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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137167/transmission-dynamics-of-hiv-1-drug-resistance-among-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-individuals-in-greece-the-added-value-of-molecular-epidemiology-to-public-health
#1
Dimitrios Paraskevis, Evangelia Kostaki, Panagiotis Gargalianos, Georgios Xylomenos, Marios Lazanas, Maria Chini, Athanasios Skoutelis, Vasileios Papastamopoulos, Dimitra Paraskeva, Anastasia Antoniadou, Antonios Papadopoulos, Mina Psichogiou, Georgios L Daikos, Georgios Chrysos, Vasileios Paparizos, Sofia Kourkounti, Helen Sambatakou, Nikolaos V Sipsas, Malvina Lada, Periklis Panagopoulos, Efstratios Maltezos, Stylianos Drimis, Angelos Hatzakis
The presence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance among drug-naïve patients remains stable, although the proportion of patients with virological failure to therapy is decreasing. The dynamics of transmitted resistance among drug-naïve patients remains largely unknown. The prevalence of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) resistance was 16.9% among treatment-naïve individuals in Greece. We aimed to investigate the transmission dynamics and the effective reproductive number (Re) of the locally transmitted NNRTI resistance...
November 13, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128742/corrigendum-to-harmony-as-a-convergence-attractor-that-minimizes-the-energy-expenditure-and-variability-in-physiological-gait-and-the-loss-of-harmony-in-cerebellar-ataxia-clin-biomech-48-2017-15-23
#2
Mariano Serrao, Giorgia Chini, Marco Iosa, Carlo Casali, Giovanni Morone, Carmela Conte, Fabiano Bini, Franco Marinozzi, Gianluca Coppola, Francesco Pierelli, Francesco Draicchio, Alberto Ranavolo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115018/relationship-between-exercise-capacity-and-glucose-tolerance-in-cystic-fibrosis
#3
Karla Foster, Guixia Huang, Nanhua Zhang, Joseph Crisalli, Barbara Chini, Raouf Amin, Deborah Elder
BACKGROUND: Improved exercise capacity (EC) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) are independently associated with favorable outcomes in CF, however, little information on this relationship exists in patients with CF. METHODS: Cardiopulmonary exercise tests, oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT), and HbA1c values measured within a 12-month period were evaluated on 83 pediatric patients diagnosed with CF. Patients were categorized as having NGT, abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT), or CF-related diabetes (CFRD)...
November 8, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066224/oxytocin-receptors-in-the-anteromedial-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-promote-stress-induced-social-avoidance-in-female-california-mice
#4
Natalia Duque-Wilckens, Michael Q Steinman, Marta Busnelli, Bice Chini, Sae Yokoyama, Mary Pham, Sarah A Laredo, Rebecca Hao, Allison M Perkeybile, Vanessa A Minie, Phillip B Tan, Karen L Bales, Brian C Trainor
BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is a key regulator of social and emotional behaviors. The effects of OT are context dependent, and it has been proposed that OT increases the salience of both positive and negative social cues. Here we tested whether the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) mediates anxiogenic effects of OT. METHODS: First, we studied the effects of systemic administration of an OT receptor (OTR) antagonist L-368,899 on social behavior in male and female California mice exposed to social defeat...
September 14, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055045/diagnostic-relevance-of-ige-sensitization-profiles-to-eight-recombinant-phleum-pratense-molecules
#5
Francesca Cipriani, Carla Mastrorilli, Salvatore Tripodi, Giampaolo Ricci, Serena Perna, Valentina Panetta, Riccardo Asero, Arianna Dondi, Annamaria Bianchi, Nunzia Maiello, Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Tullio Frediani, Francesco Macrì, Sandra Lucarelli, Iride Dello Iacono, Maria Francesca Patria, Elena Varin, Diego Peroni, Loredana Chini, Viviana Moschese, Roberto Bernardini, Giuseppe Pingitore, Umberto Pelosi, Mariangela Tosca, Francesco Paravati, Ifigenia Sfika, Andrea Di Rienzo Businco, Calotta Povesi Dascola, Pasquale Comberiati, Simone Frediani, Caterina Lambiase, Maria Carmen Verga, Diego Faggian, Mario Plebani, Mauro Calvani, Carlo Caffarelli, Paolo Maria Matricardi
BACKGROUND: Grass pollen-related seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (SARg) is clinically heterogeneous in severity, comorbidities and response to treatment. The component-resolved diagnostics disclosed also a high heterogeneity at molecular level. Our study aimed at analyzing the characteristics of the IgE sensitization to Phleum pratense molecules and investigating the diagnostic relevance of such molecules in childhood. METHODS: We examined 1120 children (age 4-18y) with SARg...
October 20, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022154/runoff-of-the-herbicides-triclopyr-and-glufosinate-ammonium-from-oil-palm-plantation-soil
#6
M A Tayeb, B S Ismail, J Khairiatul-Mardiana
This study focused on the residue detection of the herbicides triclopyr and glufosinate ammonium in the runoff losses from the Tasik Chini oil palm plantation area and the Tasik Chini Lake under natural rainfall conditions in the Malaysian tropical environment. Triclopyr and glufosinate ammonium are post-emergence herbicides. Both herbicides were foliar-sprayed on 0.5 ha of oil palm plantation plots, which were individualized by an uneven slope of 10-15%. Samples were collected at 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 days after treatment...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970479/erratum-53-attosecond-x-ray-pulses-reach-the-carbon-k-edge
#7
Jie Li, Xiaoming Ren, Yanchun Yin, Kun Zhao, Andrew Chew, Yan Cheng, Eric Cunningham, Yang Wang, Shuyuan Hu, Yi Wu, Michael Chini, Zenghu Chang
Nature Communications 8:186 doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00321-0 (2017); Article published online: 4 August 2017.
October 2, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967438/identification-of-specific-gait-patterns-in-patients-with-cerebellar-ataxia-spastic-paraplegia-and-parkinson-s-disease-a-non-hierarchical-cluster-analysis
#8
Mariano Serrao, Giorgia Chini, Matteo Bergantino, Diego Sarnari, Carlo Casali, Carmela Conte, Alberto Ranavolo, Christian Marcotulli, Martina Rinaldi, Gianluca Coppola, Fabiano Bini, Francesco Pierelli, Franco Marinozzi
Patients with degenerative neurological diseases such as cerebellar ataxia, spastic paraplegia, and Parkinson's disease often display progressive gait function decline that inexorably impacts their autonomy and quality of life. Therefore, considering the related social and economic costs, one of the most important areas of intervention in neurorehabilitation should be the treatment of gait abnormalities. This study aims to determine whether an entire dataset of gait parameters recorded in patients with degenerative neurological diseases can be clustered into homogeneous groups distinct from each other and from healthy subjects...
September 26, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959029/high-harmonic-generation-in-amorphous-solids
#9
Yong Sing You, Yanchun Yin, Yi Wu, Andrew Chew, Xiaoming Ren, Fengjiang Zhuang, Shima Gholam-Mirzaei, Michael Chini, Zenghu Chang, Shambhu Ghimire
High-harmonic generation in isolated atoms and molecules has been widely utilized in extreme ultraviolet photonics and attosecond pulse metrology. Recently, high-harmonic generation has been observed in solids, which could lead to important applications such as all-optical methods to image valance charge density and reconstruct electronic band structures, as well as compact extreme ultraviolet light sources. So far these studies are confined to crystalline solids; therefore, decoupling the respective roles of long-range periodicity and high density has been challenging...
September 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942714/myoelectric-manifestation-of-muscle-fatigue-in-repetitive-work-detected-by-means-of-miniaturized-semg-sensors
#10
Alberto Ranavolo, Giorgia Chini, Alessio Silvetti, Silvia Mari, Mariano Serrao, Francesco Draicchio
Upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders have a 12-month prevalence ranging from 12 to 41% worldwide and can be partly caused by handling low loads at high frequency. The association between the myoelectric manifestation of elbow flexor muscle fatigue and occupational physical demand has never been investigated. It was hypothesized that an elbow flexor muscle fatigue index could be a valid risk indicator in handling low loads at high frequency. This study aims to measure the myoelectric manifestation of muscle fatigue of the three elbow flexor muscles during the execution of the work tasks in different risk conditions...
September 25, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901125/annealing-induced-morphology-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-pyramidal-silicon-surface-and-their-application-to-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering
#11
Abhijit Roy, Arpan Maiti, Tapas Kumar Chini, Biswarup Satpati
This paper reports on a simple and cost-effective process of developing a stable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on silver (Ag) nanoparticles deposited on silicon (Si) surface. Durability is an important issue for preparing SERS active substrate as silver nanostructures are prone to rapid surface oxidation when exposed to ambient conditions, which may result in the loss of the enhancement capabilities in a short period of time. Here, we employ the galvanic displacement method to produce Ag nanoparticles on Si(100) substrate prepatterned with arrays of micropyramids by chemical etching, and subsequently, separate pieces of such substrates were annealed in oxygen and nitrogen environments at 550 °C...
October 4, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899620/the-action-radius-of-oxytocin-release-in-the-mammalian-cns-from-single-vesicles-to-behavior
#12
REVIEW
Bice Chini, Matthijs Verhage, Valery Grinevich
The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has attracted the attention both of the scientific community and a general audience because of its prosocial effects in mammals, and OT is now seen as a facilitator of mammalian species propagation. Furthermore, OT is a candidate for the treatment of social deficits in several neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental conditions. Despite such possibilities and a long history of studies on OT behavioral effects, the mechanisms of OT actions in the brain remain poorly understood...
November 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886132/a-global-view-of-shifting-cultivation-recent-current-and-future-extent
#13
Andreas Heinimann, Ole Mertz, Steve Frolking, Andreas Egelund Christensen, Kaspar Hurni, Fernando Sedano, Louise Parsons Chini, Ritvik Sahajpal, Matthew Hansen, George Hurtt
Mosaic landscapes under shifting cultivation, with their dynamic mix of managed and natural land covers, often fall through the cracks in remote sensing-based land cover and land use classifications, as these are unable to adequately capture such landscapes' dynamic nature and complex spectral and spatial signatures. But information about such landscapes is urgently needed to improve the outcomes of global earth system modelling and large-scale carbon and greenhouse gas accounting. This study combines existing global Landsat-based deforestation data covering the years 2000 to 2014 with very high-resolution satellite imagery to visually detect the specific spatio-temporal pattern of shifting cultivation at a one-degree cell resolution worldwide...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812263/molecular-basis-of-oxytocin-receptor-signalling-in-the-brain-what-we-know-and-what-we-need-to-know
#14
Marta Busnelli, Bice Chini
Oxytocin (OT), a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in regulating the social behaviour of all vertebrates, has been proposed as a treatment for a number of neuropsychiatric disorders characterised by deficits in the social domain. Over the last few decades, advances focused on understanding the social effects of OT and its role in physiological conditions and brain diseases, but much less has been done to clarify the molecular cascade of events involved in mediating such effects and in particular the cellular and molecular pharmacology of OT and its target receptor (OTR) in neuronal and glial cells...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793050/relationship-between-uric-acid-levels-and-risk-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-a-retrospective-cohort-of-brazilian-workers
#15
L S N Chini, L I S Assis, J R Lugon
Uric acid (UA) levels are increased in patients with kidney dysfunction. We analyzed the association between asymptomatic hyperuricemia and new-onset chronic kidney disease (CKD). A retrospective cohort study was designed to collect data from employees of an energy generation and distribution company in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who had undergone the company's annual medical checkup from 2008 to 2014. People with ≤2 years of follow-up, with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL·min-1·(1...
August 7, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775272/53-attosecond-x-ray-pulses-reach-the-carbon-k-edge
#16
Jie Li, Xiaoming Ren, Yanchun Yin, Kun Zhao, Andrew Chew, Yan Cheng, Eric Cunningham, Yang Wang, Shuyuan Hu, Yi Wu, Michael Chini, Zenghu Chang
The motion of electrons in the microcosm occurs on a time scale set by the atomic unit of time-24 attoseconds. Attosecond pulses at photon energies corresponding to the fundamental absorption edges of matter, which lie in the soft X-ray regime above 200 eV, permit the probing of electronic excitation, chemical state, and atomic structure. Here we demonstrate a soft X-ray pulse duration of 53 as and single pulse streaking reaching the carbon K-absorption edge (284 eV) by utilizing intense two-cycle driving pulses near 1...
August 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733523/preclinical-efficacy-of-the-novel-competitive-nampt-inhibitor-stf-118804-in-pancreatic-cancer
#17
Jair Machado Espindola-Netto, Claudia C S Chini, Mariana Tarragó, Enfeng Wang, Shamit Dutta, Krishnendu Pal, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay, Mauro Sola-Penna, Eduardo N Chini
NAD salvage is one of the pathways used to generate NAD in mammals. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway, uses nicotinamide (NAM) to generate nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). NMN is one of the main precursors of NAD synthesis in cells. Our previous study showed the importance of NAMPT in maintaining NAD levels in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells (PDAC), and that the NAMPT inhibitor FK866 decreased pancreatic cancer growth. We now tested the effect of STF-118804, a new highly specific NAMPT inhibitor, in models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma...
June 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704694/harmony-as-a-convergence-attractor-that-minimizes-the-energy-expenditure-and-variability-in-physiological-gait-and-the-loss-of-harmony-in-cerebellar-ataxia
#18
Mariano Serrao, Giorgia Chini, Marco Iosa, Carlo Casali, Giovanni Morone, Carmela Conte, Fabiano Bini, Franco Marinozzi, Gianluca Coppola, Francesco Pierelli, Francesco Draicchio, Alberto Ranavolo
BACKGROUND: The harmony of the human gait was recently found to be related to the golden ratio value (ϕ). The ratio between the duration of the stance and that of the swing phases of a gait cycle was in fact found to be close to ϕ, which implies that, because of the fractal property of autosimilarity of that number, the gait ratios stride/stance, stance/swing, swing/double support, were not significantly different from one another. We studied a group of patients with cerebellar ataxia to investigate how the differences between their gait ratios and the golden ratio are related to efficiency and stability of their gait, assessed by energy expenditure and stride-to-stride variability, respectively...
July 5, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688977/prevalence-of-drug-resistance-among-hiv-1-treatment-naive-patients-in-greece-during-2003-2015-transmitted-drug-resistance-is-due-to-onward-transmissions
#19
D Paraskevis, E Kostaki, G Magiorkinis, P Gargalianos, G Xylomenos, E Magiorkinis, M Lazanas, M Chini, G Nikolopoulos, A Skoutelis, V Papastamopoulos, A Antoniadou, A Papadopoulos, M Psichogiou, G L Daikos, M Oikonomopoulou, A Zavitsanou, G Chrysos, V Paparizos, S Kourkounti, H Sambatakou, N V Sipsas, M Lada, P Panagopoulos, E Maltezos, S Drimis, A Hatzakis
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance among treatment-naïve patients ranges between 8.3% and 15% in Europe and North America. Previous studies showed that subtypes A and B were the most prevalent in the Greek HIV-1 epidemic. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of resistance among drug naïve patients in Greece and to investigate the levels of transmission networking among those carrying resistant strains. METHODS: HIV-1 sequences were determined from 3428 drug naïve HIV-1 patients, in Greece sampled during 01/01/2003-30/6/2015...
July 5, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627859/use-of-dynamic-movement-orthoses-to-improve-gait-stability-and-trunk-control-in-ataxic-patients
#20
Mariano Serrao, Carlo Casali, Alberto Ranavolo, Silvia Mari, Carmela Conte, Giorgia Chini, Luca Leonardi, Gianluca Coppola, Cherubino DI Lorenzo, Mahmoud Harfoush, Luca Padua, Francesco Pierelli
BACKGROUND: Patients with cerebellar ataxia show increased upper body movements, which have an impact on balance and walking. AIM: In this study, we investigated the effect of using dynamic movement orthoses (DMO), designed as elastic suits, on trunk motion and gait parameters. DESIGN: A longitudinal uncontrolled study. SETTING: Rehabilitative outpatient unit. POPULATION: Eleven patients (seven men, four women; mean age of 49...
June 19, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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