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Szu Heng Liu, Shih Fang Huang, Yuan Ling Hsu, Szu Hua Pan, Yen Ju Chen, Yi Hung Lin
Collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP-1) is the first identified member of the CRMP family and is crucial for both the mediation of neuronal differentiation and in suppressing the invasion of lung cancer. The crystal structure of full-length human CRMP-1 was determined at a resolution of 3 Å. Human CRMP-1 comprises a tetrameric assembly; its overall structure is similar to that of mouse CRMP-1, but the measured electron density of the C-terminal residues 488-496 show a randomly coiled link that connects the protomers to each other, within which residues 497-572 are proteolytically susceptible in vivo...
August 2015: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
V Russo, F Di Meo, A Rago, A A Papa, A Molino, M Mosella, L Politano, M G Russo, G Nigro
OBJECTIVE: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1) is characterized by cardiac involvement, in about 80% of case, that predominantly affects the conduction system. Aim of our study was to evaluate the P-wave duration and dispersion (PD) in MD1 patients underwent pacemaker implantation with conserved systolic and diastolic function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 60 MD1 patients (age 51.3 ± 5 years; 11 females) underwent dual chamber pacemaker implantation for various grade of atrioventricular (AV) block...
April 2015: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Adelson Mota de Aguiar, Arilton Mota de Aguiar, Júlio de Araújo Gurgel, Celia Regina Maio Pinzan Vercelino, Etevaldo Matos Maia Filho, Matheus Coelho Bandeca, Rudys Rodolfo de Jesus Tavarez
This in vitro study evaluated the Influence of prestretching, in the force decay of orthodontic elastic chains, at three time intervals: 2, 7 and 30 days with the brands Morelli, Orthometric and American Orthodontics. In the experimental group, prestretching was performed, stretching the elastics to increase them by 50% of their original length three times in a quick and sequential mode. All of the elastic chains were kept stretched and stored in artificial saliva at 37°C until the time of force measurement...
July 2014: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
D Liu, N Wei, H-Y Man, Y Lu, L-Q Zhu, J-Z Wang
The MT2 receptor is a principal type of G protein-coupled receptor that mainly mediates the effects of melatonin. Deficits of melatonin/MT2 signaling have been found in many neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, suggesting that preservation of the MT2 receptor may be beneficial to these neurological disorders. However, direct evidence linking the MT2 receptor to cognition-related synaptic plasticity remains to be established. Here, we report that the MT2 receptor, but not the MT1 receptor, is essential for axonogenesis both in vitro and in vivo...
April 2015: Cell Death and Differentiation
W L Reis, V C Biancardi, S Son, J Antunes-Rodrigues, J E Stern
Nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are diffusible gas messengers in the brain. Previously, we have shown their independent involvement in central fluid/electrolyte homeostasis control. In the present study, we investigated a possible functional interaction between NO/CO in the regulation of vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) activity in euhydrated (EU) and dehydrated [48-h water-deprived (48WD)] rats. Using brain slices from EU and 48WD rats, we measured, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS, which synthesises NO) and haeme-oxygenase (HO-1, which synthesises CO) in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON)...
February 2015: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Emma E Vincent, Douglas J E Elder, Linda O'Flaherty, Olivier E Pardo, Piotr Dzien, Lois Phillips, Carys Morgan, Joya Pawade, Margaret T May, Muhammad Sohail, Martin R Hetzel, Michael J Seckl, Jeremy M Tavaré
BACKGROUND: Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is a central regulator of cellular metabolism, development and growth. GSK3 activity was thought to oppose tumourigenesis, yet recent studies indicate that it may support tumour growth in some cancer types including in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We examined the undefined role of GSK3 protein kinase activity in tissue from human NSCLC. METHODS: The expression and protein kinase activity of GSK3 was determined in 29 fresh frozen samples of human NSCLC and patient-matched normal lung tissue by quantitative immunoassay and western blotting for the phosphorylation of three distinct GSK3 substrates in situ (glycogen synthase, RelA and CRMP-2)...
2014: PloS One
Weiwei Xu, Yan Ge, Zhihong Liu, Rujun Gong
Reminiscent of neural repair, following podocyte depletion, remnant-surviving podocytes exhibit a considerable adaptive capacity to expand and cover the denuded renal glomerular basement membrane. Microtubules, one of the principal cytoskeletal components of podocyte major processes, play a crucial role in podocyte morphogenesis and podocyte process outgrowth, branching, and elongation. Here, we demonstrated that the microtubule-associated proteins Tau and collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP) 2, key regulators of microtubule dynamics, were abundantly expressed by glomerular podocytes in vivo and in vitro, interacted with glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3β, and served as its putative substrates...
January 16, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Wei Fang, Guodong Gao, Haikang Zhao, Yi Xia, Xiaodong Guo, Nan Li, Yuqian Li, Yang Yang, Lei Chen, Qiang Wang, Lihong Li
Parkinson׳s disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease of the basal ganglia. Earlier reports suggest that the main pathological change in PD is due to apoptosis of dopaminergic neuronal soma in the substantia nigra (SN). The therapies for PD are also largely focused on the prevention of degeneration of the neuronal soma. However, these treatments can only provide temporary relief by delaying the progression of the disease and are therefore unable to prevent the long term neurodegeneration process...
March 30, 2015: Brain Research
Meghan Morgan-Smith, Yaohong Wu, Xiaoqin Zhu, Julia Pringle, William D Snider
GSK-3 is an essential mediator of several signaling pathways that regulate cortical development. We therefore created conditional mouse mutants lacking both GSK-3α and GSK-3β in newly born cortical excitatory neurons. Gsk3-deleted neurons expressing upper layer markers exhibited striking migration failure in all areas of the cortex. Radial migration in hippocampus was similarly affected. In contrast, tangential migration was not grossly impaired after Gsk3 deletion in interneuron precursors. Gsk3-deleted neurons extended axons and developed dendritic arbors...
July 29, 2014: ELife
Márcia A Liz, Fernando M Mar, Telma E Santos, Helena I Pimentel, Ana M Marques, Marlene M Morgado, Sílvia Vieira, Vera F Sousa, Hayley Pemble, Torsten Wittmann, Calum Sutherland, James R Woodgett, Mónica M Sousa
BACKGROUND: In the adult central nervous system, axonal regeneration is abortive. Regulators of microtubule dynamics have emerged as attractive targets to promote axonal growth following injury as microtubule organization is pivotal for growth cone formation. In this study, we used conditioned neurons with high regenerative capacity to further dissect cytoskeletal mechanisms that might be involved in the gain of intrinsic axon growth capacity. RESULTS: Following a phospho-site broad signaling pathway screen, we found that in conditioned neurons with high regenerative capacity, decreased glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity and increased microtubule growth speed in the growth cone were present...
June 12, 2014: BMC Biology
Rajesh Ponnusamy, Andrey A Lebedev, Steffen Pahlow, Bernhard Lohkamp
Collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs) are cytosolic phosphoproteins that are mainly involved in neuronal cell development. In humans, the CRMP family comprises five members. Here, crystal structures of human CRMP-4 in a truncated and a full-length version are presented. The latter was determined from two types of crystals, which were either twinned or partially disordered. The crystal disorder was coupled with translational NCS in ordered domains and manifested itself with a rather sophisticated modulation of intensities...
June 2014: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Biological Crystallography
Cas Weykamp, Jos Wielders, Anders Helander, Raymond F Anton, Vincenza Bianchi, Jan-Olof Jeppsson, Carla Siebelder, John B Whitfield, François Schellenberg
BACKGROUND: The need for equivalent results of routine measurement procedures for the alcohol biomarker carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) has been recognized by the IFCC. This article describes a project to harmonize CDT as conducted by an IFCC working group initiated for this purpose. METHODS: We used procedures for achieving harmonization as developed by the Consortium for Harmonization of Clinical Laboratory Results to assess the suitability of a candidate reference measurement procedure (cRMP), candidate reference materials (cRMs), and the success of efforts to achieve harmonization...
July 2014: Clinical Chemistry
K Fukui, A Masuda, A Hosono, R Suwabe, K Yamashita, T Shinkai, S Urano
Vitamin E deficiency induces neuronal dysfunction and while oxidative stress is likely to be involved in mediating this process, the detailed mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Previously, we found axonal degeneration in the hippocampal CA1 region in vitamin E-deficient mice of 6 months of age (long-term). However, 3 month-old (short-term) vitamin E-deficient mice did not exhibit axonal degeneration in same region. In order to characterize the mechanisms involved in axonal degeneration in long-term vitamin E-deficient mice, we examined changes in microtubule-related proteins...
June 2014: Free Radical Research
Ciliu Zhang, Ahmed Galal Omran, Fang He, Xiaolu Deng, Lei Wu, Jing Peng, Fei Yin
Dynamin-1 is a multi-domain GTPase that is crucial for the fission stage of synaptic vesicle recycling and vesicle trafficking. In this study, we constructed prokaryotic expression plasmids for the four functional domains of dynamin-1, which are pGEX-4T-2-PH, pGEX-4T-2-PRD, pGEX-4T-2-GED and pGEX-4T-2-GTPase. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry were used to screen and identify dynamin-1 interacting proteins in rat brain synaptosomes...
January 16, 2014: Brain Research
Shadia E Nada, Jatin Tulsulkar, Zahoor A Shah
Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death and a major cause of disability in stroke survivors. Studies have underlined the importance of repair mechanisms in the recovery phase of stroke. Neurogenesis in response to brain injury is one of the regeneration processes that, if enhanced, may offer better stroke treatment alternatives. Previously, we have demonstrated antioxidant, neuritogenic, and angiogenic properties of Ginkgo biloba/EGb 761® (EGb 761) in different mouse models of stroke. In the present study, we were interested to study whether EGb 761 could protect mice from permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) and enhance neurogenesis...
April 2014: Molecular Neurobiology
G Fischer, B Pan, D Vilceanu, Q H Hogan, H Yu
The Ca(2+) channel-binding domain 3 (CBD3) peptide, derived from the collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2), is a recently discovered voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (VGCC) blocker with a preference for CaV2.2. Rodent administration of CBD3 conjugated to cell penetrating motif TAT (TAT-CBD3) has been shown to reduce pain behavior in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. However, TAT-CBD3 analgesia has limitations, including short half-life, lack of cellular specificity and undesired potential off-site effects...
January 2014: Gene Therapy
Masaru Yanagihashi, Kiyokazu Kawabe, Ken Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic antibodies (PAs) play a crucial role in the diagnostic approach of paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS). We clarified the frequency and the clinical profile of PA-positive non-carcinomatous patients with neurological involvements of unknown cause. METHODS: PAs were analyzed in sera of 222 consecutive non-carcinomatous patients (122 men and 100 women) defined as acute or subacute onset of unknown-causative symptoms involving the neuromuscular junction, the central and/or the peripheral nervous system between 2006 and 2009...
December 15, 2013: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Marie Morgan-Fisher, John R Couchman, Atsuko Yoneda
The Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II) are central regulators of important cellular processes such as migration and invasion downstream of the GTP-Rho. Recently, we reported collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP)-2 as an endogenous ROCK II inhibitor. To reveal how the CRMP-2-ROCK II interaction is controlled, we further mapped the ROCK II interaction site of CRMP-2 and examined whether phosphorylation states of CRMP-2 affected the interaction. Here, we show that an N-terminal fragment of the long CRMP-2 splice variant (CRMP-2L) alone binds ROCK II and inhibits colon carcinoma cell migration and invasion...
October 25, 2013: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Oliver J Jeffery, Vanda A Lennon, Sean J Pittock, Jeremy K Gregory, Jeffrey W Britton, Andrew McKeon
OBJECTIVE: Small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and limbic encephalitis are recognized γ-aminobutyric acid-B receptor (GABABR) autoantibody accompaniments. We sought to determine in a diagnostic serology laboratory the frequency and accompaniments (neurologic, oncologic, and serologic) of GABABR-immunoglobulin G (IgG). METHODS: We tested stored serum and CSF specimens from 3 patient groups for GABABR-IgG by indirect immunofluorescence on mouse brain tissue and transfected HEK293 cells...
September 3, 2013: Neurology
J J Dimatelis, D J Stein, V A Russell
Animals subjected to maternal separation display behavioural and endocrine disturbances, as well as structural and functional changes in the prefrontal cortex and limbic areas. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of maternal separation and treatment with either chronic constant light exposure or anti-depressant (escitalopram) on proteins in the prefrontal cortex. Four experimental groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to (1) normal rearing, (2) maternal separation (3 h per day from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P14), (3) maternal separation followed by chronic light exposure (P42-P63) or (4) maternal separation followed by treatment with the anti-depressant drug, escitalopram (P68-P100)...
November 2013: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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