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Alcohol review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677411/shift-in-drug-vs-alcohol-prevalence-in-milwaukee-county-motor-vehicle-decedents-2010-2016
#1
Kiran A Faryar Faryarka Ucmail Uc Edu, Sara A Kohlbeck, Sara J Schreiber
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of alcohol and nonalcohol drugs in motor vehicle crash (MVC) decedents in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin. METHODS: A retrospective review of MVC decedents in Milwaukee County from 2010 to 2016 was performed. Substances were divided into 5 categories based on chemical composition and clinical effects: alcohol, cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine, opioids, cannabinoids, amphetamines and methamphetamines...
March 2018: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677169/-dentromers-a-family-of-super-dendrimers-with-specific-properties-and-applications
#2
REVIEW
Didier Astruc, Christophe Deraedt, Rodrigue Djeda, Catia Ornelas, Xiang Liu, Amalia Rapakousiou, Jaime Ruiz, Yanlan Wang, Qi Wang
Dentromer s (from dentro, δεντρο: tree in Greek), and meros (μεροσ, in greek: part) are introduced as a family of dendrimers constructed according to successive divergent 1 → 3 branching. The smaller dentromers have 27 terminal branches. With alcohol termini they were originally named arborols by Newkome, who pioneered 1 → 3 constructions of dendrimers and dendrons. Giant dentromers have been constructed and decorated in particular with ferrocene and other redox active groups...
April 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676626/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-herbicide-exposure-in-vietnam-era-u-s-army-chemical-corps-veterans
#3
Yasmin Cypel, Stella E Hines, Victoria J Davey, Stephanie M Eber, Aaron I Schneiderman
RATIONALE: Past research demonstrates a possible association between herbicide exposure and respiratory health. Biologic plausibility and inhalation as a mode of exposure further support the contention that herbicides may act as adverse contributors to respiratory status, especially in military personnel who were responsible for chemical maintenance and distribution during the Vietnam War. OBJECTIVES: This study examines the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and herbicide exposure among Vietnam-era U...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675863/effectiveness-of-lockouts-in-reducing-alcohol-related-harm-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Smriti Nepal, Kypros Kypri, Kirrilly Pursey, John Attia, Tanya Chikritzhs, Peter Miller
ISSUES: Australian jurisdictions have introduced lockouts to prevent alcohol-related violence. Lockouts prohibit patrons from entering licensed premises after a designated time while allowing sale and consumption of alcohol to continue. Their purposes include managing the movement of intoxicated patrons, and preventing violence and disorder by dispersing times that patrons leave premises. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of lockouts in preventing alcohol-related harm. APPROACH: We systematically searched electronic databases and reference lists and asked authors to identify relevant studies published to 1 June 2017...
April 19, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675583/do-alcohol-related-ampa-type-glutamate-receptor-adaptations-promote-intake
#5
F Woodward Hopf, Regina A Mangieri
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA, NMDA, and kainate receptors) play a central role in excitatory glutamatergic signaling throughout the brain. As a result, functional changes, especially long-lasting forms of plasticity, have the potential to profoundly alter neuronal function and the expression of adaptive and pathological behaviors. Thus, alcohol-related adaptations in ionotropic glutamate receptors are of great interest, since they could promote excessive alcohol consumption, even after long-term abstinence...
April 20, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675581/cross-species-alterations-in-synaptic-dopamine-regulation-after-chronic-alcohol-exposure
#6
Cody A Siciliano, Anushree N Karkhanis, Katherine M Holleran, James R Melchior, Sara R Jones
Alcohol use disorders are a leading public health concern, engendering enormous costs in terms of both economic loss and human suffering. These disorders are characterized by compulsive and excessive alcohol use, as well as negative affect and alcohol craving during abstinence. Extensive research has implicated the dopamine system in both the acute pharmacological effects of alcohol and the symptomology of alcohol use disorders that develop after extended alcohol use. Preclinical research has shed light on many mechanisms by which chronic alcohol exposure dysregulates the dopamine system...
April 20, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675189/sp-3-c-h-activation-via-exo-type-directing-groups
#7
REVIEW
Yan Xu, Guangbin Dong
The application of exo -type directing groups (DGs) has led to the discovery of a wide range of novel C(sp3 )-H activation methods, which allow efficient and site-selective functionalization of alcohol and amide derivatives. In this mini-review we discuss the challenges of this field and summarize the achievements, including DG designs, reaction discoveries and mechanistic studies.
February 14, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673873/before-the-beginning-nutrition-and-lifestyle-in-the-preconception-period-and-its-importance-for-future-health
#8
REVIEW
Judith Stephenson, Nicola Heslehurst, Jennifer Hall, Danielle A J M Schoenaker, Jayne Hutchinson, Janet E Cade, Lucilla Poston, Geraldine Barrett, Sarah R Crozier, Mary Barker, Kalyanaraman Kumaran, Chittaranjan S Yajnik, Janis Baird, Gita D Mishra
A woman who is healthy at the time of conception is more likely to have a successful pregnancy and a healthy child. We reviewed published evidence and present new data from low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries on the timing and importance of preconception health for subsequent maternal and child health. We describe the extent to which pregnancy is planned, and whether planning is linked to preconception health behaviours. Observational studies show strong links between health before pregnancy and maternal and child health outcomes, with consequences that can extend across generations, but awareness of these links is not widespread...
April 16, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673321/relationship-of-sarcopenia-with-steatohepatitis-and-advanced-liver-fibrosis-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-meta-analysis
#9
Rui Yu, Qiangwei Shi, Lei Liu, Lidong Chen
BACKGROUND: Several studies have emerged indicating that sarcopenia is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, we aimed to systematically review and quantify the association between sacropenia and the histological severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: Pubmed, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE were searched (until August 2017) for studies examining the relationship of sarcopenia with steatohepatitis and advanced liver fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...
April 19, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673272/critical-issues-in-men-s-mental-health
#10
Dan Bilsker, Andrea S Fogarty, Matthew A Wakefield
This narrative review highlights key issues in men's mental health and identifies approaches to research, policy and practice that respond to men's styles of coping. Issues discussed are: 1) the high incidence of male suicide (80% of suicide deaths in Canada, with a peak in the mid-50 s age group) accompanied by low public awareness; 2) the perplexing nature of male depression, manifesting in forms that are poorly recognised by current diagnostic approaches and thus poorly treated; 3) the risky use of alcohol among men, again common and taking a huge toll on mental and physical health; 4) the characteristic ways in which men manage psychological suffering, the coping strengths to be recognised, and the gaps to be addressed; 5) the underutilization of mental health services by men, and the implication for clinical outcomes; and 6) male-specific approaches to service provision designed to improve men's accessing of care, with an emphasis on Canadian programs...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673266/level-of-agreement-between-medical-record-and-icd-10-am-coding-of-mental-health-alcohol-and-drug-conditions-in-trauma-patients
#11
Tu Q Nguyen, Pamela M Simpson, Sandra C Braaf, Peter A Cameron, Rodney Judson, Belinda J Gabbe
BACKGROUND: Despite the reliance on administrative data in epidemiological studies, there is little information on the completeness of co-morbidities in administrative data coded from medical records. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify the agreement between the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) administrative coding of mental health, drug and alcohol co-morbidities and medical records in a severely injured patient population...
January 1, 2018: Health Information Management: Journal of the Health Information Management Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673146/predictors-of-response-to-ketamine-in-treatment-resistant-major-depressive-disorder-and-bipolar-disorder
#12
Carola Rong, Caroline Park, Joshua D Rosenblat, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Hannah Zuckerman, Dominika Fus, Yena L Lee, Zihang Pan, Elisa Brietzke, Rodrigo B Mansur, Danielle S Cha, Leanna M W Lui, Roger S McIntyre
OBJECTIVES: Extant evidence indicates that ketamine exerts rapid antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressive (TRD) symptoms as a part of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). The identification of depressed sub-populations that are more likely to benefit from ketamine treatment remains a priority. In keeping with this view, the present narrative review aims to identify the pretreatment predictors of response to ketamine in TRD as part of MDD and BD. METHOD: Electronic search engines PubMed/MEDLINE, ClinicalTrials...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672879/increased-left-atrial-size-is-associated-with-higher-atrial-fibrillation-recurrence-in-patients-treated-with-anti-arrhythmic-medications
#13
Saarang Mulukutla, Andrew D Althouse, Sandeep K Jain, Samir Saba
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is highly prevalent and antiarrhythmic therapy is often used to help with rhythm control. Some common echocardiographic parameters may be useful in predicting AF recurrence among these patients. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between three common echocardiographic parameters [left atrial (LA) size, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and mitral regurgitation (MR)] and AF recurrence among patients treated with anti-arrhythmic medications...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672868/fetal-cerebral-circulation-as-target-of-maternal-alcohol-consumption
#14
Anna N Bukiya, Alex M Dopico
Alcohol (ethanol) is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances worldwide. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy may result in a wide range of morphological and neurodevelopmental abnormalities termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), with the most severe cases diagnosed as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). FAS and FASD are not readily curable and currently represent the leading preventable causes of birth defect and neurodevelopmental delay in the US. The etiology of FAS/FASD remains poorly understood...
April 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672859/applying-a-developmental-framework-to-the-self-regulatory-difficulties-of-young-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-a-review
#15
Natasha Reid, Christie L M Petrenko
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can be associated with significant difficulties in self-regulatory abilities. As such, interventions have been developed that focus on improving varying aspects of self-regulation for this population. The application of a multi-level theoretical framework that describes the development of self-regulation during early childhood could further advance the field. First, this framework could assist in elucidating mechanisms in the trajectories of early adjustment problems in this population and second, informing the development of more precise assessment and interventions for those affected by PAE...
April 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672754/comorbidity-clusters-in-people-with-gout-an-observational-cohort-study-with-linked-medical-record-review
#16
Megan Bevis, Milisa Blagojevic-Bucknall, Christian Mallen, Samantha Hider, Edward Roddy
Objective: To investigate how comorbid conditions cluster in patients with gout in a UK primary care population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using baseline data from a primary-care-based prospective observational cohort of people aged ⩾18 years with gout. Participants with gout were identified through primary care medical records. Factor analysis was performed to obtain distinct clusters of comorbidity variables including obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, coronary heart disease, heart failure, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cancer...
April 17, 2018: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672561/rich-table-but-short-life-diffuse-idiopathic-skeletal-hyperostosis-in-danish-astronomer-tycho-brahe-1546-1601-and-its-possible-consequences
#17
Sacha Kacki, Petr Velemínský, Niels Lynnerup, Sylva Kaupová, Alizé Lacoste Jeanson, Ctibor Povýšil, Martin Horák, Jan Kučera, Kaare Lund Rasmussen, Jaroslav Podliska, Zdeněk Dragoun, Jiří Smolík, Jens Vellev, Jaroslav Brůžek
The exhumation of Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was performed in 2010 to verify speculative views on the cause of his death. Previous analyses of skeletal and hair remains recovered from his grave refuted the presumption that he died from poisoning. These studies also outlined the possibility that he actually died from an acute illness, echoing the rather vague and inaccurate testimony of some historical records. We performed a detailed paleopathological analysis of Tycho Brahe's skeletal remains, along with a reconstruction of his diet based on carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes analysis and an estimate of his physical status (relative body fat) based on medullar and cortical dimensions of the femoral shaft...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672146/childcare-providers-possession-or-use-of-marijuana-tobacco-or-alcohol-while-caring-for-children-a-comparison-of-us-state-regulations
#18
Elyse R Grossman, Sarah Gonzalez-Nahm, Natasha Frost, Sara E Benjamin-Neelon
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate US state regulations regarding marijuana, tobacco, and alcohol to determine the extent to which states attempt to govern these substances in early care and education (ECE) settings. METHODS: Two independent reviewers assessed regulations enacted by December 2016 for all states and the District of Columbia. Reviewers compared regulations to national standards on the possession or use of marijuana, tobacco, and alcohol in ECE settings. RESULTS: Fewer states regulated marijuana than tobacco or alcohol in ECE settings...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671666/psychiatric-admission-during-pregnancy-in-women-with-schizophrenia-who-attended-a-specialist-antenatal-clinic
#19
Elly Lorraine Harris, Jacqueline Frayne, Suzanna Allen, Kanni Renganathan, Thinh Ngoc Nguyen
OBJECTIVES: The mental health and wellbeing of pregnant women with schizophrenia is an area of research interest. We aim to explore this relationship particularly in regards to psychiatric admission rates, timing and their associated contributing factors. METHODS: A total of 98 pregnancies to women with schizophrenia, who attended a specialist antenatal clinic and delivered from July 2007 to February 2016, were retrospectively examined. The cohort was divided into two groups based on psychiatric admission...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671204/nafld-and-hiv-do-sex-race-and-ethnicity-explain-hiv-related-risk
#20
REVIEW
Subada Soti, Kathleen E Corey, Jordan E Lake, Kristine M Erlandson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we review the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the general population, discuss HIV-specific differences in NAFLD pathogenesis, and summarize what is known regarding differences in NAFLD by race/ethnicity and sex. RECENT FINDINGS: The reported prevalence of NAFLD among people living with HIV varies by age, body mass index, comorbidity, and method of NAFLD diagnosis, but is generally thought to be greater among HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected populations...
April 18, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
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