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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914546/analysis-of-transferred-fragrance-and-its-forensic-implications
#1
Simona Gherghel, Ruth M Morgan, Christopher S Blackman, Kersti Karu, Ivan P Parkin
Perfumes are widely used by many people in developed countries, and a large number of both men and women wear perfumes on a daily basis. Analysis of perfume trace materials from clothing is not commonly employed within forensic casework, yet as a form of trace evidence it has the potential to provide valuable intelligence. In order to appreciate the value of trace evidence there is a fundamental need for an evidence base that can both offer insight into how a trace material behaves under different scenarios and activities, and from which inferences can be made...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908296/smoking-in-pregnancy-adolescent-mental-health-and-cognitive-performance-in-young-adult-offspring-results-from-a-matched-sample-within-a-finnish-cohort
#2
Hugh Ramsay, Jennifer H Barnett, Graham K Murray, Pirjo Mäki, Tuula Hurtig, Tanja Nordström, Jouko Miettunen, Vesa Kiviniemi, Solja Niemelä, Zdenka Pausova, Tomas Paus, Juha Veijola
BACKGROUND: The association between prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (PEMCS) and adult cognition is debated, including if there are differences according to sex. We aimed to determine if there are associations between PEMCS and cognition in early adulthood in men and women and examine if observed associations were mediated by adolescent mental health factors that are associated with cognition, namely psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), inattention and hyperactivity, and other externalizing behaviors...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905934/estimation-of-country-specific-and-global-prevalence-of-male-circumcision
#3
Brian J Morris, Richard G Wamai, Esther B Henebeng, Aaron Ar Tobian, Jeffrey D Klausner, Joya Banerjee, Catherine A Hankins
BACKGROUND: Male circumcision (MC) status and genital infection risk are interlinked and MC is now part of HIV prevention programs worldwide. Current MC prevalence is not known for all countries globally. Our aim was to provide estimates for country-specific and global MC prevalence. METHODS: MC prevalence data were obtained by searches in PubMed, Demographic and Health Surveys, AIDS Indicator Surveys, and Behavioural Surveillance Surveys. Male age was ≥15 years in most surveys...
March 1, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881894/competition-related-factors-directly-influence-preferences-for-facial-cues-of-dominance-in-allies
#4
Christopher D Watkins, Benedict C Jones
ABSTRACT: Alliance formation is a critical dimension of social intelligence in political, social and biological systems. As some allies may provide greater "leverage" than others during social conflict, the cognitive architecture that supports alliance formation in humans may be shaped by recent experience, for example in light of the outcomes of violent or non-violent forms intrasexual competition. Here we used experimental priming techniques to explore this issue. Consistent with our predictions, while men's preferences for dominant allies strengthened following losses (compared to victories) in violent intrasexual contests, women's preferences for dominant allies weakened following losses (compared to victories) in violent intrasexual contests...
2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874275/executive-functioning-in-men-and-women-with-an-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Michelle Kiep, Annelies A Spek
Executive functioning (EF) is thought to be linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) specific symptoms. The majority of research has focused on children and adolescents with ASD and, therefore, little is known about EF in adults. Furthermore, little is known about gender differences. Ninety-nine men and forty women with ASD were compared with and 35 neurotypical men 25 neurotypical women. Participants were matched on age, total intelligence, and verbal ability. The following instruments were used to measure executive functioning: digit span and letter and number sequencing of the WAIS-III, Tower of Hanoi, WCST, and Verbal fluency...
November 22, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873398/from-the-coliseum-to-the-convention-centre-a-reflection-on-the-current-state-of-medical-education-conferences-and-conference-goers
#6
Rebecca D Blanchard, Deborah L Engle, Lisa D Howley, Shari A Whicker, Alisa Nagler
The advancement of knowledge and development of policy in the field of medical education require critical academic discourse among the most intelligent medical educators; and critical academic discourse requires coffee. In this essay, we reflect on the state of professional development conferences in the field of medical education and the rituals that surround their success. Having begun in ancient Greece, symposia were ripe with debauchery. Today, sedated by the light brown walls of hotel conference centres, symposia are more serious endeavours, engaging men and women in the sometimes turbulent waters of epistemological debate...
December 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852112/emotional-intelligence-and-cognitive-abilities-associations-and-sex-differences
#7
Silvia Pardeller, Beatrice Frajo-Apor, Georg Kemmler, Alex Hofer
In order to expand on previous research, this cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and cognitive abilities in healthy adults with a special focus on potential sex differences. EI was assessed by means of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso-Emotional-Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), whereas cognitive abilities were investigated using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), which measures key aspects of cognitive functioning, i.e. verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, verbal fluency, attention and processing speed, and reasoning and problem solving...
November 17, 2016: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843675/evidence-for-the-paleoethnobotany-of-the-neanderthal-a-review-of-the-literature
#8
REVIEW
Gerhard P Shipley, Kelly Kindscher
Our perception of our closest human relatives, the Neanderthals, has evolved in the last few decades from brutish ape-men to intelligent archaic human peoples. Our understanding and appreciation of their cultural sophistication has only recently extended to their diet. Only within the last few years, with new techniques and a shift in focus, have we begun to truly investigate and understand the role of plants in their diet and culture. The more we learn about Neanderthals, the more we realize that biological and cultural distinctions between them and us were relatively small...
2016: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836742/peripheral-facial-palsy-speech-communication-and-oral-motor-function
#9
T Movérare, A Lohmander, M Hultcrantz, L Sjögreen
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of acquired unilateral peripheral facial palsy on speech, communication and oral functions and to study the relationship between the degree of facial palsy and articulation, saliva control, eating ability and lip force. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this descriptive study, 27 patients (15 men and 12 women, mean age 48years) with unilateral peripheral facial palsy were included if they were graded under 70 on the Sunnybrook Facial Grading System...
November 8, 2016: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829096/cognitive-subtypes-of-schizophrenia-characterized-by-differential-brain-volumetric-reductions-and-cognitive-decline
#10
Danielle Weinberg, Rhoshel Lenroot, Isabella Jacomb, Katherine Allen, Jason Bruggemann, Ruth Wells, Ryan Balzan, Dennis Liu, Cherrie Galletly, Stanley V Catts, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Thomas W Weickert
Importance: Cognitively distinct subgroups of schizophrenia have been defined based on premorbid and current IQ, but little is known about the neuroanatomical differences among these cognitive subgroups. Objectives: To confirm previous findings related to IQ-based subgroups of patients with schizophrenia in an independent sample and extend those findings to determine the extent to which brain volumetric differences correspond to the IQ-based subgroups. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 183 participants were assessed at the outpatient settings of Neuroscience Research Australia and Lyell McEwin Hospital from September 22, 2009, to August 1, 2012...
November 9, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824681/sex-differences-in-episodic-memory-in-early-midlife-impact-of-reproductive-aging
#11
Dorene M Rentz, Blair K Weiss, Emily G Jacobs, Sara Cherkerzian, Anne Klibanski, Anne Remington, Harlyn Aizley, Jill M Goldstein
OBJECTIVE: Few have characterized cognitive changes with age as a function of menopausal stage relative to men, or sex differences in components of memory in early midlife. The study aim was to investigate variation in memory function in early midlife as a function of sex, sex steroid hormones, and reproductive status. METHODS: A total of 212 men and women aged 45 to 55 were selected for this cross-sectional study from a prenatal cohort of pregnancies whose mothers were originally recruited in 1959 to 1966...
November 7, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784031/the-impact-of-dysphonic-voices-on-healthy-listeners-listener-reaction-times-speech-intelligibility-and-listener-comprehension
#12
Paul M Evitts, Heather Starmer, Kristine Teets, Christen Montgomery, Lauren Calhoun, Allison Schulze, Jenna MacKenzie, Lauren Adams
Purpose: There is currently minimal information on the impact of dysphonia secondary to phonotrauma on listeners. Considering the high incidence of voice disorders with professional voice users, it is important to understand the impact of a dysphonic voice on their audiences. Methods: Ninety-one healthy listeners (39 men, 52 women; mean age = 23.62 years) were presented with speech stimuli from 5 healthy speakers and 5 speakers diagnosed with dysphonia secondary to phonotrauma...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716594/a-label-free-fluorescent-direct-detection-of-live-salmonella-typhimurium-using-cascade-triple-trigger-sequences-regenerated-strand-displacement-amplification-and-hairpin-template-generated-scaffolded-silver-nanoclusters
#13
Peng Zhang, Hui Liu, Xiaocheng Li, Suzhen Ma, Shuai Men, Heng Wei, Jingjing Cui, Hongning Wang
The harm of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) to public health mainly by the consumption of contaminated agricultural products or water stresses an urgent need for rapid detection methods to help control the spread of S. typhimurium. In this work, an intelligently designed sensor system took creative advantage of triple trigger sequences-regenerated strand displacement amplification and self-protective hairpin template-generated-scaffolded silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) for the first time. In the presence of live S...
September 12, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695423/resveratrol-supplementation-did-not-improve-cognition-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-results-from-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Karine Zortea, Viviane C Franco, Paula Guimarães, Paulo S Belmonte-de-Abreu
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with psychotic experiences and cognitive deficits. Therefore, cognitive function is one of the most critical determinants of quality of life in this pathology. Resveratrol has been related to neuroprotective action, but there are no studies evaluating resveratrol in SZ. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of resveratrol supplementation on cognition in individuals with SZ. METHODS: This is a 1-month randomized, double-blind, and controlled trial (NCT 02062190), in which 19 men with diagnosis of SZ, aged 18-65 years, were assigned to a resveratrol supplementation group (200 mg) or placebo group (200 mg), with a 1-month follow-up...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685996/attenuating-the-negative-impact-of-unemployment-the-interactive-effects-of-perceived-emotional-intelligence-and-well-being-on-suicide-risk
#15
Natalio Extremera, Lourdes Rey
A growing body of research has demonstrated that deficits in well-being may be related to increased suicide risk, but there is only a limited number of studies that have focused on specific protective factors that can serve as a buffer against suicidal ideation and behaviours. Given that unemployment may be a factor leading to increased risk for suicide, this study assessed whether perceived EI might be a potential moderator in the relationship between life satisfaction/happiness and suicidal behaviours in a relatively large sample of unemployed individuals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630075/disorder-specific-alteration-in-white-matter-structural-property-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-relative-to-adults-with-adhd-and-adult-controls
#16
Huey-Ling Chiang, Yu-Jen Chen, Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
OBJECTIVE: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not only often comorbid but also overlapped in behavioral and cognitive abnormalities. Little is known about whether these shared phenotypes are based on common or different underlying neuropathologies. Therefore, this study aims to examine the disorder-specific alterations in white matter (WM) structural property. METHOD: The three comparison groups included 23 male adults with ASD (21...
September 15, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622436/initial-validation-of-the-scale-of-perceived-exertion-epinfant-in-chilean-children
#17
Iván Rodríguez-Núñez, Carlos Manterola
INTRODUCTION: Perceived exertion scales quantify the sensation caused by metabolic changes during exercise. Children need tailored tools due to their cognitive immaturity such as the EPInfant scale recently developed in Chile.  OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity and reliability of the EPInfant scale in children during a graded exercise test.  MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study for which we selected healthy children younger than 18 years and grouped them according to Piaget's stages of cognitive maturity: Concrete operations (8-12 years) and formal intelligence (13-15 years)...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616348/the-relationship-between-positive-psychological-characteristics-and-longer-telomeres
#18
Nicola S Schutte, Suresh K A Palanisamy, James R McFarlane
OBJECTIVE: Longer telomeres are associated with better health and longevity. This research investigated the relationship between positive psychological dispositional traits and telomere length. Positive traits examined were typical high positive affect, typical low negative affect, life satisfaction, trait mindfulness, trait emotional intelligence, general self-efficacy and optimism. DESIGN AND MEASURES: One hundred and twenty women and men, with a mean age of 40...
December 2016: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594525/evaluation-of-the-tissue-distribution-excretion-and-cytochrome-p450-induction-studies-of-a-potential-antitumor-agent-tm-2-in-animals-using-lc-ms-ms
#19
Lei Men, Yunli Zhao, Hongxin Lin, Xing Tang, Zhiguo Yu
1 TM-2 is a promising novel semi-synthetic taxane derivative with greater antitumor activity especially against resistant tumors and lower toxicity compared with docetaxel. Information on distribution and excretion of the pharmaceutical in animals, as well as biochemical information relevant to potential drug interactions should normally be evaluated prior to human clinical trials. 2 The present study investigated the tissue distribution and excretion of TM-2 in animals following intravenous administration for further advancement of the molecule...
September 5, 2016: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589069/the-u-shaped-association-of-body-mass-index-with-mortality-influence-of-the-traits-height-intelligence-and-education
#20
Terese Sara Høj Jørgensen, Merete Osler, Lars Henrik Ängquist, Esther Zimmermann, Gunhild Tidemann Christensen, Thorkild I A Sørensen
OBJECTIVE: The U-shaped association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality may depend on other traits with permanent health effects. Whether the association between BMI and mortality depends on levels of health-related traits known to be inversely associated with mortality throughout adult life such as height, intelligence, and education was investigated. METHODS: The study was based on a cohort of young men with data on weight, height, intelligence test score, and education from the Danish Conscription Database...
October 2016: Obesity
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