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Swim, sport

B Steelant, V Hox, L Van Gerven, E Dilissen, E Dekimpe, A Kasran, S Aertgeerts, V Van Belle, K Peers, L J Dupont, P W Hellings, D M Bullens, S F Seys
BACKGROUND: A high burden of lower airway symptoms is found in elite swimmers. To what extent elite swimmers suffer from upper airway symptoms and how these associate with nasal inflammation is less clear. We here aimed to evaluate upper airway symptoms and nasal inflammation in elite athletes. METHODOLOGY: Elite swimmers, indoor athletes and age-matched controls were recruited. Upper airway symptoms were assessed by sino-nasal outcome test (SNOT)-22 questionnaire...
March 21, 2018: Rhinology
Katie E McGibbon, D B Pyne, M E Shephard, K G Thompson
BACKGROUND: Pacing strategy, or how energy is distributed during exercise, can substantially impact athletic performance and is considered crucial for optimal performance in many sports. This is particularly true in swimming given the highly resistive properties of water and low mechanical efficiency of the swimming action. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review was to determine the pacing strategies utilised by competitive swimmers in competition and their reproducibility, and to examine the impact of different pacing strategies on kinematic, metabolic and performance variables...
March 20, 2018: Sports Medicine
Dayanne S Lima-Borges, Paula F Martinez, Luiz Carlos M Vanderlei, Fernando S S Barbosa, Silvio A Oliveira-Junior
OBJECTIVES: Young athletes' participation in competitive sports is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the occurrence of overtraining and sports injuries. Since these issues are poorly understood, this study analyzed heart rate variability, stress/recovery relationship, and sports injury incidence during a training macrocycle of young sprint and endurance swimmers. METHODS: Thirty teenage swimmers (aged 12 to 17 years) were divided into two groups as follows: Sprint (n=17) and Endurance (n=13)...
March 14, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Silvester Liposek, Natasa Zenic, Jose M Saavedra, Damir Sekulic, Jelena Rodek, Miha Marinsek, Dorica Sajber
Although coaching is considered an important determinant of athletes' potential doping behavior (PDB), there is an evident lack of studies that have examined coaching-strategy-and-training-methodology (CS&TM) in relation to PDB. This study was aimed to identify the specific associations that may exist between CS&TM -factors and other factors, and PDB in high-level swimming. The sample comprised 94 swimmers (35 females; 19.7 ± 2.3 years of age) and consisted of swimmers older than 18 years who participated in the 2017 National Championship...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Mirco Lo Presti, Giuseppe Gianluca Costa, Sergio Cialdella, Giuseppe Agrò, Alberto Grassi, Silvio Caravelli, Massimiliano Mosca, Giulio Maria Marcheggiani Muccioli, Stefano Zaffagnini
Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has increased in popularity in the last years, also in younger and more active patients with great expectancies. The purpose of our study was to investigate the change in sports activities before and after medial UKA. We surveyed 53 athletic patients; all underwent cemented medial UKA, to determine not only their subjective and objective evaluation of clinical status with Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) and visual analog score (VAS) score, but also their sporting and recreational activities at a mean follow-up of 48 ± 6 months (range, 18-56 months)...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
Alejandro Gomez-Bruton, Alejandro Gonzalez-Aguero, Angel Matute-Llorente, Alba Gomez-Cabello, Jose A Casajus, German Vicente-Rodríguez
The aims of the present study were, firstly, to evaluate areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone strength and structure during a swimming season and compare them to those of normo-active controls (CG), and secondly to ascertain whether practising an additional weight-bearing sport other than swimming might improve bone. Twenty-three swimmers who only swam (SWI-PURE; 14 males, 9 females), 11 swimmers who combined swimming with an additional weight-bearing sport (SWI-SPORT; 8 males, 3 females) and 28 controls (CG; 16 males, 12 females) participated in the present study...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Mindy Millard-Stafford, Ann E Swanson, Matthew T Wittbrodt
Men outperform women in sports requiring muscular strength and/or endurance, but the relative influence of "nurture" versus "nature" remains difficult to quantify. Performance gaps between elite men and women are well-documented using world records in second, centimeter or kilogram sports. However, this approach is biased by global disparity in reward structures and opportunities for women. Despite policies enhancing female participation (Title IX legislation), USA women only closed performance gaps by 2 and 5% in Olympic Trial swimming and running, respectively, from 1972 to 1980 (with no change thereafter through 2016)...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Gerardo Bosco, Alex Rizzato, Richard E Moon, Enrico M Camporesi
Man's experience and exploration of the underwater environment has been recorded from ancient times and today encompasses large sections of the population for sport enjoyment, recreational and commercial purpose, as well as military strategic goals. Knowledge, respect and maintenance of the underwater world is an essential development for our future and the knowledge acquired over the last few dozen years will change rapidly in the near future with plans to establish secure habitats with specific long-term goals of exploration, maintenance and survival...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Steffen Ringhof, Thorsten Stein
Dynamic balance is vitally important for most sports and activities of daily living, so the assessment of dynamic stability has become an important issue. In consequence, a large number of balance tests have been developed. However, it is not yet known whether these tests (i) measure the same construct and (ii) can differentiate between athletes with different balance expertise. We therefore studied three common dynamic balance tests: one-leg jump landings, Posturomed perturbations and simulated forward falls...
February 10, 2018: Human Movement Science
Tathyane Krahenbühl, Roseane de Fátima Guimarães, Antonio de Azevedo Barros Filho, Ezequiel Moreira Gonçalves
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review on the practice of physical activity and/or sports in health and its influence on bone geometry of healthy children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: The method used as reference was the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Databases searched for articles published from 2006 to 2016, with "Bone geometry" AND (Sport* OR Exercise* OR "Physical Activity") as descriptors, were PubMed, BIREME/LILACS and SciELO...
January 15, 2018: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
N M Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, A A M Wilde
The European and Bethesda recommendations roughly state that any athlete with channelopathy is not eligible to participate in sports on a presumed risk of potentially life-threatening ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. However, eligibility decision-making on a presumed risk of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation is debatable. Channelopathies are primary electrical cardiac disorders and are usually transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Some of the channelopathies are potentially fatal in relation to exercise and predispose to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias including ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation...
February 6, 2018: Netherlands Heart Journal
Rachel M Frank, Gift Ukwuani, Jorge Chahla, Brian Batko, Charles A Bush-Joseph, Shane J Nho
PURPOSE: To evaluate patients' ability to return to swimming after hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) with capsular closure. METHODS: Consecutive FAIS patients who had undergone hip arthroscopy for the treatment of FAIS by a single fellowship-trained surgeon were reviewed. The inclusion criteria included patients with a diagnosis of FAIS who self-reported being swimming athletes with a minimum clinical follow-up duration of 2 years...
February 2, 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Stephen Cobley, Shaun Abbott, Sera Dogramaci, Adam Kable, James Salter, Mirjam Hintermann, Michael Romann
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, magnitude and transient patterning of Relative Age Effects (RAEs) according to sex and stroke event across all age-groups at the Australian National age swimming Championships. DESIGN: Repeated years of cross-sectional participation data were examined. METHODS: Participants were 6014 unique male (3185) and female (2829) swimmers (aged 12-18 years) who participated in Freestyle (50, 400m) and/or Breaststroke (100, 200m) at the National age swimming Championships between 2000-2014 (inclusive)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Zoe Kooreman, Geneviève Giraldeau, Gherardo Finocchiaro, Yukari Kobayashi, Matthew Wheeler, Marco Perez, Kegan Moneghetti, David Oxborough, Keith P George, Jonathan Myers, Euan Ashley, François Haddad
BACKGROUND: There is limited data regarding ventricular remodeling in college female athletes, especially when appropriate scaling of cardiac dimensions to lean body mass (LBM) is considered. Moreover, it is not well established whether cardiac remodeling in female athletes is a balanced process with proportional increase in left ventricular (LV) mass and volume or the right and LV size. METHODS: During the preparticipation competitive screening, 72 female college athletes volunteered to undergo dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scan for quantification of LBM and comprehensive 2D echocardiography including assessment of longitudinal myocardial strain...
January 23, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Daniel Bonnar, Kate Bartel, Naomi Kakoschke, Christin Lang
BACKGROUND: Athletes experience various situations and conditions that can interfere with their sleep, which is crucial for optimal psychological and physiological recovery as well as subsequent performance. Conventional sleep screening and intervention approaches may not be efficacious for athletes given their lifestyle, the demands of training and travel associated with interstate/international competition. OBJECTIVES: The present systematic review aimed to summarize and evaluate sleep intervention studies targeting subsequent performance and recovery in competitive athletes...
January 20, 2018: Sports Medicine
Kevin G Keenan, Jonathon W Senefeld, Sandra K Hunter
Men outperform women in many athletic endeavors due to physiological and anatomical differences (e.g. larger and faster muscle); however, the observed sex differences in elite athletic performance are typically larger than expected, and may reflect sex-related differences in opportunity or incentives. As collegiate rowing in the United States has been largely incentivized for women over the last 20 years, but not men, the purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in elite rowing performance over that timeframe...
2018: PloS One
André Seabra, Ricardo J Fernandes, Elisa Marques, Miguel Moura, Esther Ubago-Guisado, Enrique Hernando, Leonor Gallardo
Physical activity plays a crucial role in bone mass acquisition during childhood and adolescence, with weightbearing and high-impact sport activities being more beneficial. This study sought to evaluate the impact of different sports activities on bone mineral density and content in male Portuguese athletes. Seventy adolescent boys (aged 12-15 years) including 28 futsal players (FG), 20 swimmers (SG) and 22 non-athletic adolescents used as control subjects (CG), participated in the current study. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and areal bone mineral content (aBMC) were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
James Higgerson, Emma Halliday, Aurora Ortiz-Nunez, Richard Brown, Ben Barr
BACKGROUND: There are large inequalities in levels of physical activity in the UK, and this is an important determinant of health inequalities. Little is known about the effectiveness of community-wide interventions to increase physical activity and whether effects differ by socioeconomic group. METHODS: We conducted interrupted time series and difference-in-differences analyses using local administrative data and a large national survey to investigate the impact of an intervention providing universal free access to leisure facilities alongside outreach and marketing activities in a deprived local authority area in the northwest of England...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Gabriel Lozano-Berges, Ángel Matute-Llorente, Alejandro González-Agüero, Alejandro Gómez-Bruton, Alba Gómez-Cabello, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez, José A Casajús
The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of soccer practice on bone in male and female children and adolescents. MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science databases were searched for scientific articles published up to and including October 2016. Twenty-seven studies were included in this systematic review (13 in the meta-analysis). The meta-analysis was performed by using OpenMeta[Analyst] software. It is well documented that soccer practice during childhood provides positive effects on bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) compared to sedentary behaviors and other sports, such as tennis, weightlifting, or swimming...
December 28, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
Christoph Kolling, Mirela Borovac, Laurent Audigé, Andreas M Mueller, Hans-Kaspar Schwyzer
PURPOSE: This patient survey evaluated the return to previous sports activities in Swiss patients up to five years after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). METHODS: We screened our local shoulder arthroplasty registry for patients registered with a unilateral RSA due to rotator cuff deficiency between May 2010 and May 2015. Revision cases and patients already known as unwilling or unable to complete a German language questionnaire were excluded. Eligible patients received a paper questionnaire asking about their past and current sports activities, return time point and level of activity...
December 22, 2017: International Orthopaedics
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