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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933474/thinking-ethical-and-regulatory-frameworks-in-medicine-from-the-perspective-of-solidarity-on-both-sides-of-the-atlantic
#1
Barbara Prainsack, Alena Buyx
This article provides a concise overview of the history of scholarship on solidarity in Europe and North America. While recent decades have seen an increase in conceptual and scholarly interest in solidarity in North America and other parts of the Anglo-Saxon world, the concept is much more strongly anchored in Europe. Continental European politics in particular have given rise to two of the most influential traditions of solidarity, namely, socialism and Christian ethics. Solidarity has also guided important public instruments and institutions in Europe (e...
December 8, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933102/a-polysaccharide-utilization-locus-from-flavobacterium-johnsoniae-enables-conversion-of-recalcitrant-chitin
#2
Johan Larsbrink, Yongtao Zhu, Sampada S Kharade, Kurt J Kwiatkowski, Vincent G H Eijsink, Nicole M Koropatkin, Mark J McBride, Phillip B Pope
BACKGROUND: Chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide on earth and as such a great target for bioconversion applications. The phylum Bacteroidetes is one of nature's most ubiquitous bacterial lineages and is essential in the global carbon cycle with many members being highly efficient degraders of complex carbohydrates. However, despite their specialist reputation in carbohydrate conversion, mechanisms for degrading recalcitrant crystalline polysaccharides such as chitin and cellulose are hitherto unknown...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931820/evaluation-for-a-mutagenicity-of-aristolochic-acid-by-pig-a-and-pigret-assays-in-rats
#3
Naomi Koyama, Yutaka Yonezawa, Michi Nakamura, Hisakazu Sanada
The Pig-a assay, which uses the endogenous phosphatidylinositol glycan, class A gene (Pig-a) as a reporter of mutation, has been developed as a method for evaluating in vivo mutagenicity. Pig-a gene mutation can be detected by identifying the presence of CD59, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor protein, on the surface of erythrocytes (RBC Pig-a assay) and reticulocytes (PIGRET assay). The International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT) showed the usefulness of the RBC Pig-a assay through the evaluation of several compounds...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931816/red-blood-cell-pig-a-assay-and-pigret-assay-in-rats-with-azathioprine
#4
Ikuma Yoshida, Akemi Matsumoto, Yumi Sakai, Yumiko Harada, Tsuneo Hashizume
A new in vivo gene mutation assay has been developed based on the phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, Class A gene (Pig-a in rodents) as an endogenous reporter. Using this Pig-a assay, the in vivo mutagenicity of a single dose of azathioprine (Aza) was investigated in red blood cells (RBC Pig-a assay) and reticulocytes (PIGRET) of rats. Eight-week old male rats were orally dosed once with Aza at 50, 100 and 200mg/kg or ethylnitrosourea (ENU) at 10 and 40mg/kg as a positive control. Because 4 out of 6 animals at 200mg/kg of Aza died 3days after the dosing, this dose group was excluded for analyses...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931815/evaluation-of-mutagenicity-of-acrylamide-using-rbc-pig-a-and-pigret-assays-by-single-peroral-dose-in-rats
#5
Katsuyoshi Horibata, Akiko Ukai, Masamitsu Honma
The Pig-a gene mutation assay, a powerful tool for evaluating in vivo genotoxicity, is based on flow cytometric enumeration of red blood cells (RBCs), which are deficient in glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored proteins caused by mutation(s) in the Pig-a gene. Various approaches for measuring cells with mutated Pig-a gene have been developed. The Pig-a assay targeting concentrated reticulocytes - the PIGRET assay - has the potential to detect genotoxicity in early stages of the study. To verify the potential and usefulness of the PIGRET assay for short-term testing, we conducted a joint research with the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study (MMS) Group of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931814/pyrene-did-not-induce-gene-mutation-in-red-blood-cell-pig-a-assay-and-pigret-assay-in-rats
#6
Ikuma Yoshida, Akemi Matsumoto, Yumi Sakai, Yumiko Harada, Tsuneo Hashizume
A new in vivo gene mutation assay has been developed based on the phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, Class A gene (Pig-a in rodents) as an endogenous reporter. Although a large number of chemicals have been evaluated in the rat Pig-a assay in 28-day repeat dose regimens, there was limited reporting of rat Pig-a assay after a single dose. A collaborative study by the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study group, which is a subgroup of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society, was conducted to verify the usefulness of the rat Pig-a assay after a single dose as a short-term genotoxicity test...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931810/evaluation-of-in-vivo-gene-mutation-with-etoposide-using-pig-a-and-pigret-assays
#7
Mika Yamamoto, Akihiro Wakata
The Pig-a assay detects the expression of the endogenous phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class A gene (Pig-a) as a reporter of mutations and shows promise for detecting mutations in vivo. This assay requires two to four weeks to detect mutations in erythrocytes after animals are administered a single dose of test compound. In contrast, the more recently developed PIGRET assay using reticulocytes detects mutation sensitively one week after dosing, which is an advantage for conducting short-term genotoxicity studies in vivo...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931745/histone-acetylation-regulates-chromatin-accessibility-role-of-h4k16-in-inter-nucleosome-interaction
#8
Ruihan Zhang, Jochen Erler, Jörg Langowski
The N-terminal tail of histone H4 is an indispensable mediator for inter-nucleosome interaction, which is required for chromatin fiber condensation. H4K16 acetylation (H4K16Ac) activates gene transcription by influencing both chromatin structure and interplay with nonhistone proteins. To understand the influence of H4K16Ac on inter-nucleosome interaction, we performed a simulation study for the H4 tail in the context of two nucleosomes in neighboring unit cells in the crystal structure. The binding conformation of H4 tail with/without K16Ac was sampled by replica exchange with solute tempering, and the free energy landscape was explored by metadynamics...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930877/short-term-results-from-seventy-six-patients-receiving-a-bone-anchored-hearing-implant-installed-with-a-novel-minimally-invasive-surgery-technique
#9
M L Johansson, R J Stokroos, R Banga, M K Hol, E A Mylanus, H Savage Jones, J R Tysome, P Vannucchi, J R Hof, J W Brunings, J van Tongeren, R W Lutgert, A Banerjee, J P Windfuhr, A Caruso, A L Giannuzzi, S Bordin, J Hanif, N Schart-Morén, S Singam, S Jonhede, M Holmberg, C W Cremers, M Hultcrantz
The surgical installation of bone anchored hearing systems (BAHS) has after decades finally undergone changes towards more minimally invasive techniques without soft tissue thinning. Some surgeons are also performing the surgery and installation, using the classical drilling system, through a single punch entry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 8, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930605/health-communication-and-the-hiv-continuum-of-care
#10
Sten H Vermund, Elizabeth C Mallalieu, Lynn M Van Lith, Helen E Struthers
Health communication is a broad term that applies to the fundamental need for practitioners, policy makers, patients, and community members to understand one another around health promotion and health care issues. Whether in a consultation between nurse and patient, a health clinic director's engagement with the health ministry, or a community campaign for encouraging HIV testing, all have critical health communication elements. When people's needs are not perceived by them to be addressed or clients/patients do not understand what is being communicated, they are unmotivated to engage...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929453/a-self-adaptive-model-based-wi-fi-indoor-localization-method
#11
Jure Tuta, Matjaz B Juric
This paper presents a novel method for indoor localization, developed with the main aim of making it useful for real-world deployments. Many indoor localization methods exist, yet they have several disadvantages in real-world deployments-some are static, which is not suitable for long-term usage; some require costly human recalibration procedures; and others require special hardware such as Wi-Fi anchors and transponders. Our method is self-calibrating and self-adaptive thus maintenance free and based on Wi-Fi only...
December 6, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929192/elucidating-the-influence-of-materials-binding-peptide-sequence-on-au-surface-interactions-and-colloidal-stability-of-au-nanoparticles
#12
Zak E Hughes, Michelle A Nguyen, Yue Li, Mark T Swihart, Tiffany R Walsh, Marc R Knecht
Peptide-mediated synthesis and assembly of nanostructures opens new routes to functional inorganic/organic hybrid materials. However, understanding of the many factors that influence the interaction of biomolecules, specifically peptides, with metal surfaces remains limited. Understanding of the relationship between peptide sequence and resulting binding affinity and configurations would allow predictive design of peptides to achieve desired peptide/metal interface characteristics. Here, we measured the kinetics and thermodynamics of binding on a Au surface for a series of peptide sequences designed to probe specific sequence and context effects...
December 8, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929127/lipid-modified-g4-decoy-oligonucleotide-anchored-to-nanoparticles-delivery-and-bioactivity-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#13
S Cogoi, U Jakobsen, E B Pedersen, S Vogel, L E Xodo
KRAS is mutated in >90% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. As its inactivation leads to tumour regression, mutant KRAS is considered an attractive target for anticancer drugs. In this study we report a new delivery strategy for a G4-decoy oligonucleotide that sequesters MAZ, a transcription factor essential for KRAS transcription. It is based on the use of palmitoyl-oleyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) liposomes functionalized with lipid-modified G4-decoy oligonucleotides and a lipid-modified cell penetrating TAT peptide...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929089/engineering-the-magnetic-coupling-and-anisotropy-at-the-molecule-magnetic-surface-interface-in-molecular-spintronic-devices
#14
Victoria E Campbell, Monica Tonelli, Irene Cimatti, Jean-Baptiste Moussy, Ludovic Tortech, Yannick J Dappe, Eric Rivière, Régis Guillot, Sophie Delprat, Richard Mattana, Pierre Seneor, Philippe Ohresser, Fadi Choueikani, Edwige Otero, Florian Koprowiak, Vijay Gopal Chilkuri, Nicolas Suaud, Nathalie Guihéry, Anouk Galtayries, Frederic Miserque, Marie-Anne Arrio, Philippe Sainctavit, Talal Mallah
A challenge in molecular spintronics is to control the magnetic coupling between magnetic molecules and magnetic electrodes to build efficient devices. Here we show that the nature of the magnetic ion of anchored metal complexes highly impacts the exchange coupling of the molecules with magnetic substrates. Surface anchoring alters the magnetic anisotropy of the cobalt(II)-containing complex (Co(Pyipa)2), and results in blocking of its magnetization due to the presence of a magnetic hysteresis loop. In contrast, no hysteresis loop is observed in the isostructural nickel(II)-containing complex (Ni(Pyipa)2)...
December 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927990/rft1-affects-gpi-anchor-glycosylation
#15
Petra Gottier, Amaia Gonzalez-Salgado, Anant K Menon, Yuk-Chien Liu, Alvaro Acosta-Serrano, Peter Bütikofer
The membrane protein RFT1 is essential for normal protein N‑glycosylation, but its precise function is not known. RFT1 was originally proposed to translocate the glycolipid Man5GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol (needed to synthesize N-glycan precursors) across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, but subsequent studies showed that it does not play a direct role in transport. In contrast to the situation in yeast, RFT1 is not essential for growth of the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei, enabling the study of its function in a null background...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927616/safety-of-hip-anchor-insertion-from-the-midanterior-and-distal-anterolateral-portals-with-a-straight-drill-guide-a-cadaveric-study
#16
Ryan M Degen, Lazaros Poultsides, Stephanie W Mayer, Angela E Li, Struan H Coleman, Anil S Ranawat, Danyal H Nawabi, Bryan T Kelly
BACKGROUND: During arthroscopic labral refixation, suture anchors are typically inserted from either the midanterior (MA) portal or the distal anterolateral (DALA) portal; however, no studies have previously compared these techniques. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to compare acetabular rim accessibility and associated complication rates of anchor insertion from these portals. We hypothesized that rim access would be better from the DALA portal...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927505/outcomes-of-pelvic-fixation-in-growing-rod-constructs-an-analysis-of-patients-with-a-minimum-of-4-years-of-follow-up
#17
Jaysson T Brooks, Amit Jain, Francisco Sanchez-Perez-Grueso, David L Skaggs, George H Thompson, Behrooz A Akbarnia, Paul D Sponseller
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate which distal anchors in growing rod (GR) constructs optimally correct major curve, pelvic obliquity, sagittal alignment, T1-S1 length, thoracic kyphosis, and lumbar lordosis with the fewest complications at 4 or more years' postoperative follow-up. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Pelvic fixation to the ilium and/or sacrum in GR constructs is used to treat patients with early-onset scoliosis...
May 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927495/the-substantial-clinical-benefit-threshold-for-srs-22r-domains-after-surgical-treatment-of-adult-spinal-deformity
#18
Charles H Crawford, Steven D Glassman, Keith H Bridwell, Leah Y Carreon
STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort. OBJECTIVES: To determine Substantial Clinical Benefit (SCB) thresholds for the SRS22R domains in patients undergoing adult spinal deformity surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The Scoliosis Research Society 22R (SRS22R) has been shown to be reliable, valid, and responsive to change in adult spinal deformity patients. Although the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) is commonly used to quantify a threshold of improvement, it could be considered a floor value rather than a goal...
September 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927196/the-topology-structure-and-pe-interaction-of-litaf-underpin-a-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-type-1c
#19
Anita K Ho, Jane L Wagstaff, Paul T Manna, Lena Wartosch, Seema Qamar, Elspeth F Garman, Stefan M V Freund, Rhys C Roberts
BACKGROUND: Mutations in Lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor-α factor (LITAF) cause the autosomal dominant inherited peripheral neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1C (CMT1C). LITAF encodes a 17 kDa protein containing an N-terminal proline-rich region followed by an evolutionarily-conserved C-terminal 'LITAF domain', which contains all reported CMT1C-associated pathogenic mutations. RESULTS: Here, we report the first structural characterisation of LITAF using biochemical, cell biological, biophysical and NMR spectroscopic approaches...
December 7, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927165/innate-immunity-based-cancer-immunotherapy-b16-f10-murine-melanoma-model
#20
Veronika Caisová, Andra Vieru, Zuzana Kumžáková, Simona Glaserová, Hana Husníková, Nikol Vácová, Gabriela Krejčová, Lucie Paďouková, Ivana Jochmanová, Katherine I Wolf, Jindřich Chmelař, Jan Kopecký, Jan Ženka
BACKGROUND: Using killed microorganisms or their parts to stimulate immunity for cancer treatment dates back to the end of 19(th) century. Since then, it undergone considerable development. Our novel approach binds ligands to the tumor cell surface, which stimulates tumor phagocytosis. The therapeutic effect is further amplified by simultaneous application of agonists of Toll-like receptors. We searched for ligands that induce both a strong therapeutic effect and are safe for humans. METHODS: B16-F10 murine melanoma model was used...
December 7, 2016: BMC Cancer
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