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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922467/intelligence-and-neurophysiological-markers-of-error-monitoring-relate-to-children-s-intellectual-humility
#1
Judith H Danovitch, Megan Fisher, Hans Schroder, David Z Hambrick, Jason Moser
This study explored developmental and individual differences in intellectual humility (IH) among 127 children ages 6-8. IH was operationalized as children's assessment of their knowledge and willingness to delegate scientific questions to experts. Children completed measures of IH, theory of mind, motivational framework, and intelligence, and neurophysiological measures indexing early (error-related negativity [ERN]) and later (error positivity [Pe]) error-monitoring processes related to cognitive control. Children's knowledge self-assessment correlated with question delegation, and older children showed greater IH than younger children...
September 18, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922067/conceptual-elaboration-versus-direct-lexical-access-in-wais-similarities-differential-effects-of-white-matter-lesions-and-gray-matter-volumes
#2
Sven-Erik Fernaeus, Åke Hellström
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) subscale Similarities have been classified as a test of either verbal comprehension or of inductive reasoning. The reason may be that items divide into two categories. We tested the hypothesis of heterogeneity of items in WAIS-Similarities. Consecutive patients at a memory clinic and healthy controls participated in the study. White-matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and normalized temporal lobe volumes were measured based on Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI), and tests of verbal memory and attention were used in addition to WAIS-Similarities to collect behavioural data...
September 18, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918225/on-the-relationship-between-executive-functions-of-working-memory-and-components-derived-from-fluid-intelligence-measures
#3
Xuezhu Ren, Karl Schweizer, Tengfei Wang, Pei Chu, Qin Gong
The aim of the current study is to provide new insights into the relationship between executive functions and intelligence measures in considering the item-position effect observed in intelligence items. Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) and Horn's LPS reasoning test were used to assess fluid intelligence which served as criterion in investigating the relationship between intelligence and executive functions. A battery of six experimental tasks measured the updating, shifting, and inhibition processes of executive functions...
September 14, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916754/performance-based-ability-emotional-intelligence-benefits-working-memory-capacity-during-performance-on-hot-tasks
#4
María José Gutiérrez-Cobo, Rosario Cabello, Pablo Fernández-Berrocal
Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to perceive, use, understand, and regulate emotions. Higher scores on this ability measured through performance tests (but no through self-reports) appears to be related to better performance on "hot" (emotionally laden) cognitive tasks. However, there are relatively few studies concerning how EI may benefit the working memory capacity (WMC). Thus, the objective of this study is to analyse the relationship between EI (as measured through a performance-based ability test, a self-report mixed test, and a self-report ability test) and the WMC during the performance of hot and "cool" (i...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912746/the-role-of-slow-speech-amplitude-envelope-for-speech-processing-and-reading-development
#5
Paula Ríos-López, Monika T Molnar, Mikel Lizarazu, Marie Lallier
This study examined the putative link between the entrainment to the slow rhythmic structure of speech, speech intelligibility and reading by means of a behavioral paradigm. Two groups of 20 children (Grades 2 and 5) were asked to recall a pseudoword embedded in sentences presented either in quiet or noisy listening conditions. Half of the sentences were primed with their syllabic and prosodic amplitude envelope to determine whether a boost in auditory entrainment to these speech features enhanced pseudoword intelligibility...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912606/profiling-of-cocaine-using-ratios-of-gc-ms-peaks
#6
Palle Villesen, Louise Stride Nielsen
Illicit cocaine seizures are often compared to each other by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data from cocaine alkaloid compounds to determine whether two specimens originate from the same production batch or not. This can provide intelligence or investigative information at the early stages of an investigation or evidence in court. Traditional classification methods assume high stability of all alkaloids, use all of them to calculate the correlation between two profiles and use a threshold to classify samples...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906246/the-relationship-between-central-auditory-processing-language-and-cognition-in-children-being-evaluated-for-central-auditory-processing-disorder
#7
Lauren Brenneman, Elizabeth Cash, Gail D Chermak, Linda Guenette, Gay Masters, Frank E Musiek, Mallory Brown, Julianne Ceruti, Krista Fitzegerald, Kristin Geissler, Jennifer Gonzalez, Jeffrey Weihing
BACKGROUND: Pediatric central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is frequently comorbid with other childhood disorders. However, few studies have examined the relationship between commonly used CAPD, language, and cognition tests within the same sample. PURPOSE: The present study examined the relationship between diagnostic CAPD tests and "gold standard" measures of language and cognitive ability, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906160/tone-production-and-perception-and-intelligibility-of-produced-speech-in-mandarin-speaking-cochlear-implanted-children
#8
Yi-Lu Li, Yi-Hui Lin, Hui-Mei Yang, Yeou-Jiunn Chen, Jiunn-Liang Wu
OBJECTIVE: This study explored tone production, tone perception and intelligibility of produced speech in Mandarin-speaking prelingually deaf children with at least 5 years of cochlear implant (CI) experience. Another focus was on the predictive value of tone perception and tone production as they relate to speech intelligibility. DESIGN: Cross-sectional research. STUDY SAMPLE: Thirty-three prelingually deafened children aged over eight years with over five years of experience with CI underwent tests for tone perception, tone production, and the Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR)...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901998/relationships-between-components-of-emotional-intelligence-and-suicidal-behavior-in-alcohol-dependent-patients
#9
Maciej Kopera, Andrzej Jakubczyk, Anna Klimkiewicz, Hubert Suszek, Aleksandra Krasowska, Kirk J Brower, Marcin Wojnar
OBJECTIVES: The importance of investigating various emotional skills in assessment of suicide risk in alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals has recently become the focus of increasing interest. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between self-reported components of emotional intelligence and lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts in a clinical sample of AD subjects. METHODS: A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland, was recruited...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901645/measuring-achievement-goal-motivation-mindsets-and-cognitive-load-validation-of-three-instruments-scores
#10
David A Cook, Richmond M Castillo, Becca Gas, Anthony R Artino
OBJECTIVE: Measurement of motivation and cognitive load has potential value in health professions education. Our objective was to evaluate the validity of scores from Dweck's Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale (ITIS), Elliot's Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R) and Leppink's cognitive load index (CLI). METHODS: This was a validity study evaluating internal structure using reliability and factor analysis, and relationships with other variables using the multitrait-multimethod matrix...
October 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898194/correlate-a-pacs-and-ehr-integrated-tool-leveraging-natural-language-processing-to-provide-automated-clinical-follow-up
#11
Mark D Kovacs, Joseph Mesterhazy, David Avrin, Thomas Urbania, John Mongan
A major challenge for radiologists is obtaining meaningful clinical follow-up information for even a small percentage of cases encountered and dictated. Traditional methods, such as keeping medical record number follow-up lists, discussing cases with rounding clinical teams, and discussing cases at tumor boards, are effective at keeping radiologists informed of clinical outcomes but are time intensive and provide follow-up for a small subset of cases. To this end, the authors developed a picture archiving and communication system-accessible electronic health record (EHR)-integrated program called Correlate, which allows the user to easily enter free-text search queries regarding desired clinical follow-up information, with minimal interruption to the workflow...
September 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889995/aging-and-working-memory-performance-electrophysiological-correlates-of-high-and-low-performing-elderly
#12
Alexander F Lubitz, Michael Niedeggen, Maximilian Feser
In this study we investigated age-related changes in WM capacity and their respective ERP correlates. We explicitly addressed the differentiation between high and low performing elderly to identify electrophysiological correlates of successful aging. Therefore, ERP and behavioral data was obtained from 45 young (mean = 22.73 years) and 35 older participants (mean = 68.49 years). Both groups performed a visual-spatial n-back task with two levels of difficulty. Additionally, related neuropsychological tests were administered...
September 7, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885530/emotional-intelligence-and-burnout-in-academic-radiation-oncology-chairs
#13
Emma B Holliday, James A Bonner, Silvia C Formenti, Stephen M Hahn, Shalom Kalnicki, Fei-Fei Liu, Benjamin Movsas, Clifton D Fuller, Charles R Thomas
The importance of emotional intelligence (EI) in physicians has attracted attention as researchers begin to focus on the relationship of EI to retention, promotion, and productivity among academic physicians. However, to date, no formal evaluation of EI has been conducted among current department chairs. The objectives of this study were to assess the EI of current chairs of academic radiation oncology departments and to correlate EI with a self-reported assessment of burnout.The authors invited 95 chairs of academic radiation oncology departments to participate in a survey, approved by an institutional review board, consisting of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form (TEIQue-SF) and the abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory (a-MBI)...
September 2017: Journal of Healthcare Management / American College of Healthcare Executives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882722/cognition-in-patients-with-benign-epilepsy-with-centrotemporal-spikes-a-study-with-long-term-veeg-and-rs-fmri
#14
Xinxin Yan, Qing Yu, Yuting Gao, Liting Li, Danhua Yu, Ying Chen, Xiaojuan Yao, Weidong Yang, Zhijuan Chen, Jianzhong Yin, Yang An, Ke Tan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between alterations of functional brain network and cognition in patients with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) as a function of spike-wave index (SWI) during slow wave sleep. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) data and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) were collected from two groups of patients with BECTS, including a SWI<50% group (5 cases) and a SWI≥50% group (7 cases)...
September 4, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881417/central-and-non-central-networks-cognition-clinical-symptoms-and-polygenic-risk-scores-in-schizophrenia
#15
Clara Alloza, Mark E Bastin, Simon R Cox, Jude Gibson, Barbara Duff, Scott I Semple, Heather C Whalley, Stephen M Lawrie
Schizophrenia is a complex disorder that may be the result of aberrant connections between specific brain regions rather than focal brain abnormalities. Here, we investigate the relationships between brain structural connectivity as described by network analysis, intelligence, symptoms, and polygenic risk scores (PGRS) for schizophrenia in a group of patients with schizophrenia and a group of healthy controls. Recently, researchers have shown an interest in the role of high centrality networks in the disorder...
September 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877090/academic-achievement-deficits-and-their-neuropsychological-correlates-in-children-born-extremely-preterm
#16
Natacha Akshoomoff, Robert M Joseph, H Gerry Taylor, Elizabeth N Allred, Timothy Heeren, Thomas M OʼShea, Karl C K Kuban
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the risks associated with learning disabilities (LDs) in a large sample of children born extremely preterm. We predicted higher than expected rates of LD, particularly in math, and children with LD in math, reading, or both would have lower intelligence quotients (IQs) and specific patterns of neuropsychological deficits. METHODS: We evaluated academic achievement, rates of LD, and their neuropsychological correlates in the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns (ELGANs) Study cohort of 10-year-old children born at 23 to 27 weeks gestational age...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876361/the-five-digits-test-in-the-assessment-of-older-adults-with-low-formal-education-construct-validity-and-reliability-in-a-brazilian-clinical-sample
#17
Jonas Jardim de Paula, Thaís Dell'Oro Oliveira, Emanuel Henrique Gonçalves Querino, Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz
Introduction: In the assessment of older adults with very low formal education, typical tests of selective attention and inhibitory control are biased by reading abilities. In this sense, we aim to assess the psychometric characteristics of the Five Digits Test (FDT), a numerical Stroop paradigm, in older adults without cognitive disorders, with mild cognitive impairment, and with dementia. Methods: We assessed 211 Brazilian older adults with low formal education using the FDT and other cognitive measures...
August 31, 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873338/myths-and-truths-about-the-cellular-composition-of-the-human-brain-a-review-of-influential-concepts
#18
REVIEW
Christopher S Bvon Bartheld
Over the last 50 years, quantitative methodology has made important contributions to our understanding of the cellular composition of the human brain. Not all of the concepts that emerged from quantitative studies have turned out to be true. Here, I examine the history and current status of some of the most influential notions. This includes claims of how many cells compose the human brain, and how different cell types contribute and in what ratios. Additional concepts entail whether we lose significant numbers of neurons with normal aging, whether chronic alcohol abuse contributes to cortical neuron loss, whether there are significant differences in the quantitative composition of cerebral cortex between male and female brains, whether superior intelligence in humans correlates with larger numbers of brain cells, and whether there are secular (generational) changes in neuron number...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872869/demystifying-multi-task-deep-neural-networks-for-quantitative-structure-activity-relationships
#19
Yuting Xu, Junshui Ma, Andy Liaw, Robert P Sheridan, Vladimir Svetnik
Deep neural networks (DNNs) are complex computational models that have found great success in many artificial intelligence applications, such as computer vision and natural language processing. In the past four years, DNNs also generated promising results for quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) tasks. Previous work showed that DNNs can routinely make better predictions than traditional methods, such as random forests, on a diverse collection of QSAR datasets. It was also found that multi-task DNN models - those trained on and predicting multiple QSAR properties simultaneously - outperform DNNs trained separately on the individual datasets in many but not all tasks...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872351/neuropsychological-outcome-of-children-with-traumatic-brain-injury-and-its-association-with-late-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-a-cohort-study
#20
Daniele S J Volpe, Nátali C A C Oliveira, A Carlos Santos, Maria B M Linhares, Ana P C P Carlotti
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate neuropsychological outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its association with trauma severity and late magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of patients with TBI admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit over 5 years. Trauma severity was determined by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), neurological outcome by King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI) and neuropsychological outcome by Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition...
September 5, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
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