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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792238/mapping-the-neuroanatomic-substrates-of-cognition-in-familial-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Rachel Muster, Saadia Choudhury, Wendy Sharp, Steven Kasparek, Gustavo Sudre, Philip Shaw
BACKGROUND: While the neuroanatomic substrates of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been investigated, less is known about the neuroanatomic correlates of cognitive abilities pertinent to the disorder, particularly in adults. Here we define the neuroanatomic correlates of key cognitive abilities and determine if there are associations with histories of psychostimulant medication. METHODS: We acquired neuroanatomic magnetic resonance imaging data from 264 members of 60 families (mean age 29...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791758/post-traumatic-stress-symptomatology-following-exposure-to-perceived-traumatic-perinatal-events-within-the-midwifery-profession-the-impact-of-trait-emotional-intelligence
#2
Suzanne Nightingale, Helen Spiby, Kayleigh Sheen, Pauline Slade
AIMS: To explore factors associated with, and predictors of, post-traumatic stress symptoms in midwives. To explore factors associated with, and potential moderating effects of, trait emotional intelligence. Secondary analysis explored predictors of resilience. BACKGROUND: Midwives may experience vicarious trauma responses due to exposure to certain perinatal events in their professional lives. This may have adverse psychological outcomes for midwives, and women and children in their care...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785972/a-methodology-to-objectively-assess-the-performance-of-sound-field-amplification-systems-demonstrated-using-50-physical-simulations-of-classroom-conditions
#3
Stephen Dance, Bradford Backus, Lorenzo Morales
Introduction: The effect of a sound reinforcement system, in terms of speech intelligibility, has been systematically determined under realistic conditions. Different combinations of ambient and reverberant conditions representative of a classroom environment have been investigated. Materials and Methods: By comparing the measured speech transmission index metric with and without the system in the same space under different room acoustics conditions, it was possible to determine when the system was most effective...
May 2018: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771674/multisource-transfer-double-dqn-based-on-actor-learning
#4
Jie Pan, Xuesong Wang, Yuhu Cheng, Qiang Yu
Deep reinforcement learning (RL) comprehensively uses the psychological mechanisms of "trial and error" and "reward and punishment" in RL as well as powerful feature expression and nonlinear mapping in deep learning. Currently, it plays an essential role in the fields of artificial intelligence and machine learning. Since an RL agent needs to constantly interact with its surroundings, the deep Q network (DQN) is inevitably faced with the need to learn numerous network parameters, which results in low learning efficiency...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768124/the-importance-of-being-honest-correlating-self-report-accuracy-and-network-centrality-with-academic-performance
#5
Andrea Fronzetti Colladon, Francesca Grippa
This study investigates the correlation of self-report accuracy with academic performance. The sample was composed of 289 undergraduate students (96 senior and 193 junior) enrolled in two engineering classes. Age ranged between 22 and 24 years, with a slight over representation of male students (53%). Academic performance was calculated based on students' final grades in each class. The tendency to report inaccurate information was measured at the end of the Raven Progressive Matrices Test, by asking students to report their exact finishing times...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765573/the-relationship-between-emotional-intelligence-with-administrators-performance-at-mashhad-university-of-medical-sciences
#6
Tooraj Sadeghi, Mohammad Ali Kiani, Masumeh Saeidi, Habibolah Taghizade Moghaddam, Mohammad Jafari Ghodsi, Rasoul Hoseini
Background: The leadership of an organization requires specific features to adapt to changes and to survive and grow in new environments, and emotional intelligence is one of the most important attributes that can help leaders and managers respond to these changes. Objective: This study aimed to determine the relationship between emotional intelligence with administrators' performance at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 basic and middle managers of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran who were selected by census method in 2016...
March 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764777/comparison-of-social-interaction-between-cochlear-implanted-children-with-normal-intelligence-undergoing-auditory-verbal-therapy-and-normal-hearing-children-a-pilot-study
#7
Leila Monshizadeh, Roshanak Vameghi, Firoozeh Sajedi, Fariba Yadegari, Seyed Basir Hashemi, Petra Kirchem, Fatemeh Kasbi
OBJECTIVE: A cochlear implant is a device that helps hearing-impaired children by transmitting sound signals to the brain and helping them improve their speech, language, and social interaction. Although various studies have investigated the different aspects of speech perception and language acquisition in cochlear-implanted children, little is known about their social skills, particularly Persian-speaking cochlear-implanted children. Considering the growing number of cochlear implants being performed in Iran and the increasing importance of developing near-normal social skills as one of the ultimate goals of cochlear implantation, this study was performed to compare the social interaction between Iranian cochlear-implanted children who have undergone rehabilitation (auditory verbal therapy) after surgery and normal-hearing children...
April 2018: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763998/media-technology-use-and-attitudes-associations-with-physical-and-mental-well-being-in-youth-with-implications-for-evidence-based-practice
#8
Nadine Zeeni, Rita Doumit, Joelle Abi Kharma, Maria-Jose Sanchez-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that the use of technology and media, in their different available forms, may have detrimental effects on the physical and mental well-being of adolescents and young adults. AIMS: The present study aimed to investigate the use of different types of technology and media, attitudes toward them, and how they relate to physical and mental well-being in Lebanese university students. METHODS: A descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional design was used...
May 15, 2018: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756802/is-subjective-memory-specific-for-memory-performance-or-general-across-cognitive-domains-findings-from-the-seattle-longitudinal-study
#9
Gizem Hülür, Sherry L Willis, Christopher Hertzog, K Warner Schaie, Denis Gerstorf
A growing body of research has examined whether people's judgments of their own memory functioning accurately reflect their memory performance at cross-section and over time. Relatively less is known about whether these judgments are specifically based on memory performance, or reflect general cognitive change. The aim of the present study was to examine longitudinal associations of subjective memory with performance in tests of episodic memory and a wide range of other cognitive tests, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Block Design, Comprehension, Digit Span, Digit Symbol, and Vocabulary subtests...
May 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756796/psychometric-properties-of-the-chinese-version-of-the-difficulties-in-emotion-regulation-scale-ders-factor-structure-reliability-and-validity
#10
Jian Li, Zhuo Rachel Han, Mengyu M Gao, Xin Sun, Nigela Ahemaitijiang
Numerous studies have identified the significant role of emotion regulation in an individual's psychological and social functioning. Ever since its development, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) has been widely adopted as a comprehensive measure to assess emotion regulation problems among English-speaking adults. To assess emotion regulation in adults from Chinese-speaking societies and to promote future cross-cultural examination of the emotion regulation processes, the authors aimed to develop a Chinese version of the DERS and provide an initial validation of this instrument...
May 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754583/validity-evidence-for-the-hamburg-multiple-mini-interview
#11
Mirjana Knorr, Anja Schwibbe, Maren Ehrhardt, Janina Lackamp, Stefan Zimmermann, Wolfgang Hampe
BACKGROUND: Multiple mini-interviews (MMI) become increasingly popular for the selection of medical students. In this work, we examine the validity evidence for the Hamburg MMI. METHODS: We conducted three follow-up studies for the 2014 cohort of applicants to medical school over the course of two years. We calculated Spearman's rank correlation (ρ) between MMI results and (1) emotional intelligence measured by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue-SF) and the Situational Test of Emotion Management (STEM), (2) supervisors' and practice team members' evaluations of psychosocial competencies and suitability for the medical profession after a one-week 1:1 teaching in a general practice (GP) and (3) objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) scores...
May 14, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740795/coping-with-adversity-individual-differences-in-the-perception-of-noisy-and-accented-speech
#12
Drew J McLaughlin, Melissa M Baese-Berk, Tessa Bent, Stephanie A Borrie, Kristin J Van Engen
During speech communication, both environmental noise and nonnative accents can create adverse conditions for the listener. Individuals recruit additional cognitive, linguistic, and/or perceptual resources when faced with such challenges. Furthermore, listeners vary in their ability to understand speech in adverse conditions. In the present study, we compared individuals' receptive vocabulary, inhibition, rhythm perception, and working memory with transcription accuracy (i.e., intelligibility scores) for four adverse listening conditions: native speech in speech-shaped noise, native speech with a single-talker masker, nonnative-accented speech in quiet, and nonnative-accented speech in speech-shaped noise...
May 8, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740353/distinct-associations-of-motor-domains-in-relatives-of-schizophrenia-patients-different-pathways-to-motor-abnormalities-in-schizophrenia
#13
Lea Schäppi, Katharina Stegmayer, Petra V Viher, Sebastian Walther
Introduction: Aberrant motor function is an integral part of schizophrenia. In fact, abnormalities are frequently found in patients, in populations at risk, and in unaffected relatives. Motor abnormalities are suspected to be relevant for the clinical outcome and could probably predict the conversion from at-risk individuals to schizophrenia. Furthermore, motor function has been argued as endophenotype of the disorder. Yet, which particular motor domain may classify as a potential endophenotype is unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738505/preschoolers-technology-assessed-physical-activity-and-cognitive-function-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Minghui Quan, Hanbin Zhang, Jiayi Zhang, Tang Zhou, Jinming Zhang, Guanggao Zhao, Hui Fang, Shunli Sun, Ru Wang, Peijie Chen
Early childhood is a critical period for development of cognitive function, but research on the association between physical activity and cognitive function in preschool children is limited and inconclusive. This study aimed to examine the association between technology-assessed physical activity and cognitive function in preschool children. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Physical Activity and Cognitive Development Study was conducted in Shanghai, China. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers for 7 consecutive days, and cognitive functions were assessed using the Chinese version of Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence (C-WYCSI)...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734953/cortical-structures-and-their-clinical-correlates-in-antipsychotic-na%C3%A3-ve-schizophrenia-patients-before-and-after-6-weeks-of-dopamine-d2-3-receptor-antagonist-treatment
#15
Kasper Jessen, Egill Rostrup, Rene C W Mandl, Mette Ø Nielsen, Nikolaj Bak, Birgitte Fagerlund, Birte Y Glenthøj, Bjørn H Ebdrup
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia has been associated with changes in both cortical thickness and surface area, but antipsychotic exposure, illness progression and substance use may confound observations. In antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients, we investigated cortical thickness and surface area as well as mean curvature before and after monotherapy with amisulpride, a relatively selective dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonist. METHODS: Fifty-six patients and 59 matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent T1-weighted 3T magnetic resonance imaging...
May 8, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734683/do-monetary-incentives-influence-users-behavior-in-participatory-sensing
#16
Ngo Manh Khoi, Sven Casteleyn, M Mehdi Moradi, Edzer Pebesma
Participatory sensing combines the powerful sensing capabilities of current mobile devices with the mobility and intelligence of human beings, and as such has to potential to collect various types of information at a high spatial and temporal resolution. Success, however, entirely relies on the willingness and motivation of the users to carry out sensing tasks, and thus it is essential to incentivize the users’ active participation. In this article, we first present an open, generic participatory sensing framework (Citizense) which aims to make participatory sensing more accessible, flexible and transparent...
May 4, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733956/patterns-of-thought-population-variation-in-the-associations-between-large-scale-network-organisation-and-self-reported-experiences-at-rest
#17
Hao-Ting Wang, Danilo Bzdok, Daniel Margulies, Cameron Craddock, Michael Milham, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
Contemporary cognitive neuroscience recognises unconstrained processing varies across individuals, describing variation in meaningful attributes, such as intelligence. It may also have links to patterns of on-going experience. This study examined whether dimensions of population variation in different modes of unconstrained processing can be described by the associations between patterns of neural activity and self-reports of experience during the same period. We selected 258 individuals from a publicly available data set who had measures of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, and self-reports of experience during the scan...
May 4, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731509/a-genome-wide-association-study-for-extremely-high-intelligence
#18
D Zabaneh, E Krapohl, H A Gaspar, C Curtis, S H Lee, H Patel, S Newhouse, H M Wu, M A Simpson, M Putallaz, D Lubinski, R Plomin, G Breen
We used a case-control genome-wide association (GWA) design with cases consisting of 1238 individuals from the top 0.0003 (~170 mean IQ) of the population distribution of intelligence and 8172 unselected population-based controls. The single-nucleotide polymorphism heritability for the extreme IQ trait was 0.33 (0.02), which is the highest so far for a cognitive phenotype, and significant genome-wide genetic correlations of 0.78 were observed with educational attainment and 0.86 with population IQ. Three variants in locus ADAM12 achieved genome-wide significance, although they did not replicate with published GWA analyses of normal-range IQ or educational attainment...
May 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727952/integration-of-artificial-intelligence-methods-and-life-cycle-assessment-to-predict-energy-output-and-environmental-impacts-of-paddy-production
#19
Ashkan Nabavi-Pelesaraei, Shahin Rafiee, Seyed Saeid Mohtasebi, Homa Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha, Kwok-Wing Chau
Prediction of agricultural energy output and environmental impacts play important role in energy management and conservation of environment as it can help us to evaluate agricultural energy efficiency, conduct crops production system commissioning, and detect and diagnose faults of crop production system. Agricultural energy output and environmental impacts can be readily predicted by artificial intelligence (AI), owing to the ease of use and adaptability to seek optimal solutions in a rapid manner as well as the use of historical data to predict future agricultural energy use pattern under constraints...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724021/a-new-layered-model-on-emotional-intelligence
#20
Athanasios S Drigas, Chara Papoutsi
Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been an important and controversial topic during the last few decades. Its significance and its correlation with many domains of life has made it the subject of expert study. EI is the rudder for feeling, thinking, learning, problem-solving, and decision-making. In this article, we present an emotional⁻cognitive based approach to the process of gaining emotional intelligence and thus, we suggest a nine-layer pyramid of emotional intelligence and the gradual development to reach the top of EI...
May 2, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
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