSBs may lead to cell death. Since the induction of plasticity-related genes is higher in wake than in sleep, we asked whether it is specifically wake associated with synaptic plasticity that leads to DSBs, and whether sleep provides any selective advantage over wake in their repair...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825999/nad-and-the-aging-process-role-in-life-death-and-everything-in-between
#14
Claudia C S Chini, Mariana G Tarragó, Eduardo N Chini
Life as we know it cannot exist without the nucleotide nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). From the simplest organism, such as bacteria, to the most complex multicellular organisms, NAD is a key cellular component. NAD is extremely abundant in most living cells and has traditionally been described to be a cofactor in electron transfer during oxidation-reduction reactions. In addition to participating in these reactions, NAD has also been shown to play a key role in cell signaling, regulating several pathways from intracellular calcium transients to the epigenetic status of chromatin...
November 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805204/correction-identification-of-the-key-structural-elements-of-a-dihydropyrimidinone-core-driving-toward-more-potent-hsp90-c-terminal-inhibitors
#15
S Terracciano, M G Chini, M C Vaccaro, M Strocchia, A Foglia, A Vassallo, C Saturnino, R Riccio, G Bifulco, I Bruno
Correction for 'Identification of the key structural elements of a dihydropyrimidinone core driving toward more potent Hsp90 C-terminal inhibitors' by S. Teracciano et al., Chem. Commun., 2016, 52, 12857-12860.
November 2, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762364/optical-physics-speedy-electrons-exposed-in-a-flash
#16
COMMENT
Michael Chini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
20, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731433/identification-of-the-key-structural-elements-of-a-dihydropyrimidinone-core-driving-toward-more-potent-hsp90-c-terminal-inhibitors
#17
S Teracciano, M G Chini, M C Vaccaro, M Strocchia, A Foglia, A Vassallo, C Saturnino, R Riccio, G Bifulco, I Bruno
Hsp90 C-terminal modulation represents an attractive strategy for the development of potent and safer antitumor compounds. Continuing our investigation on DHPM type inhibitors here we report a new set of potent C-terminal ligands which allowed us to identify the key structural features crucial for the biological activity.
October 12, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638646/evaluation-of-cardiac-toxicity-biomarkers-in-rats-from-different-laboratories
#18
Kyuri Kim, Naseem Chini, David G Fairchild, Steven K Engle, William J Reagan, Sandra D Summers, Jon C Mirsalis
There is a great need for improved diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of potential cardiac toxicity in drug development. This study reports the evaluation of several commercially available biomarker kits by 3 institutions (SRI, Eli Lilly, and Pfizer) for the discrimination between myocardial degeneration/necrosis and cardiac hypertrophy as well as the assessment of the interlaboratory and interplatform variation in results. Serum concentrations of natriuretic peptides (N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide [NT-proANP] and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]), cardiac and skeletal troponins (cTnI, cTnT, and sTnI), myosin light chain 3 (Myl3), and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) were assessed in rats treated with minoxidil (MNX) and isoproterenol (ISO)...
September 16, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603327/oxytocin-in-animal-models-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Olga Peñagarikano
Autism spectrum disorder is a behavioral disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication together with the presence of stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests. Although highly genetic, its etiology is complex which correlates with the extensive heterogeneity found in its clinical manifestation, adding to the challenge of understanding its pathophysiology and develop targeted pharmacotherapies. The neuropeptide oxytocin is part of a highly conserved system involved in the regulation of social behavior, and both animal and human research have shown that variation in the oxytocin system accounts for interindividual differences in the expression of social behaviors in mammals...
February 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531952/a-high-dose-of-isoniazid-disturbs-endobiotic-homeostasis-in-mouse-liver
#20
Feng Li, Pengcheng Wang, Ke Liu, Mariana G Tarrago, Jie Lu, Eduardo N Chini, Xiaochao Ma
Overdose of isoniazid (INH), an antituberculosis drug, can be life-threatening because of neurotoxicity. In clinical practice for management of INH overdose and acute toxicity, the potential of INH-induced hepatotoxicity is also considered. However, the biochemical basis of acute INH toxicity in the liver remains elusive. In the current study, we used an untargeted metabolomic approach to explore the acute effects of INH on endobiotic homeostasis in mouse liver. We found that overdose of INH resulted in accumulation of oleoyl-l-carnitine and linoleoyl-l-carnitine in the liver, indicating mitochondrial dysfunction...
November 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
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