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Intelligence in humans

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541176/more-human-than-human
#1
David Lawrence
Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration...
July 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541174/enhancing-a-person-enhancing-a-civilization-a-research-program-at-the-intersection-of-bioethics-future-studies-and-astrobiology
#2
Milan M Ćirković
There are manifold intriguing issues located within largely unexplored borderlands of bioethics, future studies (including global risk analysis), and astrobiology. Human enhancement has for quite some time been among the foci of bioethical debates, but the same cannot be said about its global, transgenerational, and even cosmological consequences. In recent years, discussions of posthuman and, in general terms, postbiological civilization(s) have slowly gained a measure of academic respect, in parallel with the renewed interest in the entire field of future studies and the great strides made in understanding of the origin and evolution of life and intelligence in their widest, cosmic context...
July 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540427/variation-in-gaze-following-between-two-asian-colobine-monkeys
#3
Tao Chen, Jie Gao, Jingzhi Tan, Ruoting Tao, Yanjie Su
Gaze-following is a basic cognitive ability found in numerous primate and nonprimate species. However, little is known about this ability and its variation in colobine monkeys. We compared gaze-following of two Asian colobines-François' langurs (Trachypithecus francoisi) and golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). Although both species live in small polygynous family units, units of the latter form multilevel societies with up to hundreds of individuals. François' langurs (N = 15) were less sensitive to the gaze of a human experimenter than were golden snub-nosed monkeys (N = 12)...
May 24, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540284/prototyping-and-simulation-of-robot-group-intelligence-using-kohonen-networks
#4
Zhijun Wang, Reza Mirdamadi, Qing Wang
Intelligent agents such as robots can form ad hoc networks and replace human being in many dangerous scenarios such as a complicated disaster relief site. This project prototypes and builds a computer simulator to simulate robot kinetics, unsupervised learning using Kohonen networks, as well as group intelligence when an ad hoc network is formed. Each robot is modeled using an object with a simple set of attributes and methods that define its internal states and possible actions it may take under certain circumstances...
September 2016: IOSR J Comput Eng
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539087/artificial-intelligence-methodologies-and-their-application-to-diabetes
#5
Mercedes Rigla, Gema García-Sáez, Belén Pons, Maria Elena Hernando
In the past decade diabetes management has been transformed by the addition of continuous glucose monitoring and insulin pump data. More recently, a wide variety of functions and physiologic variables, such as heart rate, hours of sleep, number of steps walked and movement, have been available through wristbands or watches. New data, hydration, geolocation, and barometric pressure, among others, will be incorporated in the future. All these parameters, when analyzed, can be helpful for patients and doctors' decision support...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537801/association-of-chronotype-and-social-jetlag-with-human-non-verbal-intelligence
#6
A S Panev, T A Tserne, A S Polugrudov, L A Bakutova, N B Petrova, O V Tatarinova, O N Kolosova, M F Borisenkov
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronotype and social jetlag (SJL) on intelligence. Subjects were aged 14-25 years (n = 1008). A significant effect of intelligence on academic performance, as measured by the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices test, was found (F2,917 = 11.75, P < 0.0001, η(2) = 0.03). When SJL was less than 2 hours, the intelligence of people with late chronotype was found to be higher than that of subjects with early and intermediate chronotypes (F2,305 = 3.12, P < 0...
May 24, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537378/self-healing-highly-sensitive-electronic-sensors-enabled-by-metal-ligand-coordination-and-hierarchical-structure-design
#7
Yangyang Han, Xiaodong Wu, Xinxing Zhang, Canhui Lu
Electronic sensors capable of capturing mechanical deformation are highly desirable for next generation of artificial intelligence products. However, it remains a challenge to prepare self-healing, highly sensitive and cost-efficient sensors for both tiny and large human motion monitoring. Here, a new kind of self-healing, sensitive, and versatile strain sensors has been developed by combining metal-ligand chemistry with hierarchical structure design. Specifically, a self-healing and nanostructured conductive layer is deposited onto a self-healing elastomer substrate cross-linked by metal-ligand coordinate bonds, forming a hierarchically structured sensor...
May 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534068/trust-in-haptic-assistance-weighting-visual-and-haptic-cues-based-on-error-history
#8
Tricia L Gibo, Winfred Mugge, David A Abbink
To effectively interpret and interact with the world, humans weight redundant estimates from different sensory cues to form one coherent, integrated estimate. Recent advancements in physical assistance systems, where guiding forces are computed by an intelligent agent, enable the presentation of augmented cues. It is unknown, however, if cue weighting can be extended to augmented cues. Previous research has shown that cue weighting is determined by the reliability (inversely related to uncertainty) of cues within a trial, yet augmented cues may also be affected by errors that vary over trials...
May 22, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532283/the-feasibility-of-an-automated-eye-tracking-modified-fagan-test-of-memory-for-human-faces-in-younger-ugandan-hiv-exposed-children
#9
Ronak Chhaya, Jonathan Weiss, Victoria Seffren, Alla Sikorskii, Paula M Winke, Julius C Ojuka, Michael J Boivin
OBJECTIVE: The Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) uses longer gaze length for unfamiliar versus familiar human faces to gauge visual-spatial encoding, attention, and working memory in infants. Our objective was to establish the feasibility of automated eye tracking with the FTII in HIV-exposed Ugandan infants. METHOD: The FTII was administered to 31 perinatally HIV-exposed noninfected (HEU) Ugandan children 6-12 months of age (11 boys; M = 0.69 years, SD = 0...
May 22, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530673/genome-wide-association-meta-analysis-of-78-308-individuals-identifies-new-loci-and-genes-influencing-human-intelligence
#10
Suzanne Sniekers, Sven Stringer, Kyoko Watanabe, Philip R Jansen, Jonathan R I Coleman, Eva Krapohl, Erdogan Taskesen, Anke R Hammerschlag, Aysu Okbay, Delilah Zabaneh, Najaf Amin, Gerome Breen, David Cesarini, Christopher F Chabris, William G Iacono, M Arfan Ikram, Magnus Johannesson, Philipp Koellinger, James J Lee, Patrik K E Magnusson, Matt McGue, Mike B Miller, William E R Ollier, Antony Payton, Neil Pendleton, Robert Plomin, Cornelius A Rietveld, Henning Tiemeier, Cornelia M van Duijn, Danielle Posthuma
Intelligence is associated with important economic and health-related life outcomes. Despite intelligence having substantial heritability (0.54) and a confirmed polygenic nature, initial genetic studies were mostly underpowered. Here we report a meta-analysis for intelligence of 78,308 individuals. We identify 336 associated SNPs (METAL P < 5 × 10(-8)) in 18 genomic loci, of which 15 are new. Around half of the SNPs are located inside a gene, implicating 22 genes, of which 11 are new findings. Gene-based analyses identified an additional 30 genes (MAGMA P < 2...
May 22, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530390/highly-sensitive-durable-and-multifunctional-sensor-inspired-by-spider
#11
Chengzhi Luo, Junji Jia, Youning Gong, Zhongchi Wang, Qiang Fu, Chunxu Pan
Sensitivity, durability, and multifunction are the essential requirements for a high- performance wearable sensor. Here, we report a novel multifunctional sensor with high sensitivity and durability by using a buckled spider silk-like single-walled carbon nanotubes (SSL-SWNTs) film as the conducting network and a crack-shaped Au film as the sensitive transducer. Its high sensitivity is inspired by the crack-shaped structure of the spider's slit organs, while the high durability is inspired by the mechanical robustness of the spider silk...
May 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527481/rethinking-anatomy-how-to-overcome-challenges-of-medical-education-s-evolution
#12
REVIEW
Bruno Guimarães, Luís Dourado, Stanislav Tsisar, José Miguel Diniz, Maria Dulce Madeira, Maria Amélia Ferreira
INTRODUCTION: Due to scientific and technological development, Medical Education has been readjusting its focus and strategies. Medical curriculum has been adopting a vertical integration model, in which basic and clinical sciences coexist during medical instruction. This context favours the introduction of new complementary technology-based pedagogical approaches. Thus, even traditional core sciences of medical curriculum, like Anatomy, are refocusing their teaching/learning paradigm...
February 27, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522333/development-of-qsars-for-parameterizing-physiology-based-toxicokinetic-models
#13
Dimosthenis Α Sarigiannis, Krystalia Papadaki, Periklis Kontoroupis, Spyros P Karakitsios
A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) model was developed in order to predict physicochemical and biochemical properties of industrial chemicals of various groups. This model was based on the solvation equation, originally proposed by Abraham. In this work Abraham's solvation model got parameterized using artificial intelligence techniques such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the prediction of partitioning into kidney, heart, adipose, liver, muscle, brain and lung for the estimation of the bodyweight-normalized maximal metabolic velocity (Vmax) and the Michaelis - Menten constant (Km)...
May 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517985/personalised-medicine-the-promise-the-hype-and-the-pitfalls
#14
Therese Feiler, Kezia Gaitskell, Tim Maughan, Joshua Hordern
In engaging critically with personalised medicine and mapping pitfalls which mark its progress this project aims to stimulate conversations which deal intelligently with controversies for the sake of consensus. We aim to ask the ethical questions which will lead to the improvement of healthcare and we take an open-minded approach to finding answers to them over time. What is or should be meant by 'personalised medicine' is a major theme of this issue. It is a debate bound up with question of both values in the sense of ethical reflection and value in the sense of economic return...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502406/steering-the-conversation-a-linguistic-exploration-of-natural-language-interactions-with-a-digital-assistant-during-simulated-driving
#15
David R Large, Leigh Clark, Annie Quandt, Gary Burnett, Lee Skrypchuk
Given the proliferation of 'intelligent' and 'socially-aware' digital assistants embodying everyday mobile technology - and the undeniable logic that utilising voice-activated controls and interfaces in cars reduces the visual and manual distraction of interacting with in-vehicle devices - it appears inevitable that next generation vehicles will be embodied by digital assistants and utilise spoken language as a method of interaction. From a design perspective, defining the language and interaction style that a digital driving assistant should adopt is contingent on the role that they play within the social fabric and context in which they are situated...
September 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499221/a-water-quality-management-strategy-for-regionally-protected-water-through-health-risk-assessment-and-spatial-distribution-of-heavy-metal-pollution-in-3-marine-reserves
#16
Yinan Zhang, Chunli Chu, Tong Li, Shengguo Xu, Lei Liu, Meiting Ju
Severe water pollution and resource scarcity is a major problem in China, where it is necessary to establish water quality-oriented monitoring and intelligent watershed management. In this study, an effective watershed management method is explored, in which water quality is first assessed using the heavy metal pollution index and the human health risk index, and then by classifying the pollution and management grade based on cluster analysis and GIS visualization. Three marine reserves in Tianjin were selected and analyzed, namely the Tianjin Ancient Coastal Wetland National Nature Reserve (Qilihai Natural Reserve), the Tianjin DaShentang Oyster Reef National Marine Special Reserve (DaShentang Reserve), and the Tianjin Coastal Wetland National Marine Special Reserve (BinHai Wetland Reserve) which is under construction...
May 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493012/eeg-microstate-correlates-of-fluid-intelligence-and-response-to-cognitive-training
#17
Emiliano Santarnecchi, Arjun R Khanna, Christian S Musaeus, Christopher S Y Benwell, Paula Davila, Faranak Farzan, Santosh Matham, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Mouhsin M Shafi
The neurobiological correlates of human fluid intelligence (Gf) remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that spatiotemporal dynamics of EEG activity correlate with baseline measures of Gf and with its modulation by cognitive training. EEG dynamics were assessed in 74 healthy participants by examination of fast-changing, recurring, topographically-defined electric patterns termed "microstates", which characterize the electrophysiological activity of distributed cortical networks. We find that the frequency of appearance of specific brain topographies, spatially associated with visual (microstate B) and executive control (microstate C) networks, respectively, is inversely related to Gf scores...
May 10, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491028/resting-state-functional-connectivity-and-network-analysis-of-cerebellum-with-respect-to-crystallized-iq-and-gender
#18
Vasileios C Pezoulas, Michalis Zervakis, Sifis Michelogiannis, Manousos A Klados
During the last years, it has been established that the prefrontal and posterior parietal brain lobes, which are mostly related to intelligence, have many connections to cerebellum. However, there is a limited research investigating cerebellum's relationship with cognitive processes. In this study, the network of cerebellum was analyzed in order to investigate its overall organization in individuals with low and high crystallized Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were selected from 136 subjects in resting-state from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) database and were further separated into two IQ groups composed of 69 low-IQ and 67 high-IQ subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490877/low-density-lipoprotein-coupled-micelles-with-reduction-and-ph-dual-sensitivity-for-intelligent-co-delivery-of-paclitaxel-and-sirna-to-breast-tumor
#19
Wen-Jing Zhu, Shu-di Yang, Chen-Xi Qu, Qiao-Ling Zhu, Wei-Liang Chen, Fang Li, Zhi-Qiang Yuan, Yang Liu, Ben-Gang You, Xue-Nong Zhang
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle for the clinical therapy of malignant human cancers. The discovery of RNA interference provides efficient gene silencing within tumor cells for reversing MDR. In this study, a new "binary polymer" low-density lipoprotein-N-succinyl chitosan-cystamine-urocanic acid (LDL-NSC-SS-UA) with dual pH/redox sensitivity and targeting effect was synthesized for the co-delivery of breast cancer resistance protein small interfering RNA (siRNA) and paclitaxel (PTX). In vivo, the co-delivering micelles can accumulate in tumor tissue via the enhanced permeability and retention effect and the specific recognition and combination of LDL and LDL receptor, which is overexpressed on the surface of tumor cell membranes...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489422/mechanisms-of-automaticity-and-anticipatory-control-in-fluid-intelligence
#20
Arthur W Joyce
The constructs of fluid (Gf) and crystalized (Gc) intelligence represent an early attempt to describe the mechanisms of problem solving in the vertebrate brain. Modern neuroscience demonstrates that problem solving involves interplay between the mechanisms of automaticity and anticipatory control, enabling nature's elegant solution to the challenges animals face in their environment. Studies of neural functioning are making clear the primary role of cortical-subcortical interactions in the manifestation of intelligent behavior in humans and other vertebrates...
May 10, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
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