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Alcohol review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231052/review-the-role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-in-the-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
Xin Sun, Yan Zhang, Meilin Xie
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been defined as a spectrum of histological abnormalities and is characterized by significant and excessive accumulation of triglycerides in the hepatocytes in patients without alcohol consumption or other diseases. Current studies are targeting new molecular mechanisms that underlie NAFLD and associated metabolic disorders. Many therapeutic targets have been found and used in clinical studies. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are among the potential targets and have been demonstrated to exert a pivotal role in modulation of NAFLD...
March 1, 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228850/silyl-protective-groups-influencing-the-reactivity-and-selectivity-in-glycosylations
#2
REVIEW
Mikael Bols, Christian Marcus Pedersen
Silyl groups such as TBDPS, TBDMS, TIPS or TMS are well-known and widely used alcohol protective groups in organic chemistry. Cyclic silylene protective groups are also becoming increasingly popular. In carbohydrate chemistry silyl protective groups have frequently been used primarily as an orthogonal protective group to the more commonly used acyl and benzyl protective groups. However, silyl protective groups have significantly different electronic and steric requirements than acyl and alkyl protective groups, which particularly becomes important when two or more neighboring alcohols are silyl protected...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228053/hiv-related-pneumococcal-disease-prevention-in-adults
#3
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson, Theresa Rossouw
HIV-infected persons are particularly susceptible to the development of severe pneumococcal disease, even in the setting of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), due to slow, incomplete recovery of anti-pneumococcal host defenses. This risk is increased by avoidable aspects of lifestyle, particularly smoking, which intensify immunosuppression. Clearly, more effective preventive measures are needed to counter this threat. Areas covered: This is a detailed review of the published literature focusing on currently available strategies for prevention of pneumococcal infection in HIV-infected patients, including cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, cART, pneumococcal vaccination, and smoking cessation strategies...
March 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225048/thiamine-deficiency-oxidative-metabolic-pathways-and-ethanol-induced-neurotoxicity-how-poor-nutrition-contributes-to-the-alcoholic-syndrome-as-marchiafava-bignami-disease
#4
REVIEW
L M P Fernandes, F R Bezerra, M C Monteiro, M L Silva, F R de Oliveira, R R Lima, E A Fontes-Júnior, C S F Maia
Ethanol is an important risk factor for the occurrence of several brain disorders that depend on the amount, period and frequency of its consumption. Chronic use of ethanol often leads to the development of neurodegenerative syndromes, which cause morphological and functional impairments such as foetal alcohol syndrome in newborns exposed to ethanol during pregnancy, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome and, more rarely, Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD). MBD is characterized by primary degeneration of the corpus callosum, without inflammation and is associated with oxidative stress and hypovitaminosis, as well as altered mental status, to mention dementia, seizures, depression and so on...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224633/gluteal-compartment-syndrome-with-neurologic-impairment-report-of-two-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Greg D Kuhlman, Kelly G Gwathmey
INTRODUCTION: We describe two patients who developed gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) in the context of drug overdose. One patient developed a sciatic neuropathy and one patient a lumbosacral plexopathy. METHODS: We reviewed the literature of atraumatic GCS and resultant neurological impairment. RESULTS: We review 26 cases (our two and 24 previously published) of GCS and neurological impairment. All patients developed GCS in the context of drug or alcohol overdose...
February 22, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224373/drug-induced-liver-injury-in-the-setting-of-glycogenic-hepatopathy
#6
Valmiki Maharaj, Matthew Fitz, Xianzdong Ding
Glycogenic hepatopathy (GH) is an underdiagnosed complication of uncontrolled type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). It appears as an acute relapsing hepatitis with reversible transaminase elevations secondary to excessive hepatic glycogen accumulation. Patients are often asymptomatic but can present with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Physical examination shows hepatomegaly without splenomegaly. GH is diagnosed by biopsy as it is clinically indistinguishable from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a more common cause of hepatic dysfunction in diabetics...
February 21, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223818/an-evidence-based-review-on-urate-lowering-treatments-implications-for-optimal-treatment-of-chronic-hyperuricemia
#7
REVIEW
Marilisa Bove, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe Cicero, Maddalena Veronesi, Claudio Borghi
Several studies suggest that chronic hyperuricemia, the main precursor of gout, is involved in the pathogenesis of different systemic disorders that affect cardiovascular and renal systems, such as hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, chronic heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Recent epidemiological evidence has shown an increasing trend in the prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout in the Western world: a number of population-based studies estimate a prevalence of up to 21% for hyperuricemia and 1%-4% for gout...
2017: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223752/a-case-of-terra-firma-forme-dermatosis-treated-with-salicylic-acid-alcohol-peeling
#8
Sin Wook Chun, Suk Young Lee, Jong Baik Kim, Hoo Min Choi, Byung In Ro, Han Kyoung Cho
Terra firma-forme dermatosis (TFFD) is a bizarre, acquired and idiopathic dermatosis that etiology has still not been fully defined. It is characterized by the presence of asymptomatic, brownish dirt-like lesion maybe due to disorder of keratinization. These lesions cannot be removed with ordinary cleansing. Therefore, TFFD can be differentiated from dermatosis neglecta. Patient was a 17-year-old man with brownish lesions on his face for 1 month. The patient had a history of regular washing habit with soap and water...
February 2017: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223720/is-endoscopic-ultrasound-examination-necessary-in-the-management-of-esophageal-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Tomas DaVee, Jaffer A Ajani, Jeffrey H Lee
Despite substantial efforts at early diagnosis, accurate staging and advanced treatments, esophageal cancer (EC) continues to be an ominous disease worldwide. Risk factors for esophageal carcinomas include obesity, gastroesophageal reflux disease, hard-alcohol use and tobacco smoking. Five-year survival rates have improved from 5% to 20% since the 1970s, the result of advances in diagnostic staging and treatment. As the most sensitive test for locoregional staging of EC, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) influences the development of an optimal oncologic treatment plan for a significant minority of patients with early cancers, which appropriately balances the risks and benefits of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223234/advanced-glycation-end-products-produced-systemically-and-by-macrophages-a-common-contributor-to-inflammation-and-degenerative-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Kyunghee Byun, YongCheol Yoo, Myeongjoo Son, Jaesuk Lee, Goo-Bo Jeong, Young Mok Park, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh, Bonghee Lee
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor have been implicated in the progressions of many intractable diseases, such as diabetes and atherosclerosis, and are also critical for pathologic changes in chronic degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and alcoholic brain damage. Recently activated macrophages were found to be a source of AGEs, and the most abundant form of AGEs, AGE-albumin excreted by macrophages has been implicated in these diseases and to act through common pathways...
February 13, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223098/cannabis-and-alcohol-use-and-the-developing-brain
#11
REVIEW
A D Meruelo, N Castro, C I Cota, S F Tapert
Sex hormones and white (and grey) matter in the limbic system, cortex and other brain regions undergo changes during adolescence. Some of these changes include ongoing white matter myelination and sexually dimorphic features in grey and white matter. Adolescence is also a period of vulnerability when many are first exposed to alcohol and cannabis, which appear to influence the developing brain. Neuropsychological studies have provided considerable understanding of the effects of alcohol and cannabis on the brain...
February 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220762/drug-detection-in-breath-non-invasive-assessment-of-illicit-or-pharmaceutical-drugs
#12
Phillip Trefz, Svend Kamysek, Patricia Fuchs, Pritam Sukul, Jochen Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch
Breath analysis not only holds great potential for the development of new non-invasive diagnostic methods, but also for the identification and follow up of drug levels in breath. This is of interest for both, forensic and medical science. On the one hand, the detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath - similar to the well-known breath alcohol tests - would be highly desirable as an alternative to blood or urine analysis in situations such as police controls for drugged driving. The noninvasive detection of drugs and their metabolites is thus of great interest in forensic science, especially since marijuana is becoming legalized in certain parts of the U...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220742/calcific-uraemic-arteriolopathy-calciphylaxis-in-patients-on-renal-replacement-therapy
#13
S Sebastian, H F Jordaan, J W Schneider, M R Moosa, M R Davids
BACKGROUND: Calcific uraemic arteriolopathy (calciphylaxis) is an unusual and potentially fatal condition characterised by small-vessel calcification and ischaemic skin necrosis. It mainly affects patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on haemodialysis, but may rarely occur in the absence of ESRD in conditions such as primary hyperparathyroidism, malignancy, alcoholic liver disease and connective tissue disease. METHODS: We reviewed the records of all patients diagnosed with calciphylaxis while on renal replacement therapy at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, between 1990 and 2014, to describe its presentation, course and final outcome...
January 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220587/the-relationship-between-different-dimensions-of-alcohol-use-and-the-burden-of-disease-an-update
#14
REVIEW
Jürgen Rehm, Gerhard E Gmel, Gerrit Gmel, Omer S M Hasan, Sameer Imtiaz, Svetlana Popova, Charlotte Probst, Michael Roerecke, Robin Room, Andriy V Samokhvalov, Kevin D Shield, Paul A Shuper
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcohol use is a major contributor to injuries, mortality and the burden of disease. This review updates knowledge on risk relations between dimensions of alcohol use and health outcomes to be used in global and national Comparative Risk Assessments (CRAs). METHODS: Systematic review of reviews and meta-analyses on alcohol consumption and health outcomes attributable to alcohol use. For dimensions of exposure: volume of alcohol use, blood alcohol concentration and patterns of drinking, in particular heavy drinking occasions were studied...
February 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220511/review-article-pharmacotherapy-for-alcohol-dependence-the-why-the-what-and-the-wherefore
#15
REVIEW
E T Goh, M Y Morgan
BACKGROUND: The development of alcohol dependence is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. For the majority of affected people the most appropriate goal, in terms of drinking behaviour, is abstinence from alcohol. Psychosocial intervention is the mainstay of the treatment but adjuvant pharmacotherapy is also available and its use recommended. AIM: To provide an updated analysis of current and potential pharmacotherapeutic options for the management of alcohol dependence...
February 20, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218985/soft-palatal-melanosis-a-simple-predictor-for-neoplasia-in-the-upper-aerodigestive-tract-in-japanese-alcoholic-men
#16
Kenro Hirata, Akira Yokoyama, Rieko Nakamura, Tai Omori, Hirofumi Kawakubo, Takeshi Mizukami, Katsuya Maruyama, Takanori Kanai, Tetsuji Yokoyama
Soft palatal melanosis can be detected by visual inspection during routine physical examination or even personally in a mirror. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between squamous cell neoplasia in the upper aerodigestive tract (UAT) and the soft palatal melanosis. We reviewed digitalized records of high-quality endoscopic images of the soft palate of 1786 Japanese alcoholic men who underwent endoscopic screening. Soft palatal melanosis was observed in 381 (21.3%) of the subjects (distinct, 6...
February 20, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218773/risk-factors-for-birth-defects
#17
Benjamin S Harris, Katherine C Bishop, Hanna R Kemeny, Jennifer S Walker, Eleanor Rhee, Jeffrey A Kuller
Importance: Major congenital abnormalities, or birth defects, carry significant medical, surgical, cosmetic, or lifestyle consequences. Such abnormalities may be syndromic, involving multiple organ systems, or can be isolated. Overall, 2% to 4% of live births involve congenital abnormalities. Risk factors for birth defects are categorized as modifiable and nonmodifiable. Modifiable risk factors require thorough patient education/counseling. The strongest risk factors, such as age, family history, and a previously affected child, are usually nonmodifiable...
February 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217609/acute-pancreatitis-due-to-malaria-a-case-report-of-five-patients-and-review-of-literature
#18
Kundavaram Paul Prabhakar Abhilash, Atif Shaikh Iqbal Ahmed, Sowmya Sathyendra, Ooriapadickal Cherian Abraham
Malaria is endemic in large parts of India and can cause multiorgan failure and death. Acute pancreatitis as a complication is rare and is potentially fatal. This case series describes five adult patients between 2005 and 2010 who presented with a short duration febrile illness and diagnosed to have malaria with acute pancreatitis. The mean age of the five patients with acute pancreatitis was 40.4 years and four of them were males. None of them were alcohol consumers and did not have any other risk factor for acute pancreatitis...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217371/pathogenic-mechanisms-of-pancreatitis
#19
REVIEW
Murli Manohar, Alok Kumar Verma, Sathisha Upparahalli Venkateshaiah, Nathan L Sanders, Anil Mishra
Pancreatitis is inflammation of pancreas and caused by a number of factors including pancreatic duct obstruction, alcoholism, and mutation in the cationic trypsinogen gene. Pancreatitis is represented as acute pancreatitis with acute inflammatory responses and; chronic pancreatitis characterized by marked stroma formation with a high number of infiltrating granulocytes (such as neutrophils, eosinophils), monocytes, macrophages and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). These inflammatory cells are known to play a central role in initiating and promoting inflammation including pancreatic fibrosis, i...
February 6, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216719/diagnosis-and-management-of-chronic-pruritus-an-expert-consensus-review
#20
REVIEW
Murlidhar Rajagopalan, Abir Saraswat, Kiran Godse, D S Krupa Shankar, Sanjiv Kandhari, Shrutakirthi D Shenoi, Sushil Tahiliani, V Vijay Zawar
The aim of this study is to formulate the best clinical practice in the diagnosis and management of chronic pruritus (CP). We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and the WHO's regional databases, for studies on "Diagnosis and management of chronic pruritus" from January 1, 2014, to July 31, 2015. We included programmatic reports and hand-searched references of published reviews and articles. Two independent reviewers screened articles and extracted data. We screened 87 of 95 studies that contained qualitative data...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
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