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S Rath, O Halder, A Pradhani, B Satpati, A Maity, T K Chini, N Gogurla, S K Ray
Gold cluster (Au8) coated CdS hybrid nanorods (HNRs), synthesized using a sonication assisted assembly route, exhibit phonon assisted coherent mixing of excitons. As observed from optical absorption, Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic studies, the Au8 modulates the crystal-and electronic-structure of the CdS nanorods, effecting enhancement of exciton-phonon (e-p) interactions. The e-p interaction and entropy effect mediated phase matching of the excitonic transitions, leading-via cooperative and coherent mixing of the excitons' color-to the emission of white light, has been confirmed from room temperature and time resolved photoluminescence measurements...
December 9, 2016: Nanotechnology
Michele Bellesi, Daniel Bushey, Mattia Chini, Giulio Tononi, Chiara Cirelli
Exploration of a novel environment leads to neuronal DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). These DSBs are generated by type 2 topoisomerase to relieve topological constrains that limit transcription of plasticity-related immediate early genes. If not promptly repaired, however, DSBs may lead to cell death. Since the induction of plasticity-related genes is higher in wake than in sleep, we asked whether it is specifically wake associated with synaptic plasticity that leads to DSBs, and whether sleep provides any selective advantage over wake in their repair...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Claudia C S Chini, Mariana G Tarragó, Eduardo N Chini
Life as we know it cannot exist without the nucleotide nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). From the simplest organism, such as bacteria, to the most complex multicellular organisms, NAD is a key cellular component. NAD is extremely abundant in most living cells and has traditionally been described to be a cofactor in electron transfer during oxidation-reduction reactions. In addition to participating in these reactions, NAD has also been shown to play a key role in cell signaling, regulating several pathways from intracellular calcium transients to the epigenetic status of chromatin...
November 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
S Terracciano, M G Chini, M C Vaccaro, M Strocchia, A Foglia, A Vassallo, C Saturnino, R Riccio, G Bifulco, I Bruno
Correction for 'Identification of the key structural elements of a dihydropyrimidinone core driving toward more potent Hsp90 C-terminal inhibitors' by S. Teracciano et al., Chem. Commun., 2016, 52, 12857-12860.
November 2, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Michael Chini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Nature
S Teracciano, M G Chini, M C Vaccaro, M Strocchia, A Foglia, A Vassallo, C Saturnino, R Riccio, G Bifulco, I Bruno
Hsp90 C-terminal modulation represents an attractive strategy for the development of potent and safer antitumor compounds. Continuing our investigation on DHPM type inhibitors here we report a new set of potent C-terminal ligands which allowed us to identify the key structural features crucial for the biological activity.
October 12, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Kyuri Kim, Naseem Chini, David G Fairchild, Steven K Engle, William J Reagan, Sandra D Summers, Jon C Mirsalis
There is a great need for improved diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of potential cardiac toxicity in drug development. This study reports the evaluation of several commercially available biomarker kits by 3 institutions (SRI, Eli Lilly, and Pfizer) for the discrimination between myocardial degeneration/necrosis and cardiac hypertrophy as well as the assessment of the interlaboratory and interplatform variation in results. Serum concentrations of natriuretic peptides (N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide [NT-proANP] and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]), cardiac and skeletal troponins (cTnI, cTnT, and sTnI), myosin light chain 3 (Myl3), and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) were assessed in rats treated with minoxidil (MNX) and isoproterenol (ISO)...
September 16, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Sara Sannino, Bice Chini, Valery Grinevich
The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is a forefront molecule among neuropeptides due to its pronounced pro-social effects and its potential use in socio-emotional deficits that characterize the most prevalent neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders (autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia). The effects of OT have been studied in young and adult subjects (either animals or humans), while the complete lifespan trajectories of OT system development and activity have been far less investigated. In this (mini) review, we will primarily focus on three temporal distinct periods of life - early postnatal period, puberty/adolescence and elderly...
September 7, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Feng Li, Pengcheng Wang, Ke Liu, Mariana G Tarrago, Jie Lu, Eduardo N Chini, Xiaochao Ma
Overdose of isoniazid (INH), an antituberculosis drug, can be life-threatening because of neurotoxicity. In clinical practice for management of INH overdose and acute toxicity, the potential of INH-induced hepatotoxicity is also considered. However, the biochemical basis of acute INH toxicity in the liver remains elusive. In the current study, we used an untargeted metabolomic approach to explore the acute effects of INH on endobiotic homeostasis in mouse liver. We found that overdose of INH resulted in accumulation of oleoyl-l-carnitine and linoleoyl-l-carnitine in the liver, indicating mitochondrial dysfunction...
November 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Christopher M Chini, Kelsey L Schreiber, Zachary A Barker, Ashlynn S Stillwell
Stress on water and energy utilities, including natural resource depletion, infrastructure deterioration, and growing populations, threatens the ability to provide reliable and sustainable service. This study presents a demand-side management decision-making tool to evaluate energy and water efficiency opportunities at the residential level, including both direct and indirect consumption. The energy-water nexus accounts for indirect resource consumption, including water-for-energy and energy-for-water. We examine the relationship between water and energy in common household appliances and fixtures, comparing baseline appliances to ENERGY STAR or WaterSense appliances, using a cost abatement analysis for the average U...
September 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Maria G Chini, Nicola Malafronte, Maria C Vaccaro, Maria J Gualtieri, Antonio Vassallo, Michele Vasaturo, Sabrina Castellano, Ciro Milite, Antonietta Leone, Giuseppe Bifulco, Nunziatina De Tommasi, Fabrizio Dal Piaz
The identification of inhibitors of Hsp90 is currently a primary goal in the development of more effective drugs for the treatment of various types of multidrug resistant malignancies. In an attempt to identify new small molecules modulating the activity of Hsp90, we screened a small library of tetranortriterpenes. A high-affinity interaction with Hsp90 inducible form was uncovered for eight of these compounds, five of which are described here for the first time. By monitoring the ATPase activity and the citrate synthase thermal induced aggregation, compound 1 (cedrelosin A), 3 (7α-limonylacetate), and 5 (cedrelosin B), containing a limonol moiety, were found to be the most effective in compromising the Hsp90α chaperone activity...
September 5, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Andrea Chini, Selena Gimenez-Ibanez, Alain Goossens, Roberto Solano
Jasmonates (JAs) are essential phytohormones regulating plant development and environmental adaptation. Many components of the JA-signalling pathway have been identified. However, our insight into the mechanisms by which a single bioactive JA hormone can regulate a myriad of physiological processes and provide specificity in the response remains limited. Recent findings on molecular components suggest that, despite apparent redundancy, specificity is achieved by (1) distinct protein-protein interactions forming unique JAZ/transcription factor complexes, (2) discrete spatiotemporal expression of specific components, (3) variable hormone thresholds for the formation of multiple JA receptor complexes and (4) integration of several signals by JA-pathway components...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
L Chini, V Pacciani, S Corrente, E Monteferrario, M L Romiti, V Moschese, F Angelini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
Francesco Maione, Vincenza Cantone, Simona Pace, Maria Giovanna Chini, Angela Bisio, Giovanni Romussi, Stefano Pieretti, Oliver Werz, Andreas Koeberle, Nicola Mascolo, Giuseppe Bifulco
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The diterpenoids carnosol (CS) and carnosic acid (CA) from Salvia spp. exert prominent anti-inflammatory activities but their molecular mechanisms remained unclear. Here we investigated the effectiveness of CS and CA in inflammatory pain and the cellular interference with their putative molecular targets. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effects of CS and CA in different models of inflammatory pain were investigated. The inhibition of key enzymes in eicosanoid biosynthesis, namely microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES)-1 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) was confirmed by CS and CA, and we determined the consequence on the eicosanoid network in activated human primary monocytes and neutrophils...
July 27, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Marta Busnelli, Gunnar Kleinau, Markus Muttenthaler, Stoytcho Stoev, Maurice Manning, Lucka Bibic, Lesley A Howell, Peter J McCormick, Simona Di Lascio, Daniela Braida, Mariaelvina Sala, G Enrico Rovati, Tommaso Bellini, Bice Chini
Dimeric/oligomeric states of G-protein coupled receptors have been difficult to target. We report here bivalent ligands consisting of two identical oxytocin-mimetics that induce a three order magnitude boost in G-protein signaling of oxytocin receptors (OTRs) in vitro and a 100- and 40-fold gain in potency in vivo in the social behavior of mice and zebrafish. Through receptor mutagenesis and interference experiments with synthetic peptides mimicking transmembrane helices (TMH), we show that such superpotent behavior follows from the binding of the bivalent ligands to dimeric receptors based on a TMH1-TMH2 interface...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Benjamin Webb, Ahmad Azim, Nathan Bodnar, Michael Chini, Lawrence Shah, Martin Richardson
Divided-pulse amplification (DPA) has proven to be a valuable tool in scaling the peak power of diode-pumped ytterbium-doped amplifiers to beyond the single-pulse threshold for parasitic nonlinear effects. DPA enables the amplification of picosecond pulses in solid-state amplifiers with limited bandwidth beyond the single-pulse damage threshold. In this Letter, we demonstrate DPA of picosecond pulses in a flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG amplifier for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, yielding a combined pulse energy of 167 mJ...
July 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Brandon R Barnett, Arnold L Rheingold, Joshua S Figueroa
Owing to their unique topologies and abilities to self-assemble into a variety of extended and aggregated structures, the binary platinum carbonyl clusters [Pt3 (CO)6 ]n (2-) ("Chini clusters") continue to draw significant interest. Herein, we report the isolation and structural characterization of the trinuclear electron-transfer series [Pt3 (μ-CO)3 (CNAr(Dipp2) )3 ](n-) (n=0, 1, 2), which represents a unique set of monomeric Pt3 clusters supported by π-acidic ligands. Spectroscopic, computational, and synthetic investigations demonstrate that the highest-occupied molecular orbitals of the mono- and dianionic clusters consist of a combined π*-framework of the CO and CNAr(Dipp2) ligands, with negligible Pt character...
August 1, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Juliana Camacho-Pereira, Mariana G Tarragó, Claudia C S Chini, Veronica Nin, Carlos Escande, Gina M Warner, Amrutesh S Puranik, Renee A Schoon, Joel M Reid, Antonio Galina, Eduardo N Chini
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels decrease during aging and are involved in age-related metabolic decline. To date, the mechanism responsible for the age-related reduction in NAD has not been elucidated. Here we demonstrate that expression and activity of the NADase CD38 increase with aging and that CD38 is required for the age-related NAD decline and mitochondrial dysfunction via a pathway mediated at least in part by regulation of SIRT3 activity. We also identified CD38 as the main enzyme involved in the degradation of the NAD precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) in vivo, indicating that CD38 has a key role in the modulation of NAD-replacement therapy for aging and metabolic diseases...
June 14, 2016: Cell Metabolism
J B Marston, G P Chini, S M Tobias
Quasilinear theory is often utilized to approximate the dynamics of fluids exhibiting significant interactions between mean flows and eddies. We present a generalization of quasilinear theory to include dynamic mode interactions on the large scales. This generalized quasilinear (GQL) approximation is achieved by separating the state variables into large and small zonal scales via a spectral filter rather than by a decomposition into a formal mean and fluctuations. Nonlinear interactions involving only small zonal scales are then removed...
May 27, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Selena Gimenez-Ibanez, Andrea Chini, Roberto Solano
Plant immunity relies on a complex network of hormone signaling pathways in which jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role. Successful microbial pathogens or symbionts have developed strategies to manipulate plant hormone signaling pathways to cause hormonal imbalances for their own benefit. These strategies include the production of plant hormones, phytohormone mimics, or effector proteins that target host components to disrupt hormonal signaling pathways and enhance virulence. Here, we describe the molecular details of the most recent and best-characterized examples of specific JA hormonal manipulation by microbes, which exemplify the ingenious ways by which pathogens can take control over the plant's hormone signaling network to suppress host immunity...
2016: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
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