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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151744/childhood-cognitive-ability-and-incident-dementia-the-1932-scottish-mental-survey-cohort-into-their-tenth-decade
#1
Tom C Russ, Jean Hannah, G David Batty, Christopher C Booth, Ian J Deary, John M Starr
BACKGROUND: The prevention of dementia is a global priority but its etiology is poorly understood. Early life cognitive ability has been linked to subsequent dementia risk but studies to date have been small and none has examined sex differences. METHODS: In the 1932 Scottish Mental Survey cohort, we related intelligence test scores at age 11 years in 16,370 boys and 16,097 girls (born in 1921) to incident dementia aged ≥65 years as ascertained using probabilistic linkage to electronic health records up to the age of 92 years (1231 cases in men, 2163 in women; median follow up 15 years)...
January 30, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117514/improved-nutrition-in-the-first-1000-days-and-adult-human-capital-and-health
#2
Reynaldo Martorell
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to review why the first 1000 days of life are a vulnerable period of human development and the long-term effects of a nutrition experiment carried out in Guatemala (1969-1977). METHODS: In 1969-77, a supplement called Atole, containing high quality protein, energy and micronutrients, was provided to women during pregnancy and lactation and to children <7 years of age in two villages while in two control villages a low-energy drink called Fresco was provided...
January 24, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114612/the-impact-of-contrastive-stress-on-vowel-acoustics-and-intelligibility-in-dysarthria
#3
Kathryn P Connaghan, Rupal Patel
Purpose: To compare vowel acoustics and intelligibility in words produced with and without contrastive stress by speakers with spastic (mixed-spastic) dysarthria secondary to cerebral palsy (DYSCP) and healthy controls (HCs). Method: Fifteen participants (9 men, 6 women; age M = 42 years) with DYSCP and 15 HCs (9 men, 6 women; age M = 36 years) produced sentences containing target words with and without contrastive stress. Forty-five healthy listeners (age M = 25 years) completed a vowel identification task of DYSCP productions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111753/midlife-cognitive-ability-education-and-tooth-loss-in-older-danes
#4
Kristine Harrsen Bachkati, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Henrik Brønnum-Hansen, Poul Holm-Pedersen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the possible influence of cognitive ability and education at age 50 or 60 on number of teeth at age 70. SETTING: Community-dwelling population in Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Men and women born in 1914 (N = 302). MEASUREMENTS: Cognitive ability was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale at age 50 or 60. A global cognitive ability measure was used as a continuous measure and according to tertile...
January 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110428/exploring-relationship-between-spiritual-intelligence-religiosity-and-life-satisfaction-among-elderly-pakistani-muslims
#5
Khadeeja Munawar, Omama Tariq
This study is an effort to explore the relationship between spiritual intelligence, religiosity and life satisfaction in elderly Pakistani Muslims. A non-probability purposive sampling technique is utilized in order to recruit a sample of 100 elderly people (n = 50 men; n = 50 = women). Standardized questionnaires were used for collecting data. Data analysis was carried out using Pearson product-moment correlation analysis and independent sample t test. Findings revealed a significant correlation between spiritual intelligence, religiosity and life satisfaction among Pakistani elderly Muslim people...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099526/executive-functioning-in-men-with-schizophrenia-and-substance-use-disorders-influence-of-lifetime-suicide-attempts
#6
Ana Adan, Maria Del Mar Capella, Gemma Prat, Diego A Forero, Silvia López-Vera, José Francisco Navarro
BACKGROUND: Lifetime suicide attempts in patients with comorbidity between psychotic disorders and Substance Use Disorder (SUD), known as dual diagnosis, was associated with a worse clinical and cognitive state, poor prognosis and premature death. However, to date no previous study has examined the cognitive performance of these patients considering as independent the presence or absence of lifetime suicide attempts. METHODS: We explore executive functioning differences between suicide attempters and non-attempters in dual schizophrenia (DS) patients and the possible related factors for both executive performance and current suicide risk...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088056/the-evolving-relationship-between-premorbid-intelligence-and-serious-depression-across-the-lifespan-a-longitudinal-study-of-43-540-swedish-men
#7
Emil Lager, Bo Melin, Tomas Hemmingsson, Alma Sörberg Wallin
BACKGROUND: An association between higher intelligence and lower probability of serious depression has previously been established. Yet, to our knowledge, no large prospective study has examined the relationship across the lifespan. METHODS: A cohort of 49,321 Swedish men was followed from conscription in 1969-70 (age 18-20) through to 2008. Odds ratios (OR) for first time hospitalisation for depression (FTHD) were calculated in relation to intelligence for distinct time periods across the lifespan, while controlling for established risk factors for depression...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033476/gender-differences-in-cognitive-functioning-in-older-alcohol-dependent-patients
#8
Julia F Van den Berg, Bernadette Dogge, Nicolien Kist, Rob M Kok, Karin Van der Hiele
BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is associated with impairments in cognition, especially in later life. Previous studies suggest that excessive drinking has more negative impact on cognition in women than in men. OBJECTIVES: In this study, differences in cognition between male and female older, alcohol-dependent patients were examined. METHOD: Older alcohol-dependent inpatients (N = 164, 62.2% men, mean age 62.6 ± 6.4) underwent neuropsychological tests of sensitivity to interference, mental flexibility, and visual processing...
December 29, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000353/physical-and-cognitive-fitness-in-young-adulthood-and-risk-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-at-an-early-age
#9
E Longinetti, D Mariosa, H Larsson, C Almqvist, P Lichtenstein, W Ye, F Fang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is a clinical impression that patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have a higher level of physical fitness and lower body mass index (BMI) than average. However, there is a lack of literature examining the relationship between cognitive fitness and ALS risk. In this study we explored the associations of both physical and cognitive fitness with future risk of ALS. METHODS: Data on physical fitness, BMI, intelligence quotient (IQ) and stress resilience were collected from 1 838 376 Swedish men aged 17-20 years at conscription during 1968-2010...
January 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988198/primary-total-laryngectomy-and-pharyngolaryngectomy-in-t4-pharyngolaryngeal-cancers-oncologic-and-functional-results-and-prognostic-factors
#10
M Roux, O Dassonville, M Ettaiche, E Chamorey, G Poissonnet, A Bozec
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess oncologic and functional outcome in primary total laryngectomy or pharyngolaryngectomy (TL/TL/TPL) for laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer with extra-laryngeal extension (T4) and to determine the predictive factors of these results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the computerized medical records of all patients undergoing primary TL/TPL for T4 larynx or hypopharynx squamous cell carcinoma between 2000 and 2014 at our institution...
December 14, 2016: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984009/personalized-activity-intelligence-pai-for-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-promotion-of-physical-activity
#11
Bjarne M Nes, Christian R Gutvik, Carl J Lavie, Javaid Nauman, Ulrik Wisløff
PURPOSE: To derive and validate a single metric of activity tracking that associates with lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality. METHODS: We derived an algorithm, Personalized Activity Intelligence (PAI), using the HUNT Fitness Study (n = 4631), and validated it in the general HUNT population (n = 39,298) aged 20-74 years. The PAI was divided into three sex-specific groups (≤50, 51-99, and ≥100), and the inactive group (0 PAI) was used as the referent...
March 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979838/relation-between-carotid-stiffness-cognitive-performance-and-brain-connectivity-in-a-healthy-middle-aged-population-an-observational-neurophysiological-cohort-study-with-magnetoencephalography
#12
Dagmar Nieboer, Linda Douw, Bob W van Dijk, Martijn W Heymans, Cornelis J Stam, Jos W R Twisk
OBJECTIVE: Impaired blood flow of the carotid artery can result in cognitive impairment, but how these vascular impairments lead to global cognitive disturbances is largely unknown. Problems in functional connectivity between brain areas may be responsible for these widespread effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between carotid stiffness, functional connectivity and cognitive performance in relatively young and healthy adults before clinical vascular pathology occurs...
December 15, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933297/exhibitionist-eating-who-wins-eating-competitions
#13
Brian Wansink, Kevin M Kniffin
OBJECTIVE: How and why does competition and spectator involvement influence eating behaviors? The primary objective of this article is to explore the nature of competitive eating with the goal of identifying implications for other social situations. DESIGN: Study 1 investigated how many chicken wings were eaten by men and women in a 30-min eating competition when cheering spectators either were or were not present (compared to a control condition). The second study sought to explain Study 1's findings through a survey of 93 students who rated male or female competitive eaters (in randomized order) based on intelligence, attractiveness, health, strength, and how romantic they expected the eaters to be...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930656/cross-sectional-associations-between-socio-demographic-factors-and-cognitive-performance-in-an-older-british-population-the-european-investigation-of-cancer-in-norfolk-epic-norfolk-study
#14
Shabina A Hayat, Robert Luben, Nichola Dalzell, Stephanie Moore, Serena Anuj, Fiona E Matthews, Nick Wareham, Carol Brayne, Kay-Tee Khaw
BACKGROUND: Cognition covers a range of abilities, such as memory, response time and language, with tests assessing either specific or generic aspects. However differences between measures may be observed within the same individuals. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cross-sectional association of cognitive performance and socio-demographic factors using different assessment tools across a range of abilities in a British cohort study. METHODS: Participants of the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) in Norfolk Study, aged 48-92 years, underwent a cognitive assessment between 2006 and 2011 (piloted between 2004 and 2006) and were investigated over a different domains using a range of cognitive tests...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914546/analysis-of-transferred-fragrance-and-its-forensic-implications
#15
Simona Gherghel, Ruth M Morgan, Christopher S Blackman, Kersti Karu, Ivan P Parkin
Perfumes are widely used by many people in developed countries, and a large number of both men and women wear perfumes on a daily basis. Analysis of perfume trace materials from clothing is not commonly employed within forensic casework, yet as a form of trace evidence it has the potential to provide valuable intelligence. In order to appreciate the value of trace evidence there is a fundamental need for an evidence base that can both offer insight into how a trace material behaves under different scenarios and activities, and from which inferences can be made...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908296/smoking-in-pregnancy-adolescent-mental-health-and-cognitive-performance-in-young-adult-offspring-results-from-a-matched-sample-within-a-finnish-cohort
#16
Hugh Ramsay, Jennifer H Barnett, Graham K Murray, Pirjo Mäki, Tuula Hurtig, Tanja Nordström, Jouko Miettunen, Vesa Kiviniemi, Solja Niemelä, Zdenka Pausova, Tomas Paus, Juha Veijola
BACKGROUND: The association between prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (PEMCS) and adult cognition is debated, including if there are differences according to sex. We aimed to determine if there are associations between PEMCS and cognition in early adulthood in men and women and examine if observed associations were mediated by adolescent mental health factors that are associated with cognition, namely psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), inattention and hyperactivity, and other externalizing behaviors...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905934/estimation-of-country-specific-and-global-prevalence-of-male-circumcision
#17
Brian J Morris, Richard G Wamai, Esther B Henebeng, Aaron Ar Tobian, Jeffrey D Klausner, Joya Banerjee, Catherine A Hankins
BACKGROUND: Male circumcision (MC) status and genital infection risk are interlinked and MC is now part of HIV prevention programs worldwide. Current MC prevalence is not known for all countries globally. Our aim was to provide estimates for country-specific and global MC prevalence. METHODS: MC prevalence data were obtained by searches in PubMed, Demographic and Health Surveys, AIDS Indicator Surveys, and Behavioural Surveillance Surveys. Male age was ≥15 years in most surveys...
March 1, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881894/competition-related-factors-directly-influence-preferences-for-facial-cues-of-dominance-in-allies
#18
Christopher D Watkins, Benedict C Jones
ABSTRACT: Alliance formation is a critical dimension of social intelligence in political, social and biological systems. As some allies may provide greater "leverage" than others during social conflict, the cognitive architecture that supports alliance formation in humans may be shaped by recent experience, for example in light of the outcomes of violent or non-violent forms intrasexual competition. Here we used experimental priming techniques to explore this issue. Consistent with our predictions, while men's preferences for dominant allies strengthened following losses (compared to victories) in violent intrasexual contests, women's preferences for dominant allies weakened following losses (compared to victories) in violent intrasexual contests...
2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874275/executive-functioning-in-men-and-women-with-an-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Michelle Kiep, Annelies A Spek
Executive functioning (EF) is thought to be linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) specific symptoms. The majority of research has focused on children and adolescents with ASD and, therefore, little is known about EF in adults. Furthermore, little is known about gender differences. Ninety-nine men and forty women with ASD were compared with and 35 neurotypical men 25 neurotypical women. Participants were matched on age, total intelligence, and verbal ability. The following instruments were used to measure executive functioning: digit span and letter and number sequencing of the WAIS-III, Tower of Hanoi, WCST, and Verbal fluency...
November 22, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873398/from-the-coliseum-to-the-convention-centre-a-reflection-on-the-current-state-of-medical-education-conferences-and-conference-goers
#20
Rebecca D Blanchard, Deborah L Engle, Lisa D Howley, Shari A Whicker, Alisa Nagler
The advancement of knowledge and development of policy in the field of medical education require critical academic discourse among the most intelligent medical educators; and critical academic discourse requires coffee. In this essay, we reflect on the state of professional development conferences in the field of medical education and the rituals that surround their success. Having begun in ancient Greece, symposia were ripe with debauchery. Today, sedated by the light brown walls of hotel conference centres, symposia are more serious endeavours, engaging men and women in the sometimes turbulent waters of epistemological debate...
December 2016: Medical Education
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