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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212902/intrauterine-valproate-exposure-is-associated-with-alterations-in-hippocampal-cell-numbers-and-folate-metabolism-in-a-rat-model-of-valproate-teratogenicity
#1
Alexander Semmler, Christian Frisch, Christiane Bleul, Desiree Smith, Laurent Bigler, Jean-Christophe Prost, Henk Blom, Michael Linnebank
PURPOSE: Valproate is one of the most commonly used anticonvulsive drugs. Despite its significant benefits, the teratogenicity of valproate is a relevant problem in the treatment of women of childbearing age. In addition to major congenital malformations, such as neural tube defects, reduced intelligence and attention after intrauterine valproate exposure are reported. Until now the mechanisms of teratogenicity of VPA are poorly understood and concepts how to reduce valproate teratogenicity are lacking...
January 27, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192249/a-glucose-targeted-mixed-micellar-formulation-outperforms-genexol-in-breast-cancer-cells
#2
Marcela A Moretton, Ezequiel Bernabeu, Estefanía Grotz, Lorena Gonzalez, Marcela Zubillaga, Diego A Chiappetta
Breast cancer represents the top cancer among women, accounting 521.000 deaths per year. Development of targeted nanomedicines to breast cancer tissues represents a milestone to reduce chemotherapy side effects. Taking advantage of the over-expression of glucose (Glu) membrane transporters in breast cancer cells, we aim to expand the potential of a paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded mixed micellar formulation based on polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinylacetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (Soluplus®) and D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) by its surface decoration with Glu moieties...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171772/maternal-prenatal-urinary-phthalate-metabolite-concentrations-and-visual-recognition-memory-among-infants-at-27-weeks
#3
Khristina N Ipapo, Pam Factor-Litvak, Robin M Whyatt, Antonia M Calafat, Diurka Diaz, Frederica Perera, Virginia Rauh, Julie B Herbstman
BACKGROUND: Prior research has demonstrated inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and cognitive development assessed in preschool and school-aged children. While there are a limited number of studies that evaluated these associations during infancy, no study has evaluated whether these associations exist when using the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII), which captures novelty preference as a function of visual recognition memory...
February 4, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151744/childhood-cognitive-ability-and-incident-dementia-the-1932-scottish-mental-survey-cohort-into-their-tenth-decade
#4
Tom C Russ, Jean Hannah, G David Batty, Christopher C Booth, Ian J Deary, John M Starr
BACKGROUND: The prevention of dementia is a global priority but its etiology is poorly understood. Early life cognitive ability has been linked to subsequent dementia risk but studies to date have been small and none has examined sex differences. METHODS: In the 1932 Scottish Mental Survey cohort, we related intelligence test scores at age 11 years in 16,370 boys and 16,097 girls (born in 1921) to incident dementia aged ≥65 years as ascertained using probabilistic linkage to electronic health records up to the age of 92 years (1231 cases in men, 2163 in women; median follow up 15 years)...
January 30, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117514/improved-nutrition-in-the-first-1000-days-and-adult-human-capital-and-health
#5
Reynaldo Martorell
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to review why the first 1000 days of life are a vulnerable period of human development and the long-term effects of a nutrition experiment carried out in Guatemala (1969-1977). METHODS: In 1969-77, a supplement called Atole, containing high quality protein, energy and micronutrients, was provided to women during pregnancy and lactation and to children <7 years of age in two villages while in two control villages a low-energy drink called Fresco was provided...
January 24, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114612/the-impact-of-contrastive-stress-on-vowel-acoustics-and-intelligibility-in-dysarthria
#6
Kathryn P Connaghan, Rupal Patel
Purpose: To compare vowel acoustics and intelligibility in words produced with and without contrastive stress by speakers with spastic (mixed-spastic) dysarthria secondary to cerebral palsy (DYSCP) and healthy controls (HCs). Method: Fifteen participants (9 men, 6 women; age M = 42 years) with DYSCP and 15 HCs (9 men, 6 women; age M = 36 years) produced sentences containing target words with and without contrastive stress. Forty-five healthy listeners (age M = 25 years) completed a vowel identification task of DYSCP productions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111753/midlife-cognitive-ability-education-and-tooth-loss-in-older-danes
#7
Kristine Harrsen Bachkati, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Henrik Brønnum-Hansen, Poul Holm-Pedersen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the possible influence of cognitive ability and education at age 50 or 60 on number of teeth at age 70. SETTING: Community-dwelling population in Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Men and women born in 1914 (N = 302). MEASUREMENTS: Cognitive ability was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale at age 50 or 60. A global cognitive ability measure was used as a continuous measure and according to tertile...
January 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110428/exploring-relationship-between-spiritual-intelligence-religiosity-and-life-satisfaction-among-elderly-pakistani-muslims
#8
Khadeeja Munawar, Omama Tariq
This study is an effort to explore the relationship between spiritual intelligence, religiosity and life satisfaction in elderly Pakistani Muslims. A non-probability purposive sampling technique is utilized in order to recruit a sample of 100 elderly people (n = 50 men; n = 50 = women). Standardized questionnaires were used for collecting data. Data analysis was carried out using Pearson product-moment correlation analysis and independent sample t test. Findings revealed a significant correlation between spiritual intelligence, religiosity and life satisfaction among Pakistani elderly Muslim people...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069962/content-analysis-of-150-years-of-british-periodicals
#9
Thomas Lansdall-Welfare, Saatviga Sudhahar, James Thompson, Justin Lewis, Nello Cristianini
Previous studies have shown that it is possible to detect macroscopic patterns of cultural change over periods of centuries by analyzing large textual time series, specifically digitized books. This method promises to empower scholars with a quantitative and data-driven tool to study culture and society, but its power has been limited by the use of data from books and simple analytics based essentially on word counts. This study addresses these problems by assembling a vast corpus of regional newspapers from the United Kingdom, incorporating very fine-grained geographical and temporal information that is not available for books...
24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068110/maternal-scaffolding-in-a-disadvantaged-global-context-the-influence-of-working-memory-and-cognitive-capacities
#10
Jelena Obradović, Ximena A Portilla, Nicole Tirado-Strayer, Saima Siyal, Muneera A Rasheed, Aisha K Yousafzai
The current study focuses on maternal cognitive capacities as determinants of parenting in a highly disadvantaged global context, where children's experiences at home are often the 1st and only opportunity for learning and intellectual growth. In a large sample of 1,291 biological mothers of preschool-aged children in rural Pakistan, we examined the unique association of maternal working memory skills (independent of related cognitive capacities) with cognitively stimulating parenting behaviors. Path analysis revealed that directly assessed working memory, short-term memory, and verbal intelligence independently predicted greater levels of observed maternal scaffolding behaviors...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038386/cognitive-functions-in-children-exposed-to-antiepileptic-drugs-in-utero-study-in-georgia
#11
Sofia Kasradze, Nino Gogatishvili, Giorgi Lomidze, Tamar Ediberidze, Marine Lazariashvili, Ketevan Khomeriki, Shorena Mamukadze, Mariam Metreveli, Tamar Gagoshidze, Nino Tatishvili, Torbjörn Tomson
OBJECTIVE: The cognitive teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has gained increasing attention in the last decade. The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of AED fetal exposure on the cognitive development of children of mothers with epilepsy from Georgia in a controlled study taking into consideration major confounding factors. METHODS: A prospective cohort group was formed from children and mothers registered in the Georgian National AED-Pregnancy Registry...
December 27, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033476/gender-differences-in-cognitive-functioning-in-older-alcohol-dependent-patients
#12
Julia F Van den Berg, Bernadette Dogge, Nicolien Kist, Rob M Kok, Karin Van der Hiele
BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is associated with impairments in cognition, especially in later life. Previous studies suggest that excessive drinking has more negative impact on cognition in women than in men. OBJECTIVES: In this study, differences in cognition between male and female older, alcohol-dependent patients were examined. METHOD: Older alcohol-dependent inpatients (N = 164, 62.2% men, mean age 62.6 ± 6.4) underwent neuropsychological tests of sensitivity to interference, mental flexibility, and visual processing...
December 29, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031055/the-returns-of-family-planning-macro-level-assessment-of-the-effect-of-contraceptive-use-on-women-s-anaemia-and-childhood-undernutrition
#13
Md Juel Rana, Srinivas Goli
This study investigated the effect of family planning on the levels of women's anaemia and child undernutrition at the aggregate level using the compiled databases of the World Bank, UNICEF and the Economist Intelligence Unit. Correlation scatter matrix plots and multivariate OLS regression models were employed to assess the effect of family planning on women's anaemia and child nutritional status across countries. At the aggregate level, the bivariate correlation estimates found that the Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) was negatively associated with women's anaemia (r=-0...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027800/prenatal-airborne-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-exposure-line1-methylation-and-child-development-in-a-chinese-cohort
#14
Joan Lee, Vrinda Kalia, Frederica Perera, Julie Herbstman, Tingyu Li, Jisheng Nie, L R Qu, Jie Yu, Deliang Tang
BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are carcinogenic, neurotoxic environmental pollutants generated during incomplete combustion of fossil fuel and other organic material. PAH exposure has been associated with adverse fetal development and epigenetic alterations in cord blood. Several molecular epidemiology studies have established PAH-DNA adducts as biomarkers of PAH exposure. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between LINE1 DNA methylation and PAH-DNA adduct levels in cord blood, and with neurodevelopmental outcomes...
December 24, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008216/understanding-genetic-breast-cancer-risk-processing-loci-of-the-brca-gist-intelligent-tutoring-system
#15
Christopher R Wolfe, Valerie F Reyna, Colin L Widmer, Elizabeth M Cedillos-Whynott, Priscila G Brust-Renck, Audrey M Weil, Xiangen Hu
The BRCA Gist Intelligent Tutoring System helps women understand and make decisions about genetic testing for breast cancer risk. BRCA Gist is guided by Fuzzy-Trace Theory, (FTT) and built using AutoTutor Lite. It responds differently to participants depending on what they say. Seven tutorial dialogues requiring explanation and argumentation are guided by three FTT concepts: forming gist explanations in one's own words, emphasizing decision-relevant information, and deliberating the consequences of decision alternatives...
July 2016: Learning and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988198/primary-total-laryngectomy-and-pharyngolaryngectomy-in-t4-pharyngolaryngeal-cancers-oncologic-and-functional-results-and-prognostic-factors
#16
M Roux, O Dassonville, M Ettaiche, E Chamorey, G Poissonnet, A Bozec
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess oncologic and functional outcome in primary total laryngectomy or pharyngolaryngectomy (TL/TL/TPL) for laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer with extra-laryngeal extension (T4) and to determine the predictive factors of these results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the computerized medical records of all patients undergoing primary TL/TPL for T4 larynx or hypopharynx squamous cell carcinoma between 2000 and 2014 at our institution...
December 14, 2016: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984009/personalized-activity-intelligence-pai-for-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-promotion-of-physical-activity
#17
Bjarne M Nes, Christian R Gutvik, Carl J Lavie, Javaid Nauman, Ulrik Wisløff
PURPOSE: To derive and validate a single metric of activity tracking that associates with lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality. METHODS: We derived an algorithm, Personalized Activity Intelligence (PAI), using the HUNT Fitness Study (n=4631), and validated it in the general HUNT population (n=39,298) aged 20-74 years. The PAI was divided into three sex-specific groups (≤50, 51-99 and ≥100), and the inactive group (0 PAI) was used as the referent. Hazard ratios for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regressions...
October 28, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979838/relation-between-carotid-stiffness-cognitive-performance-and-brain-connectivity-in-a-healthy-middle-aged-population-an-observational-neurophysiological-cohort-study-with-magnetoencephalography
#18
Dagmar Nieboer, Linda Douw, Bob W van Dijk, Martijn W Heymans, Cornelis J Stam, Jos W R Twisk
OBJECTIVE: Impaired blood flow of the carotid artery can result in cognitive impairment, but how these vascular impairments lead to global cognitive disturbances is largely unknown. Problems in functional connectivity between brain areas may be responsible for these widespread effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between carotid stiffness, functional connectivity and cognitive performance in relatively young and healthy adults before clinical vascular pathology occurs...
December 15, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941162/sequential-revision-of-belief-trust-type-and-the-order-effect
#19
Elliot E Entin, Daniel Serfaty
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how people's sequential adjustments to their position are impacted by the source of the information. BACKGROUND: There is an extensive body of research on how the order in which new information is received affects people's final views and decisions as well as research on how they adjust their views in light of new information. METHOD: Seventy college-aged students, 60% of whom were women, completed one of eight different randomly distributed booklets prepared to create the eight different between-subjects treatment conditions created by crossing the two levels of information source with the four level of order conditions...
December 9, 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933297/exhibitionist-eating-who-wins-eating-competitions
#20
Brian Wansink, Kevin M Kniffin
OBJECTIVE: How and why does competition and spectator involvement influence eating behaviors? The primary objective of this article is to explore the nature of competitive eating with the goal of identifying implications for other social situations. DESIGN: Study 1 investigated how many chicken wings were eaten by men and women in a 30-min eating competition when cheering spectators either were or were not present (compared to a control condition). The second study sought to explain Study 1's findings through a survey of 93 students who rated male or female competitive eaters (in randomized order) based on intelligence, attractiveness, health, strength, and how romantic they expected the eaters to be...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
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