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Intelligence correlation

Jean-Nicolas Audet, Lima Kayello, Simon Ducatez, Sara Perillo, Laure Cauchard, Jason T Howard, Lauren A O'Connell, Erich D Jarvis, Louis Lefebvre
Problem solving and innovation are key components of intelligence. We compare wild-caught individuals from two species that are close relatives of Darwin's finches, the innovative Loxigilla barbadensis , and its most closely related species in Barbados, the conservative Tiaris bicolor . We found an all-or-none difference in the problem-solving capacity of the two species. Brain RNA sequencing analyses revealed interspecific differences in genes related to neuronal and synaptic plasticity in the intrapallial neural populations (mesopallium and nidopallium), especially in the nidopallium caudolaterale, a structure functionally analogous to the mammalian prefrontal cortex...
March 2018: Science Advances
Iris Gorny, Kristina Krause, Anita Albert, Sabrina Schneider, Leona Möller, Lena Habermehl, Adam Strzelczyk, Felix Rosenow, Anke Hermsen, Susanne Knake, Katja Menzler
Objectives: The German socio-demographic estimation scale was developed by Jahn et al. (1) to quickly predict premorbid global cognitive functioning in patients. So far, it has been validated in healthy adults and has shown a good correlation with the full and verbal IQ of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) in this group. However, there are no data regarding its use as a bedside test in epilepsy patients. Methods: Forty native German speaking adult patients with refractory epilepsy were included...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Lucie Angel, Badiâa Bouazzaoui, Michel Isingrini, Séverine Fay, Laurence Taconnat, Sandrine Vanneste, Moïse Ledoux, Valérie Gissot, Caroline Hommet, Fréderic Andersson, Laurent Barantin, Jean-Philippe Cottier, Jérémy Pasco, Thomas Desmidt, Frédéric Patat, Vincent Camus, Jean-Pierre Remenieras
Aging is characterized by a cognitive decline of fluid abilities and is also associated with electrophysiological changes. The vascular hypothesis proposes that brain is sensitive to vascular dysfunction which may accelerate age-related brain modifications and thus explain age-related neurocognitive decline. To test this hypothesis, cognitive performance was measured in 39 healthy participants from 20 to 80 years, using tests assessing inhibition, fluid intelligence, attention and crystallized abilities. Brain functioning associated with attentional abilities was assessed by measuring the P3b ERP component elicited through an auditory oddball paradigm...
March 12, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Fernando Yepes-Calderon, Marvin D Nelson, J Gordon McComb
The picture archiving and communications system (PACS) is currently the standard platform to manage medical images but lacks analytical capabilities. Staying within PACS, the authors have developed an automatic method to retrieve the medical data and access it at a voxel level, decrypted and uncompressed that allows analytical capabilities while not perturbing the system's daily operation. Additionally, the strategy is secure and vendor independent. Cerebral ventricular volume is important for the diagnosis and treatment of many neurological disorders...
2018: PloS One
Christopher Wass, Bruno Sauce, Alessandro Pizzo, Louis D Matzel
In both humans and mice, performance on tests of intelligence or general cognitive ability (GCA) is related to dopamine D1 receptor-mediated activity in the prelimbic cortex, and levels of DRD1 mRNA predict the GCA of mice. Here we assessed the turnover rate of D1 receptors as well as the expression level of the D1 chaperone protein (DRiP78) in the medial PPC (mPFC) of mice to determine whether rate of receptor turnover was associated with variations in the GCA of genetically heterogeneous mice. Following assessment of GCA (aggregate performance on four diverse learning tests) mice were administered an irreversible dopamine receptor antagonist (EEDQ), after which the density of new D1 receptors were quantified...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Graham Pluck
The concept of intelligence as a measurable trait of intellectual function continues to be an important issue in psychology. Traditionally, a core field of differential psychology and widely employed in applied settings, it is also important in various research fields. Here, I describe development of a new assessment of general intelligence of adults that has no language component and can be administered in about 10 minutes. A total sample of 176 adult participants, from various settings, was assessed with a set of matrix tasks that involved either visuospatial (fluid) or semantic (crystallized) reasoning...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Vibeke Bliksted, Chris Frith, Poul Videbech, Birgitte Fagerlund, Charlotte Emborg, Arndis Simonsen, Andreas Roepstorff, Daniel Campbell-Meiklejohn
Background: Historically, research investigating neural correlates of mentalizing deficits in schizophrenia has focused on patients who have been ill for several years with lengthy exposure to medication. Little is known about the neural and behavioral presentations of theory-of-mind deficits in schizophrenia, shortly after the first episode of psychosis. Methods: We investigated social cognition in 17 recently diagnosed first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients with little or no exposure to antipsychotic medication and 1:1 matched healthy controls...
March 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Yi Shen, Allison B Kern
Individual differences in the recognition of monosyllabic words, either in isolation (NU6 test) or in sentence context (SPIN test), were investigated under the theoretical framework of the speech intelligibility index (SII). An adaptive psychophysical procedure, namely the quick-band-importance-function procedure, was developed to enable the fitting of the SII model to individual listeners. Using this procedure, the band importance function (i.e., the relative weights of speech information across the spectrum) and the link function relating the SII to recognition scores can be simultaneously estimated while requiring only 200 to 300 trials of testing...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
Sebastian Polak, Barbara Wiśniowska, Aleksander Mendyk, Adam Pacławski, Jakub Szlęk
Human heart electrophysiology is complex biological phenomenon, which is indirectly assessed by the measured ECG signal. ECG trace is further analyzed to derive interpretable surrogates including QT interval, QRS complex, PR interval, and T wave morphology. QT interval and its modification are the most commonly used surrogates of the drug triggered arrhythmia, but it is known that the QT interval itself is determined by other nondrug related parameters, physiological and pathological. In the current study, we used the computational intelligence algorithms to analyze correlations between various simulated physiological parameters and QT interval...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Steven H Baete, Jingyun Chen, Ying-Chia Lin, Xiuyuan Wang, Ricardo Otazo, Fernando E Boada
A novel approach is presented for group statistical analysis of diffusion weighted MRI datasets through voxelwise Orientation Distribution Functions (ODF). Recent advances in MRI acquisition make it possible to use high quality diffusion weighted protocols (multi-shell, large number of gradient directions) for routine in vivo study of white matter architecture. The dimensionality of these data sets is however often reduced to simplify statistical analysis. While these approaches may detect large group differences, they do not fully capitalize on all acquired image volumes...
March 8, 2018: NeuroImage
Peter Bright, Ian van der Linde
To evaluate impact of neurological injury on cognitive performance it is typically necessary to derive a baseline (or "premorbid") estimate of a patient's general cognitive ability prior to the onset of impairment. In this paper, we consider a range of common methods for producing this estimate, including those based on current best performance, embedded "hold/no-hold" tests, demographic information, and word reading ability. Ninety-two neurologically healthy adult participants were assessed on the full Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, D...
March 12, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Lucius Caviola, Jim A C Everett, Nadira S Faber
We introduce and investigate the philosophical concept of 'speciesism' -the assignment of different moral worth based on species membership -as a psychological construct. In five studies, using both general population samples online and student samples, we show that speciesism is a measurable, stable construct with high interpersonal differences, that goes along with a cluster of other forms of prejudice, and is able to predict real-world decision-making and behavior. In Study 1 we present the development and empirical validation of a theoretically driven Speciesism Scale, which captures individual differences in speciesist attitudes...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Satabdi Mitra, Aditya Prasad Sarkar, Dibakar Haldar, Asit Baren Saren, Sourav Lo, Gautam Narayan Sarkar
Background: Perceived stress and burnout are by-products of powerless responsibility imposed on resident doctors. Emotional intelligence (EI) works as an adapting and coping tool. Objective: The objective of this study is to find out the role of work-related perceived stress on burnout and influence of EI on it. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2016 among 63 resident doctors of different departments of Bankura Sammilani Medical College and Hospital...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Public Health
Mengshan Li, Huaijing Zhang, Bingsheng Chen, Yan Wu, Lixin Guan
The pKa value of drugs is an important parameter in drug design and pharmacology. In this paper, an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was proposed based on the population entropy diversity. In the improved algorithm, when the population entropy was higher than the set maximum threshold, the convergence strategy was adopted; when the population entropy was lower than the set minimum threshold the divergence strategy was adopted; when the population entropy was between the maximum and minimum threshold, the self-adaptive adjustment strategy was maintained...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tzu-Ying Yu, Willy Chou, Julie Chi Chow, Chien-Ho Lin, Li-Chen Tung, Kuan-Lin Chen
Purpose: We investigated 1) the impact of differences in intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD) on motor skills of preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); 2) the relationships between IQD and motor skills in preschool-aged children with ASD. Methods: A total of 127 ASD preschool-aged children were divided into three groups according to the size of the IQD: IQD within 1 standard deviation (1SD; EVENIQ; n=81), discrepantly higher verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ; n=22; VIQ>performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] above 1SD [≥15 points]), and discrepantly higher PIQ (n=24; PIQ>VIQ above 1SD [≥15 points])...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
María Del Carmen Giménez-Espert, Vicente Javier Prado-Gascó
AIM: To analyse link between empathy and emotional intelligence (EI) as a predictor of nurses' attitudes towards communication while comparing the contribution of emotional aspects and attitudinal elements on potential behaviour. BACKGROUND: Nurses' attitudes towards communication, empathy and emotional intelligence are key skills for nurses involved in patient care. There are currently no studies analysing this link, and its investigation is needed because attitudes may influence communication behaviours...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Adam M Staffaroni, Megan E Eng, James A Moses, Harriet Katz Zeiner, Robert E Wickham
A growing body of research supports the validity of 5-factor models for interpreting the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). The majority of these studies have utilized the WAIS-IV normative or clinical sample, the latter of which differs in its diagnostic composition from the referrals seen at outpatient neuropsychology clinics. To address this concern, 2 related studies were conducted on a sample of 322 American military Veterans who were referred for outpatient neuropsychological assessment...
March 1, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Francesco Craig, Alessandro Lorenzo, Elisabetta Lucarelli, Luigi Russo, Isabella Fanizza, Antonio Trabacca
This study aimed to investigate the association between motor competency and social communication in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) compared with children with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) and typically developing (TD) children. Motor competency, ASD symptoms, and nonverbal Intelligent Quotient (IQ) were investigated through the following tests: Movement Assessment Battery for Children, second edition (MABC-2), Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), Autism Classification System of Functioning: Social Communication (ACSF:SC) and Leiter International Performances Scale Revised (Leiter-R)...
March 1, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Manuela Jaeger, Martin G Bleichner, Anna-Katharina R Bauer, Bojana Mirkovic, Stefan Debener
The acoustic envelope of human speech correlates with the syllabic rate (4-8 Hz) and carries important information for intelligibility, which is typically compromised in multi-talker, noisy environments. In order to better understand the dynamics of selective auditory attention to low frequency modulated sound sources, we conducted a two-stream auditory steady-state response (ASSR) selective attention electroencephalogram (EEG) study. The two streams consisted of 4 and 7 Hz amplitude and frequency modulated sounds presented from the left and right side...
February 27, 2018: Brain Topography
Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Rui Nouchi, Ryoichi Yokoyama, Yuka Kotozaki, Seishu Nakagawa, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Kunio Iizuka, Yuki Yamamoto, Sugiko Hanawa, Tsuyoshi Araki, Carlos Makoto Miyauchi, Kohei Sakaki, Takayuki Nozawa, Shigeyuki Ikeda, Susumu Yokota, Magistro Daniele, Yuko Sassa, Ryuta Kawashima
Allergic tendencies are associated with important cognitive and physiological factors, such as intelligence and mathematical abilities. Allergies are widely prevalent, especially in modern life, and the reason for its association with important cognitive variables is an intriguing scientific question. However, despite the unique characteristics of cognitive correlates of allergy, the anatomical correlates of allergy remain unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the associations between regional gray matter volume (rGMV) and allergic tendencies in young adults...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
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