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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330827/profiling-online-poker-players-are-executive-functions-correlated-with-poker-ability-and-problem-gambling
#1
Mauro Schiavella, Matteo Pelagatti, Jerker Westin, Gabriele Lepore, Paolo Cherubini
Poker playing and responsible gambling both entail the use of the executive functions (EF), which are higher-level cognitive abilities. This study investigated if online poker players of different ability showed different performances in their EF and if so, which functions were the most discriminating for their playing ability. Furthermore, it assessed if the EF performance was correlated to the quality of gambling, according to self-reported questionnaires (PGSI, SOGS, GRCS). Three poker experts evaluated anonymized poker hand history files and, then, a trained professional administered an extensive neuropsychological test battery...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330442/competition-among-the-attentional-networks-due-to-resource-reduction-in-tibetan-indigenous-residents-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#2
Delong Zhang, Xinjuan Zhang, Hailin Ma, Yan Wang, Huifang Ma, Ming Liu
This study used the attention network test (ANT) to evaluate the alerting, orienting, and executive network efficiencies of attention related to indigenous residents who were born and raised until early adulthood in different high-altitude areas (2900-m, 3700-m, and 4200-m) at the same location (3700-m) where these residents had been living for approximately 2 years in Tibet. We further applied the event-related potential (ERP) method to identify the underlying neurophysiological basis. Based on the ANT, we found that, in the 4200-m residents, executive function was increased but the orienting function was decreased, and the executive and orienting network scores were oppositely correlated...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329050/factors-influencing-the-severity-of-behavioral-phenotype-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-implications-for-research
#3
Mingyang Zou, Caihong Sun, Jia Wang, Jing Kang, Zhanbin Xu, Yongjuan Ma, Lei Chen, Xinxi Zhang, Wei Xia, Lijie Wu
The phenotypic heterogeneity of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) presents particular research challenges in the assessment of symptom severity, while the standardized Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scores present a severity metric, namely calibrated severity scores (CSS) that are relatively impervious to individual characteristics. To date, no studies have examined the convergent validity of CSS in Chinese sample populations. The present study investigated the validity of the ADOS-CSS using a sample of 321 children aged 2-18 years with ASD, and developed upon existing literature examining the influence of non-ASD-specific characteristics on other types of measures including Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS)...
January 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327796/speech-characteristics-in-the-congenital-and-childhood-onset-forms-of-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#4
Lotta Sjögreen, Åsa Mårtensson, Anne-Berit Ekström
BACKGROUND: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a slowly progressive multi-systemic disease with an autosomal-dominant inheritance caused by a mutation on chromosome 19 (19q13.3). AIMS: To explore speech characteristics in a group of individuals with the congenital and childhood-onset forms of DM1 in terms of intelligibility, speech-sound production, nasality and compensatory articulation. A further aim was to analyse whether speech characteristics were correlated to subforms of DM1 and if speech outcome could be related to muscle strength...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326435/a-combined-analysis-of-genetically-correlated-traits-identifies-187-loci-and-a-role-for-neurogenesis-and-myelination-in-intelligence
#5
W D Hill, R E Marioni, O Maghzian, S J Ritchie, S P Hagenaars, A M McIntosh, C R Gale, G Davies, I J Deary
Intelligence, or general cognitive function, is phenotypically and genetically correlated with many traits, including a wide range of physical, and mental health variables. Education is strongly genetically correlated with intelligence (r g  = 0.70). We used these findings as foundations for our use of a novel approach-multi-trait analysis of genome-wide association studies (MTAG; Turley et al. 2017)-to combine two large genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of education and intelligence, increasing statistical power and resulting in the largest GWAS of intelligence yet reported...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322239/the-lateralized-arcuate-fasciculus-in-developmental-pitch-disorders-among-mandarin-amusics-left-for-speech-and-right-for-music
#6
Xizhuo Chen, Yanxin Zhao, Suyu Zhong, Zaixu Cui, Jiaqi Li, Gaolang Gong, Qi Dong, Yun Nan
The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a neural fiber tract that is critical to speech and music development. Although the predominant role of the left AF in speech development is relatively clear, how the AF engages in music development is not understood. Congenital amusia is a special neurodevelopmental condition, which not only affects musical pitch but also speech tone processing. Using diffusion tensor tractography, we aimed at understanding the role of AF in music and speech processing by examining the neural connectivity characteristics of the bilateral AF among thirty Mandarin amusics...
January 10, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318611/the-influence-of-number-line-estimation-precision-and-numeracy-on-risky-financial-decision-making
#7
Inkyung Park, Soohyun Cho
This study examined whether different aspects of mathematical proficiency influence one's ability to make adaptive financial decisions. "Numeracy" refers to the ability to process numerical and probabilistic information and is commonly reported as an important factor which contributes to financial decision-making ability. The precision of mental number representation (MNR), measured with the number line estimation (NLE) task has been reported to be another critical factor. This study aimed to examine the contribution of these mathematical proficiencies while controlling for the influence of fluid intelligence, math anxiety and personality factors...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317746/refractive-error-is-associated-with-intracranial-volume
#8
Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Rui Nouchi, Ryoichi Yokoyama, Yuka Kotozaki, Seishu Nakagawa, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Kunio Iizuka, Yuki Yamamoto, Sugiko Hanawa, Tsuyoshi Araki, Carlos Makoto Miyauchi, Takamitsu Shinada, Kohei Sakaki, Yuko Sassa, Takayuki Nozawa, Shigeyuki Ikeda, Susumu Yokota, Magistro Daniele, Ryuta Kawashima
Myopia is part of the spectrum of refractive error. Myopia is associated with psychometric intelligence and, the link between brain anatomy and myopia has been hypothesized. Here we aimed to identify the associations between brain structures and refractive error in developed young adults. In a study cohort of 1,319 normal educated young adults, the refractive error showed a significant negative correlation with total intracranial volume and total cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume but not with total gray matter volume (GMV) or total white matter volume (WMV)...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314150/role-of-intelligence-quotient-iq-on-anxiety-and-behavior-in-children-with-hearing-and-speech-impairment
#9
Raghavendra M Shetty, Aditi Pashine, Nijo A Jose, Somasundar Mantha
AIM: To assess and compare the role of IQ on anxiety and behavior of children with and without hearing and speech impairment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 120 children of age group 7-14 years were included in the study, of which control group comprised of 60 normal healthy children and 60 hearing and speech impaired children formed the study group. The study was done in two consecutive sessions. First appointment for Culture Fair Intelligence Test and second appointment for RMS pictorial anxiety score (RMS-PS) and Frankl behavior rating which were assessed during oral prophylaxis...
January 4, 2018: Special Care in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310459/psychometrics-of-the-iowa-and-berlin-gambling-tasks-unresolved-issues-with-reliability-and-validity-for-risk-taking
#10
Florian Schmitz, Olga Kunina-Habenicht, Andrea Hildebrandt, Klaus Oberauer, Oliver Wilhelm
The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is one of the most prominent paradigms employed for the assessment of risk taking in the laboratory, and it was shown to distinguish between various patient groups and controls. The present study was conducted to test the psychometric characteristics of the original IGT and of a new gambling task variant for assessing individual differences. Two studies were conducted with adults of the general population ( n = 220) and with adolescents ( n = 389). Participants were also tested on multiple measures of working memory capacity, fluid intelligence, personality traits associated with risk-taking behavior, and self-reported risk taking in various domains...
January 1, 2018: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300304/behavioral-and-brain-activity-indices-of-cognitive-control-deficits-in-binge-drinkers
#11
Sean M Molnar, Lauren E Beaton, Joseph P Happer, Lee A Holcomb, Siyuan Huang, Donatello Arienzo, Ksenija Marinkovic
Heavy episodic drinking is prevalent among young adults and is a public issue of increasing importance. Its initiation and maintenance are associated with deficits in the capacity to inhibit automatic processing in favor of non-habitual responses. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine behavioral and brain activity indices of cognitive control during the Stroop task as a function of binge drinking. Heavy episodic drinkers (HED) reported consuming 5+/6+ drinks in two hours at least five times in the past six months and were compared to light drinkers (LED) who reported two or fewer binge episodes but were matched on demographics, intelligence and family history of alcoholism...
January 4, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288871/neurobiology-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-gad-aberrant-neurometabolic-correlation-to-hippocampus-and-relationship-to-anxiety-sensitivity-and-iq
#12
Jeremy D Coplan, Ryan Webler, Srinath Gopinath, Chadi G Abdallah, Sanjay J Mathew
INTRODUCTION: The neurometabolism underlying the cognitive and affective symptoms associated with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) remain poorly understood. After we have linked worry to intelligence in patients with GAD, we hypothesized that aberrant neurometabolic correlations between hippocampus and neocortical regions may underlie a shared substrate in GAD patients for both anxiety sensitivity and intelligence. METHODS: GAD patients (n = 16; F = 11) and healthy volunteers (n = 16; F = 10) were assessed using 1H-MRSI...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287217/association-of-white-matter-diffusion-characteristics-and-cognitive-deficits-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#13
Raúl Rodríguez-Cruces, Leticia Velázquez-Pérez, Ildefonso Rodríguez-Leyva, Ana Luisa Velasco, David Trejo-Martínez, Héctor Manuel Barragán-Campos, Vicente Camacho-Téllez, Luis Concha
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between cognitive performance and white matter (WM) integrity in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). METHODS: We included 26 patients with TLE (10 right, 16 left onset) as well as 24 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and years of education. In addition to quantitative hippocampal volume and transverse relaxation (T2) evaluation, whole-brain WM was analyzed using fractional anisotropy (FA) maps, derived from the diffusion tensor model...
December 26, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283024/assessment-of-executive-functions-in-children-and-adolescents-with-acquired-brain-injury-abi-using-a-novel-complex-multi-tasking-computerised-task-the-jansari-assessment-of-executive-functions-for-children-jef-c%C3%A2
#14
Yafit Gilboa, Ashok Jansari, Bernadette Kerrouche, Emel Uçak, Anne Tiberghien, Ouarda Benkhaled, Delphine Aligon, Aude Mariller, Valentine Verdier, Amaia Mintegui, Geneviève Abada, Céline Canizares, Andrew Goldstein, Mathilde Chevignard
OBJECTIVES: The Jansari assessment of Executive Functions for Children (JEF-C©) is a new non-immersive computerised assessment of executive functions. The objectives of the study were to test the feasibility and validity of JEF-C© in children and adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI). METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with ABI aged 10-18 years and 30 age-and gender-matched controls were tested. Participants performed JEF-C©, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) and the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome for Children (BADS-C), while parents completed the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) questionnaire...
December 28, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282462/evaluation-of-validity-evidence-for-personality-emotional-intelligence-and-situational-judgment-tests-to-identify-successful-residents
#15
Aimee K Gardner, Brian J Dunkin
Importance: The ability to identify candidates who will thrive and successfully complete their residency is especially critical for general surgery programs. Objective: To assess the extent to which 3 screening tools used extensively in industrial selection settings-emotional intelligence (EQ), personality profiles, and situational judgment tests (SJTs)-could identify successful surgery residents. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this analysis, personality profiles, EQ assessments, and SJTs were administered from July through August 2015 to 51 postgraduate year 1 through 5 general surgery residents in a large general surgery residency program...
December 27, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276344/does-far-transfer-exist-negative-evidence-from-chess-music-and-working-memory-training
#16
Giovanni Sala, Fernand Gobet
Chess masters and expert musicians appear to be, on average, more intelligent than the general population. Some researchers have thus claimed that playing chess or learning music enhances children's cognitive abilities and academic attainment. We here present two meta-analyses assessing the effect of chess and music instruction on children's cognitive and academic skills. A third meta-analysis evaluated the effects of working memory training-a cognitive skill correlated with music and chess expertise-on the same variables...
December 2017: Current Directions in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275185/characteristics-of-gray-matter-morphological-change-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-semantic-abstract-reasoning-deficits
#17
Li Wang, Kun Nie, Xin Zhao, Shujun Feng, Sifen Xie, Xuetao He, Guixian Ma, Limin Wang, Zhiheng Huang, Biao Huang, Yuhu Zhang, Lijuan Wang
BACKGROUND: Semantic abstract reasoning(SAR) is an important executive domain that is involved in semantic information processing and enables one to make sense of the attributes of objects, facts and concepts in the world. We sought to investigate whether Parkinson's disease subjects(PDs) have difficulty in SAR and to examine the associated pattern of gray matter morphological changes. METHODS: Eighty-six PDs and 30 healthy controls were enrolled. PDs were grouped into PD subjects with Similarities preservation(PDSP, n = 62) and PD subjects with Similarities impairment(PDSI, n = 24)according to their performance on the Similarities subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale...
December 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273758/the-sleep-eeg-spectrum-is-a-sexually-dimorphic-marker-of-general-intelligence
#18
Péter P Ujma, Boris N Konrad, Ferenc Gombos, Péter Simor, Adrián Pótári, Lisa Genzel, Marcel Pawlowski, Axel Steiger, Róbert Bódizs, Martin Dresler
The shape of the EEG spectrum in sleep relies on genetic and anatomical factors and forms an individual "EEG fingerprint". Spectral components of EEG were shown to be connected to mental ability both in sleep and wakefulness. EEG sleep spindle correlates of intelligence, however, exhibit a sexual dimorphism, with a more pronounced association to intelligence in females than males. In a sample of 151 healthy individuals, we investigated how intelligence is related to spectral components of full-night sleep EEG, while controlling for the effects of age...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273402/an-algorithm-for-the-classification-of-mrna-patters-in-eosinophilic-esophagitis-integration-of-machine-learning
#19
Benjamin F Sallis, Lena Erkert, Sherezade Moñino-Romero, Utkucan Acar, Rina Wu, Liza Konnikova, Willem S Lexmond, Matthew J Hamilton, W Augustine Dunn, Zsolt Szepfalusi, Jon A Vanderhoof, Scott B Snapper, Jerrold R Turner, Jeffrey D Goldsmith, Lisa A Spencer, Samuel Nurko, Edda Fiebiger
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic evaluation of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) remains difficult, particularly the assessment of the patient's allergic status. OBJECTIVE: Establish an automated medical algorithm to assist in the evaluation of EoE. METHODS: Machine learning techniques were used to establish a diagnostic probability score for EoE (pEoE) based on esophageal mRNA transcript patterns from biopsies of patients with EoE, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and controls...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251355/identification-of-anti-inflammatory-active-ingredients-from-tumuxiang-by-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mse
#20
Xia Gao, Yuling Ma, Zhuowei Wang, Ruibin Bia, Pei Zhang, Fangdi Hu
The dried roots of Inula helenium L. (IH) and Inula racemosa Hook f. (IR) are used commonly as folk medicine as "tumuxiang" (TMX). The mixing and sharing of IH and IR in clinical use is a universal phenomenon. Modern pharmacological studies confirmed that IH and IR display anti-inflammatory activities. However, the difference in anti-inflammatory pharmacodynamic substances between these two herbs is still unknown. In the present study, the fingerprints of 18 IH and 9 IR samples were established by using UPLC/QTOF-MSE ...
December 18, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
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