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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324240/cognitive-science-in-the-era-of-artificial-intelligence-a-roadmap-for-reverse-engineering-the-infant-language-learner
#1
Emmanuel Dupoux
Spectacular progress in the information processing sciences (machine learning, wearable sensors) promises to revolutionize the study of cognitive development. Here, we analyse the conditions under which 'reverse engineering' language development, i.e., building an effective system that mimics infant's achievements, can contribute to our scientific understanding of early language development. We argue that, on the computational side, it is important to move from toy problems to the full complexity of the learning situation, and take as input as faithful reconstructions of the sensory signals available to infants as possible...
January 8, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314634/advanced-inorganic-nanosystems-for-skin-drug-delivery
#2
REVIEW
E Carazo, A Borrego-Sánchez, F García-Villén, R Sánchez-Espejo, P Cerezo, C Aguzzi, C Viseras
On/into/through the skin drug delivery represents an attractive alternative for the oral route, providing local and/or systemic drug delivery. Due to its complex and well-organised structure, most of the drugs show difficulties to penetrate the human skin. Therefore, enormous efforts have been invested to develop intelligent drug delivery systems overcoming the skin barrier with particular emphasis on increasing therapeutic activity and minimizing undesirable side-effects. Most of these strategies require the use of singular materials with new properties...
January 5, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305341/a-pilot-study-of-biomedical-text-comprehension-using-an-attention-based-deep-neural-reader-design-and-experimental-analysis
#3
Seongsoon Kim, Donghyeon Park, Yonghwa Choi, Kyubum Lee, Byounggun Kim, Minji Jeon, Jihye Kim, Aik Choon Tan, Jaewoo Kang
BACKGROUND: With the development of artificial intelligence (AI) technology centered on deep-learning, the computer has evolved to a point where it can read a given text and answer a question based on the context of the text. Such a specific task is known as the task of machine comprehension. Existing machine comprehension tasks mostly use datasets of general texts, such as news articles or elementary school-level storybooks. However, no attempt has been made to determine whether an up-to-date deep learning-based machine comprehension model can also process scientific literature containing expert-level knowledge, especially in the biomedical domain...
January 5, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303248/multifunctional-sensor-based-on-porous-carbon-derived-from-metal-organic-frameworks-for-real-time-health-monitoring
#4
Xin-Hua Zhao, Sai-Nan Ma, Hui Long, Huiyu Yuan, Chun Yin Tang, Ping Kwong Cheng, Yuen Hong Tsang
Flexible and sensitive sensors that can detect external stimuli such as pressure, temperature, and strain are essential components for applications in health diagnosis and artificial intelligence. Multifunctional sensors with the capabilities of sensing pressure and temperature simultaneously are highly desirable for health monitoring. Here, we have successfully fabricated a flexible and simply structured bimodal sensor based on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) derived porous carbon (PC) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite...
January 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301736/technological-health-intervention-in-population-aging-to-assist-people-to-work-smarter-not-harder-qualitative-study
#5
Sonia Chien-I Chen
BACKGROUND: Technology-based health care has been promoted as an effective tool to enable clinicians to work smarter. However, some health stakeholders believe technology will compel users to work harder by creating extra work. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate how and why electronic health (eHealth) has been applied in Taiwan and to suggest implications that may inspire other countries facing similar challenges. METHODS: A qualitative methodology was adopted to obtain insightful inputs from deeper probing...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297930/analysis-of-human-resources-for-oral-health-globally-inequitable-distribution
#6
Jennifer E Gallagher, Lynn Hutchinson
BACKGROUND: Oral diseases affect most of the global population. The aim of this paper was to provide a contemporary analysis of 'human resources for oral health' (HROH) by examining the size and distribution of the dental workforce according to World Health Organization (WHO) region and in the most populous countries. METHOD: Publically available data on HROH and population size were sourced from the WHO, Central Intelligence Agency, United Nations, World Bank and the UK registration body...
January 3, 2018: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289720/sensory-intelligence-for-extraction-of-an-abstract-auditory-rule-a-cross-linguistic-study
#7
Xiao-Tao Guo, Xiao-Dong Wang, Xiu-Yuan Liang, Ming Wang, Lin Chen
In a complex linguistic environment, while speech sounds can greatly vary, some shared features are often invariant. These invariant features constitute so called abstract auditory rules. Our previous study has shown that with auditory sensory intelligence, the human brain can automatically extract the abstract auditory rules in the speech sound stream, presumably serving as the neural basis for speech comprehension. However, whether the sensory intelligence for extraction of abstract auditory rules in speech is inherent or experience-dependent remains unclear...
December 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286511/cerebral-impact-of-prenatal-irradiation-by-131i-an-experimental-model-of-clinical-neuroradioembryological-effects
#8
V V Talko, K M Loganovsky, I P Drozd, Ye V Tukalenko, T K Loganovska, S Yu Nechayev, S V Masiuk, Ye M Prokhorova
Human brain in prenatal period is a most vulnerable to ionizing radiation body structure. Unlike atomic bombings or radiological interventions in healthcare leading at most to external irradiation the intensive internal exposure may occur upon nuclear reactor accidents followed by substantial release and fallout of radioactive 131I. The latter can lead to specific neuroradioembryological effects. OBJECTIVE: To create an experimental model of prenatal cerebral radiation effects of 131I in human and to determine the experimental and clinical neuroradioembryological effects...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285919/ultra-sensitive-flexible-proximity-sensor-based-on-organic-crystal-for-location-detection
#9
Haiting Wang, Qingxin Tang, Xiaoli Zhao, Yanhong Tong, Yichun Liu
A new type of flexible proximity sensor that uses the micro-sized organic crystal as the sensing element is demonstrated. The two-terminal organic sensor can accurately perceive the external objects, such as the human finger, fibre and even AFM tip. The proximity sensor shows an unprecedented distance resolution of 0.05 mm, which is two order of magnitude higher than that of previously reported conventional capacitor proximity sensors. A novel method has been proposed to realize the location detection of the approaching unknown object by modulating the relative distance between stimuli object and sensor...
December 29, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281081/hisp-a-hybrid-intelligent-approach-for-identifying-directed-signaling-pathways
#10
Xing-Ming Zhao, Shan Li
Signal transduction plays important roles in biological systems. Unfortunately, our knowledge about signaling pathways is far from complete. Specifically, the direction of signaling flows is less known even though the signaling molecules of some signaling pathways have been determined. In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid intelligent method, namely HISP (Hybrid Intelligent approach for identifying directed Signaling Pathways), to determine both the topologies of signaling pathways and the direction of signaling flows within a pathway based on integer linear programming and genetic algorithm...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258808/incomplete-evidence-that-increasing-current-intensity-of-tdcs-boosts-outcomes
#11
Zeinab Esmaeilpour, Paola Marangolo, Benjamin M Hampstead, Sven Bestmann, Elisabeth Galletta, Helena Knotkova, Marom Bikson
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is investigated to modulate neuronal function by applying a fixed low-intensity direct current to scalp. OBJECTIVES: We critically discuss evidence for a monotonic response in effect size with increasing current intensity, with a specific focus on a question if increasing applied current enhance the efficacy of tDCS. METHODS: We analyzed tDCS intensity does-response from different perspectives including biophysical modeling, animal modeling, human neurophysiology, neuroimaging and behavioral/clinical measures...
December 13, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241733/autophagy-regulates-high-concentrations-of-iodide-induced-apoptosis-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#12
Bin Zhang, Yushan Cui, Lingzhi Wang, Liang Zhao, Changchun Hou, Qiang Zeng, Zushan Zhang, Jingwen Yu, Yang Zhao, Junyan Nie, Xuemin Chen, Aiguo Wang, Hongliang Liu
To date, there are many people residing in areas with high levels of iodide in water. Our previous epidemiological study showed that exposure to high iodine in drinking water significantly reduced the intelligence of children although the mechanisms remain unclear. To explore whether high concentrations of iodide may cause cytotoxic effect and the role of autophagy in the high iodide-induced apoptosis, human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y cells) were exposed to high concentrations of iodide. Morphological phenotypes, cell viability, Hoechst 33258 staining, the expression levels of apoptosis and autophagy-related proteins were detected...
December 11, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232561/development-of-artificial-intelligence-approach-to-forecasting-oyster-norovirus-outbreaks-along-gulf-of-mexico-coast
#13
Shima Shamkhali Chenar, Zhiqiang Deng
This paper presents an artificial intelligence-based model, called ANN-2Day model, for forecasting, managing and ultimately eliminating the growing risk of oyster norovirus outbreaks. The ANN-2Day model was developed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Toolbox in MATLAB Program and 15-years of epidemiological and environmental data for six independent environmental predictors including water temperature, solar radiation, gage height, salinity, wind, and rainfall. It was found that oyster norovirus outbreaks can be forecasted with two-day lead time using the ANN-2Day model and daily data of the six environmental predictors...
December 9, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217685/scale-free-amplitude-modulation-of-neuronal-oscillations-tracks-comprehension-of-accelerated-speech
#14
Ana Filipa Teixeira Borges, Anne-Lise Giraud, Huibert D Mansvelder, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen
Speech comprehension is preserved up to a three-fold acceleration but rapidly deteriorates at higher speeds. Current models posit that perceptual resilience to accelerated speech is limited by the brain's ability to parse speech into syllabic units using delta/theta oscillations. Here, we ask whether the involvement of neuronal oscillations in processing accelerated speech also relates to their scale-free amplitude modulation as indexed by the strength of long-range temporal correlations (LRTC). We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) while 24 human subjects (12 females) listened to radio news uttered at different comprehensible rates, at a mostly unintelligible rate, and at this same speed interleaved with silence gaps...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215031/a-mechanistic-model-of-human-recall-of-social-network-structure-and-relationship-affect
#15
Elisa Omodei, Matthew E Brashears, Alex Arenas
The social brain hypothesis argues that the need to deal with social challenges was key to our evolution of high intelligence. Research with non-human primates as well as experimental and fMRI studies in humans produce results consistent with this claim, leading to an estimate that human primary groups should consist of roughly 150 individuals. Gaps between this prediction and empirical observations can be partially accounted for using "compression heuristics", or schemata that simplify the encoding and recall of social information...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213188/a-novel-framework-for-intelligent-surveillance-system-based-on-abnormal-human-activity-detection-in-academic-environments
#16
Malek Al-Nawashi, Obaida M Al-Hazaimeh, Mohamad Saraee
Abnormal activity detection plays a crucial role in surveillance applications, and a surveillance system that can perform robustly in an academic environment has become an urgent need. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for an automatic real-time video-based surveillance system which can simultaneously perform the tracking, semantic scene learning, and abnormality detection in an academic environment. To develop our system, we have divided the work into three phases: preprocessing phase, abnormal human activity detection phase, and content-based image retrieval phase...
2017: Neural Computing & Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203849/an-integrated-brain-behavior-model-for-working-memory
#17
D A Moser, G E Doucet, A Ing, D Dima, G Schumann, R M Bilder, S Frangou
Working memory (WM) is a central construct in cognitive neuroscience because it comprises mechanisms of active information maintenance and cognitive control that underpin most complex cognitive behavior. Individual variation in WM has been associated with multiple behavioral and health features including demographic characteristics, cognitive and physical traits and lifestyle choices. In this context, we used sparse canonical correlation analyses (sCCAs) to determine the covariation between brain imaging metrics of WM-network activation and connectivity and nonimaging measures relating to sensorimotor processing, affective and nonaffective cognition, mental health and personality, physical health and lifestyle choices derived from 823 healthy participants derived from the Human Connectome Project...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192871/what-does-the-dap-iq-measure-drawing-comparisons-between-drawing-performance-and-developmental-assessments
#18
Gwendolyn Rehrig, Karin Stromswold
Human figure drawing tasks such as the Draw-a-Person test have long been used to assess intelligence (F. Goodenough, 1926). The authors investigate the skills tapped by drawing and the risk factors associated with poor drawing. Self-portraits of 345 preschool children were scored by raters trained in using the Draw-a-Person Intellectual Ability test (DAP:IQ) rubric (C. R. Reynolds & J. A. Hickman, 2004). Analyses of children's fine motor, gross motor, social, cognitive, and language skills revealed that only fine motor skill was an independent predictor of DAP:IQ scores...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186021/an-efficient-audio-coding-scheme-for-quantitative-and-qualitative-large-scale-acoustic-monitoring-using-the-sensor-grid-approach
#19
Félix Gontier, Mathieu Lagrange, Pierre Aumond, Arnaud Can, Catherine Lavandier
The spreading of urban areas and the growth of human population worldwide raise societal and environmental concerns. To better address these concerns, the monitoring of the acoustic environment in urban as well as rural or wilderness areas is an important matter. Building on the recent development of low cost hardware acoustic sensors, we propose in this paper to consider a sensor grid approach to tackle this issue. In this kind of approach, the crucial question is the nature of the data that are transmitted from the sensors to the processing and archival servers...
November 29, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184080/factors-affecting-pitch-discrimination-performance-in-a-cohort-of-extensively-phenotyped-healthy-volunteers
#20
Lauren M Smith, Alex J Bartholomew, Lauren E Burnham, Barbara Tillmann, Elizabeth T Cirulli
Despite efforts to characterize the different aspects of musical abilities in humans, many elements of this complex area remain unknown. Musical abilities are known to be associated with factors like intelligence, training, and sex, but a comprehensive evaluation of the simultaneous impact of multiple factors has not yet been performed. Here, we assessed 918 healthy volunteers for pitch discrimination abilities-their ability to tell two tones close in pitch apart. We identified the minimal threshold that the participants could detect, and we found that better performance was associated with higher intelligence, East Asian ancestry, male sex, younger age, formal music training-especially before age 6-and English as the native language...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
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