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Alcohol review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917174/-disinfection-of-injection-ports-a-systematic-overview-of-optimal-scrub-time
#1
Lars Breimer, Håkan Geijer, Lars Berggren
Central venous catheter bloodstream infections are an important cause of hospital-acquired infection with increased morbidity, mortality and cost. The incidence varies between countries and even hospitals. Needleless connector hubs are used on virtually all intravascular devices and colonization of these is considered the cause of much of the postinsertion catheter-related infections through breaks in aseptic technique and failure to disinfect properly. This systematic review evaluated 165 search hits on hub disinfection practices with particular emphasis on the time of scrubbing the connector for 15 sec but also the impact of measures of education and compliance...
June 15, 2018: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916519/natural-products-from-thioester-reductase-containing-biosynthetic-pathways
#2
REVIEW
Michael W Mullowney, Ryan A McClure, Matthew T Robey, Neil L Kelleher, Regan J Thomson
Covering: up to 2018Thioester reductase domains catalyze two- and four-electron reductions to release natural products following assembly on nonribosomal peptide synthetases, polyketide synthases, and their hybrid biosynthetic complexes. This reductive off-loading of a natural product yields an aldehyde or alcohol, can initiate the formation of a macrocyclic imine, and contributes to important intermediates in a variety of biosyntheses, including those for polyketide alkaloids and pyrrolobenzodiazepines. Compounds that arise from reductase-terminated biosynthetic gene clusters are often reactive and exhibit biological activity...
June 19, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913275/rates-and-factors-associated-with-placebo-response-in-trials-of-pharmacotherapies-for-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Ma Ai Thanda Han, Osama Altayar, Shadi Hamdeh, Varun Takyar, Yaron Rotman, Ohad Etzion, Eric Lefebvre, Rifaat Safadi, Vlad Ratziu, Larry J Prokop, Mohammad Hassan Murad, Mazen Noureddin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Understanding the extent of the placebo effect in randomized controlled trials of studying nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is important for optimal trial design, including sample size calculations and treatment endpoint definition. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the placebo groups from randomized controlled trials of adults with NASH that provided histological and/or magnetic resonance image-based measurements of intrahepatic triglyceride...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912869/reporting-bias-in-the-literature-on-the-associations-of-health-related-behaviors-and-statins-with-cardiovascular-disease-and-all-cause-mortality
#4
Leandro Fórnias Machado de Rezende, Juan Pablo Rey-López, Thiago Hérick de Sá, Nicholas Chartres, Alice Fabbri, Lauren Powell, Emmanuel Stamatakis, Lisa Bero
Reporting bias in the literature occurs when there is selective revealing or suppression of results, influenced by the direction of findings. We assessed the risk of reporting bias in the epidemiological literature on health-related behavior (tobacco, alcohol, diet, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) and cardiovascular disease mortality and all-cause mortality and provided a comparative assessment of reporting bias between health-related behavior and statin (in primary prevention) meta-analyses. We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane Methodology Register Database, and Web of Science for systematic reviews synthesizing the associations of health-related behavior and statins with cardiovascular disease mortality and all-cause mortality published between 2010 and 2016...
June 18, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910801/lifelong-impacts-of-moderate-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-on-neuroimmune-function
#5
REVIEW
Shahani Noor, Erin D Milligan
In utero alcohol exposure is emerging as a major risk factor for lifelong aberrant neuroimmune function. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder encompasses a range of behavioral and physiological sequelae that may occur throughout life and includes cognitive developmental disabilities as well as disease susceptibility related to aberrant immune and neuroimmune actions. Emerging data from clinical studies and findings from animal models support that very low to moderate levels of fetal alcohol exposure may reprogram the developing central nervous system leading to altered neuroimmune and neuroglial signaling during adulthood...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908362/magnetic-resonance-vs-transient-elastography-analysis-of-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-systematic-review-and-pooled-analysis-of-individual-participants
#6
Cynthia Hsu, Cyrielle Caussy, Kento Imajo, Jun Chen, Siddharth Singh, Kellee Kaulback, Minh-Da Le, Jonathan Hooker, Xin Tu, Ricki Bettencourt, Meng Yin, Claude B Sirlin, Richard L Ehman, Atsushi Nakajima, Rohit Loomba
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) and transient elastography (TE) are noninvasive techniques for detection of liver fibrosis. Single-center studies have compared the diagnostic performance of MRE vs TE in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We conducted a pooled analysis of individual participant data from published studies to compare the diagnostic performance of MRE vs TE for staging of liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD, using liver biopsy as reference...
June 13, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906416/bioactive-lipid-species-and-metabolic-pathways-in-progression-and-resolution-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#7
REVIEW
Giovanni Musso, Maurizio Cassader, Elena Paschetta, Roberto Gambino
The prevalence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasing worldwide, yet there are no effective treatments. A decade has passed since initial lipidomic analyses of liver tissues from patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We have learned that liver cells from patients with NASH have an abnormal lipid composition, and the accumulation of lipids leads to organelle dysfunction, cell injury and death, and chronic inflammation, called liptoxicity. We review the lipid species and metabolic pathways that contribute to pathogenesis of NASH, as well as potential therapeutic targets, including enzymes involved in fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis, bioactive sphingolipids and polyunsaturated-derived eicosanoids and specialized proresolving lipid mediators...
June 12, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905761/high-preoperative-plasma-fibrinogen-and-serum-albumin-score-is-associated-with-poor-survival-in-operable-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#8
S Sun, P Chen, L Meng, L Li, Z Mo, C Sun, Y Wang, F Liang
This study was performed to investigate the prognostic significance of a cumulative score based on the preoperative plasma fibrinogen and serum albumin (FA score) in operable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Clinicopathologic characteristics, preoperative fibrinogen, and albumin concentrations were retrospectively reviewed in patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy. The optimal cutoff value was defined as 4.0 g/L for fibrinogen according to previous studies and as 41.0 g/L for albumin for the lower quartile...
June 14, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904153/mouse-models-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-an-overview-and-highlights-for-immunotherapy-research
#9
REVIEW
Zachary J Brown, Bernd Heinrich, Tim F Greten
Mouse models are the basis of preclinical and translational research in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Multiple methods exist to induce tumour formation in mice, including genetically engineered mouse models, chemotoxic agents, intrahepatic or intrasplenic injection of tumour cells and xenograft approaches. Additionally, as HCC generally develops in the context of diseased liver, methods exist to induce liver disease in mice to mimic viral hepatitis, fatty liver disease, fibrosis, alcohol-induced liver disease and cholestasis...
June 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902522/role-of-camp-and-phosphodiesterase-signaling-in-liver-health-and-disease
#10
Banrida Wahlang, Craig McClain, Shirish Barve, Leila Gobejishvili
Liver disease is a significant health problem worldwide with mortality reaching around 2 million deaths a year. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are the major causes of chronic liver disease. Pathologically, NAFLD and ALD share similar patterns of hepatic disorders ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. It is becoming increasingly important to identify new pharmacological targets, given that there is no FDA-approved therapy yet for either NAFLD or ALD...
June 11, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901618/management-of-hepatic-vein-occlusive-disease-after-liver-transplantation-a-case-report-with-literature-review
#11
Yuchen Hou, Nga Lei Tam, Zhicheng Xue, Xuzhi Zhang, Bing Liao, Jie Yang, Shunjun Fu, Yi Ma, Linwei Wu, Xiaoshun He
RATIONALE: Hepatic vein occlusive disease (HVOD) is a rare complication after liver transplantation, which is characterized by nonthrombotic, fibrous obliteration of the small centrilobular hepatic veins by connective tissue and centrilobular necrosis in zone 3 of the acini. HVOD after solid organ transplantation has been reported; recently, most of these reports with limited cases have documented that acute cell rejection and immunosuppressive agents are the major causative factors. HVOD is relatively a rare complication of liver transplantation with the incidence of approximately 2%...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901518/chronic-pancreatitis-an-update-on-genetic-risk-factors
#12
Frank U Weiss, Mariya E Skube, Markus M Lerch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genetic mutations in genes within and outside of the trypsin-dependent pathologic pathway have been found to be associated with chronic pancreatitis. This review highlights recent developments. RECENT FINDINGS: CTRB1-CTRB2 has been identified as a new risk locus for chronic pancreatitis and the disease mechanism may involve trypsin degradation. Misfolding mutations in PRSS1, CPA1, and CEL, as well as environmental stress factors like tobacco and alcohol can trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER-Stress)...
June 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900619/alcohol-industry-involvement-in-science-a-systematic-review-of-the-perspectives-of-the-alcohol-research-community
#13
REVIEW
Jim McCambridge, Melissa Mialon
ISSUES: Alcohol companies have recently invested large sums of money in answering research questions to which they have clear vested interests in the outcomes. There have been extensive concerns about corporate influence on public health sciences, following the experience with the tobacco industry. APPROACH: This systematic review aims to investigate the perspectives of researchers on the activities of alcohol industry actors in relation to science, in order to guide future research...
June 13, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900000/staphylococcus-associated-glomerulonephritis-mimicking-henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-purpura-and-cryoglobulinemic-vasculitis-in-a-patient-with-an-epidural-abscess-a-case-report-and-brief-review-of-the-literature
#14
Tahrin Mahmood, Robert Puckrin, Linda Sugar, David Naimark
Rationale: Staphylococcus-associated glomerulonephritis (SAGN) is a rare immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis associated with active Staphylococcus infection. We report a case illustrating the importance of clinical history and kidney biopsy findings in establishing the correct diagnosis. Presenting concerns of the patient: We report the case of a 64-year-old man with alcohol-associated cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension who presented to hospital with lower back and abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, a purpuric lower extremity rash, and oliguric acute kidney injury with microscopic hematuria and nephrotic-range proteinuria...
2018: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899666/epigenetic-mechanisms-of-alcohol-neuroadaptation-insights-from-drosophila
#15
REVIEW
Maria E Ramirez-Roman, Carlos E Billini, Alfredo Ghezzi
Alcohol addiction is a serious condition perpetuated by enduring physiological and behavioral adaptations. An important component of these adaptations is the long-term rearrangement of neuronal gene expression in the brain of the addicted individual. Epigenetic histone modifications have recently surfaced as important modulators of the transcriptional adaptation to alcohol as these are thought to represent a form of transcriptional memory that is directly imprinted on the chromosome. Some histone modifications affect transcription by modulating the accessibility of the underlying DNA, whereas others have been proposed to serve as marks read by transcription factors as a "histone code" that helps to specify the expression level of a gene...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898491/-chronic-pancreatitis-and-pancreatic-cancer-tumor-risk-and-screening
#16
Georg Beyer, Jan G D'Haese, Steffen Ormanns, Julia Mayerle
Chronic pancreatitis is a fibroinflammatory syndrome of the exocrine pancreas, which is characterized by an increasing incidence, high morbidity and lethality. Common etiologies besides alcohol and nicotine consumption include genetic causes and risk factors. The life time risk for the development of pancreatic cancer is elevated 13- to 45-fold depending on the underlying etiology. In patients with chronic pancreatitis clinical, laboratory and imaging surveillance for early detection of complications, including pancreatic cancer, is recommended, although the available methods lack the desired sensitivity and specificity...
June 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897986/the-effect-of-lifestyle-on-late-life-cognitive-change-under-different-socioeconomic-status
#17
Pei-Hsuan Weng, Jen-Hau Chen, Jeng-Min Chiou, Yu-Kang Tu, Ta-Fu Chen, Ming-Jang Chiu, Sung-Chun Tang, Shin-Joe Yeh, Yen-Ching Chen
This study aimed to identify lifestyle factors associated with cognitive change and to explore whether the effect of lifestyle varies by socioeconomic status (SES). Participants aged 65 years and older were recruited from elderly health checkup programs from 2011 to 2013 in Taiwan. Neuropsychological tests, including tests of global cognition, logical memory, executive function, verbal fluency and attention, were administered at baseline (N = 603) and 2 years later (N = 509). After literature review, 9 lifestyle factors and 3 SES indicators were chosen and their effects on cognitive change were evaluated using linear regression adjusting for age, sex, education, APOE ε4 status, and baseline cognitive score...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897633/genetics-of-alcohol-use-disorder-a-role-for-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
Iya Prytkova, Alison Goate, Ronald P Hart, Paul A Slesinger
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) affects millions of people and costs nearly 250 billion dollars annually. Few effective FDA-approved treatments exist, and more are needed. AUDs have a strong heritability, but only a few genes have been identified with a large effect size on disease phenotype. Genome wide association studies (GWASs) have identified common variants with low effect sizes, most of which are in non-coding regions of the genome. Animal models frequently fail to recapitulate key molecular features of neuropsychiatric disease due to the polygenic nature of the disease, partial conservation of coding regions, and significant disparity in non-coding regions...
June 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896124/-immune-gate-of-psychopathology-the-role-of-gut-derived-immune-activation-in-major-psychiatric-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Leszek Rudzki, Agata Szulc
Interaction between the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and brain functions has recently become a topic of growing interest in psychiatric research. These multidirectional interactions take place in the so-called gut-brain axis or more precisely, the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The GI tract is the largest immune organ in the human body and is also the largest surface of contact with the external environment. Its functions and permeability are highly influenced by psychological stress, which are often a precipitating factor in the first episode, reoccurrence and/or deterioration of symptoms of psychiatric disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895517/detecting-recovery-problems-just-in-time-application-of-automated-linguistic-analysis-and-supervised-machine-learning-to-an-online-substance-abuse-forum
#20
Rachel Kornfield, Prathusha K Sarma, Dhavan V Shah, Fiona McTavish, Gina Landucci, Klaren Pe-Romashko, David H Gustafson
BACKGROUND: Online discussion forums allow those in addiction recovery to seek help through text-based messages, including when facing triggers to drink or use drugs. Trained staff (or "moderators") may participate within these forums to offer guidance and support when participants are struggling but must expend considerable effort to continually review new content. Demands on moderators limit the scalability of evidence-based digital health interventions. OBJECTIVE: Automated identification of recovery problems could allow moderators to engage in more timely and efficient ways with participants who are struggling...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
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