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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904595/a-cross-continental-study-on-children-s-drawings-of-football-players-implications-for-understanding-key-issues-and-controversies-in-human-figure-drawings
#1
Bahman Baluch, Linda J Duffy, Rokhsareh Badami, Elisangela C Ap Pereira
Professionals examine various aspects of girls' and boys' drawings as a way of understanding their intelligence, personality and emotional state. However, the extent to which such measures could be universally generalised or attributed to a specific cultural norm is still a debatable issue. In the present study five key features of children's drawings namely: the size (height) of the drawings, profile or full face, figure in action or static, shaded or non-shaded and the nature of additional details were examined from a cross-cultural perspective, and by providing a topic (football) for which children's drawing of a human figure could provide opportunities for the latter indices to manifest and flourish...
August 2017: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903886/patient-privacy-in-the-era-of-big-data
#2
Mehmet Kayaalp
Privacy was defined as a fundamental human right in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights at the 1948 United Nations General Assembly. However, there is still no consensus on what constitutes privacy. In this review, we look at the evolution of privacy as a concept from the era of Hippocrates to the era of social media and big data. To appreciate the modern measures of patient privacy protection and correctly interpret the current regulatory framework in the United States, we need to analyze and understand the concepts of individually identifiable information, individually identifiable health information, protected health information (PHI), and de-identification...
September 13, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902180/vision-based-real-time-traversable-region-detection-for-mobile-robot-in-the-outdoors
#3
Fucheng Deng, Xiaorui Zhu, Chao He
Environment perception is essential for autonomous mobile robots in human-robot coexisting outdoor environments. One of the important tasks for such intelligent robots is to autonomously detect the traversable region in an unstructured 3D real world. The main drawback of most existing methods is that of high computational complexity. Hence, this paper proposes a binocular vision-based, real-time solution for detecting traversable region in the outdoors. In the proposed method, an appearance model based on multivariate Gaussian is quickly constructed from a sample region in the left image adaptively determined by the vanishing point and dominant borders...
September 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900176/network-attributes-underlying-intellectual-giftedness-in-the-developing-brain
#4
Jiyoung Ma, Hee Jin Kang, Jung Yoon Kim, Hyeonseok S Jeong, Jooyeon Jamie Im, Eun Namgung, Myeong Ju Kim, Suji Lee, Tammy D Kim, Jin Kyoung Oh, Yong-An Chung, In Kyoon Lyoo, Soo Mee Lim, Sujung Yoon
Brain network is organized to maximize the efficiency of both segregated and integrated information processing that may be related to human intelligence. However, there have been surprisingly few studies that focus on the topological characteristics of brain network underlying extremely high intelligence that is intellectual giftedness, particularly in adolescents. Here, we examined the network topology in 25 adolescents with superior intelligence (SI-Adol), 25 adolescents with average intelligence (AI-Adol), and 27 young adults with AI (AI-Adult)...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894834/auditory-processing-in-the-human-cortex-an-intracranial-electrophysiology-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Kirill V Nourski
OBJECTIVE: Direct electrophysiological recordings in epilepsy patients offer an opportunity to study human auditory cortical processing with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. This review highlights recent intracranial studies of human auditory cortex and focuses on its basic response properties as well as modulation of cortical activity during the performance of active behavioral tasks. Data Sources: Literature review. Review Methods: A review of the literature was conducted to summarize the functional organization of human auditory and auditory-related cortex as revealed using intracranial recordings...
August 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890593/examples-of-applied-public-health-through-the-work-of-the-epidemic-intelligence-service-officers-at-cdc-s-national-center-for-environmental-health-2006-2015
#6
Yulia I Carroll, Fauzia A Rashid, Henry Falk, Meredith M Howley
The Epidemic Intelligence Service officers (EISOs) at the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) respond to public health outbreaks, assist public health surveillance, and recommend public health actions. We summarize the breadth of work done by EISOs assigned to NCEH/ATSDR during 2006-2015. We used the Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed databases to identify articles authored by the EISOs, number and types of epidemiologic assistance field investigations (Epi-Aids), and interviewed NCEH/ATSDR programs with EISO assignees...
2017: Public Health Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873338/myths-and-truths-about-the-cellular-composition-of-the-human-brain-a-review-of-influential-concepts
#7
REVIEW
Christopher S Bvon Bartheld
Over the last 50 years, quantitative methodology has made important contributions to our understanding of the cellular composition of the human brain. Not all of the concepts that emerged from quantitative studies have turned out to be true. Here, I examine the history and current status of some of the most influential notions. This includes claims of how many cells compose the human brain, and how different cell types contribute and in what ratios. Additional concepts entail whether we lose significant numbers of neurons with normal aging, whether chronic alcohol abuse contributes to cortical neuron loss, whether there are significant differences in the quantitative composition of cerebral cortex between male and female brains, whether superior intelligence in humans correlates with larger numbers of brain cells, and whether there are secular (generational) changes in neuron number...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870022/playing-to-our-human-strengths-to-prepare-medical-students-for-the-future
#8
Julie Chen
We are living in an age where artificial intelligence and astounding technological advances are bringing truly remarkable change to healthcare. Medical knowledge and skills which form the core responsibility of doctors such as making diagnoses may increasingly be delivered by robots. Machines are gradually acquiring human abilities such as deep learning and empathy. What, then is the role of doctors in future healthcare? And what direction should medical schools be taking to prepare their graduates? This article will give an overview of the evolving technological landscape of healthcare and examine the issues undergraduate medical education may have to address...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862007/-speech-intelligibility-in-noise-at-presbycusis
#9
Olga Dlouhá, Jan Vokřál, Libor Černý
Evaluation of speech recognition is possible by presenting testing material in sentence form with presence of competitive noise. We developed new test of sentence intelligibility in noise in the Czech language. This article demonstrates results of the influence of the babble noise on sentence intelligibility in hearing impaired listeners with presbycusis. The time characteristics of babble noise are similar to human voice. That is the reason why this noise masking is more enhanced at the central hearing level than any other noise masking...
2017: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860514/delay-discounting-is-associated-with-the-fractional-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-and-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-late-adolescence
#10
Song Wang, Ming Zhou, Taolin Chen, Xun Yang, Guangxiang Chen, Qiyong Gong
As a component of self-regulation, delay discounting (DD) refers to an individual's tendency to prefer smaller-but-sooner rewards over larger-but-later rewards and plays an essential role in many aspects of human behavior. Although numerous studies have examined the neural underpinnings of DD in adults, there are far fewer studies focusing on the neurobiological correlates underlying DD in adolescents. Here, we investigated the associations between individual differences in DD and the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in 228 high school students using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI)...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853856/highly-stretchable-ultrasensitive-and-wearable-strain-sensors-based-on-facilely-prepared-reduced-graphene-oxide-woven-fabrics-in-an-ethanol-flame
#11
Biao Yin, Yanwei Wen, Tao Hong, Zhongshuai Xie, Guoliang Yuan, Qingmin Ji, Hongbing Jia
The recent booming development of wearable electronics urgently calls for high-performance flexible strain sensors. To date, it is still a challenge to manufacture flexible strain sensors with superb sensitivity and a large workable strain range simultaneously. Herein, a facile, quick, cost-effective, and scalable strategy is adopted to fabricate novel strain sensors based on reduced graphene oxide woven fabrics (GWF). By pyrolyzing commercial cotton bandages coated with graphene oxide (GO) sheets in an ethanol flame, the reduction of GO and the pyrolysis of the cotton bandage template can be synchronously completed in tens of seconds...
September 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841437/new-insights-into-olivo-cerebellar-circuits-for-learning-from-a-small-training-sample
#12
REVIEW
Isao T Tokuda, Huu Hoang, Mitsuo Kawato
Artificial intelligence such as deep neural networks exhibited remarkable performance in simulated video games and 'Go'. In contrast, most humanoid robots in the DARPA Robotics Challenge fell down to ground. The dramatic contrast in performance is mainly due to differences in the amount of training data, which is huge and small, respectively. Animals are not allowed with millions of the failed trials, which lead to injury and death. Humans fall only several thousand times before they balance and walk. We hypothesize that a unique closed-loop neural circuit formed by the Purkinje cells, the cerebellar deep nucleus and the inferior olive in and around the cerebellum and the highest density of gap junctions, which regulate synchronous activities of the inferior olive nucleus, are computational machinery for learning from a small sample...
August 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841416/high-definition-medicine
#13
REVIEW
Ali Torkamani, Kristian G Andersen, Steven R Steinhubl, Eric J Topol
The foundation for a new era of data-driven medicine has been set by recent technological advances that enable the assessment and management of human health at an unprecedented level of resolution-what we refer to as high-definition medicine. Our ability to assess human health in high definition is enabled, in part, by advances in DNA sequencing, physiological and environmental monitoring, advanced imaging, and behavioral tracking. Our ability to understand and act upon these observations at equally high precision is driven by advances in genome editing, cellular reprogramming, tissue engineering, and information technologies, especially artificial intelligence...
August 24, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840158/utilizing-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-for-prediction-of-cognitive-workload-in-noisy-work-environments
#14
Ryan Gabbard, Mary Fendley, Irfaan A Dar, Rik Warren, Nasser H Kashou
Occupational noise frequently occurs in the work environment in military intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance operations. This impacts cognitive performance by acting as a stressor, potentially interfering with the analysts' decision-making process. We investigated the effects of different noise stimuli on analysts' performance and workload in anomaly detection by simulating a noisy work environment. We utilized functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to quantify oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as behavioral measures, which include eye tracking, reaction time, and accuracy rate...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837564/impact-of-meningitis-on-intelligence-and-development-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Deborah Christie, Harunor Rashid, Haitham El-Bashir, Faye Sweeney, Tim Shore, Robert Booy, Russell M Viner
BACKGROUND: We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to address the question "what is the impact of meningitis on IQ and development." METHODS: Search: conducted using standardized search terms across Medline, PsychInfo and EMBASE to 06/2014. Eligibility: human studies of any infectious aetiology of meningitis reporting IQ or infant developmental age or stage outcomes. Quality: Centre for Evidence Based Medicine, Oxford, quality tools. Analysis: random effects meta-analysis by organism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835601/surface-treatment-and-modification-of-metals-to-add-biofunction
#16
Takao Hanawa
To add biocompatibility or biofunction to metal surface, an intelligent interface between metals and tissues must be acquired. Tremendous surface modification techniques are currently studied to create the intelligent interface. In particular, bone formation or bone bonding is major purpose of the surface modifications. Time transient of surface modification techniques are summarized and the importance of roughened or porous surface to combine materials with bone tissue is demonstrated. As an example of surface modification, electrodeposition of poly(ethylene glycol) to inhibit biofilm formation is introduced...
August 24, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831199/targeted-sequencing-and-functional-analysis-reveal-brain-size-related-genes-and-their-networks-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
Jinchen Li, Lin Wang, Hui Guo, Leisheng Shi, Kun Zhang, Meina Tang, Shanshan Hu, Shanshan Dong, Yanling Liu, Tianyun Wang, Ping Yu, Xin He, Zhengmao Hu, Jinping Zhao, Chunyu Liu, Zhong Sheng Sun, Kun Xia
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) represents a set of complex neurodevelopmental disorders with large degrees of heritability and heterogeneity. We sequenced 136 microcephaly or macrocephaly (Mic-Mac)-related genes and 158 possible ASD-risk genes in 536 Chinese ASD probands and detected 22 damaging de novo mutations (DNMs) in 20 genes, including CHD8 and SCN2A, with recurrent events. Nine of the 20 genes were previously reported to harbor DNMs in ASD patients from other populations, while 11 of them were first identified in present study...
September 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826509/infrastructural-intelligence-contemporary-entanglements-between-neuroscience-and-ai
#18
Johannes Bruder
In this chapter, I reflect on contemporary entanglements between artificial intelligence and the neurosciences by tracing the development of Google's recent DeepMind algorithms back to their roots in neuroscientific studies of episodic memory and imagination. Google promotes a new form of "infrastructural intelligence," which excels by constantly reassessing its cognitive architecture in exchange with a cloud of data that surrounds it, and exhibits putatively human capacities such as intuition. I argue that such (re)alignments of biological and artificial intelligence have been enabled by a paradigmatic infrastructuralization of the brain in contemporary neuroscience...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821812/crows-rival-monkeys-in-cognitive-capacity
#19
Dmitry Balakhonov, Jonas Rose
The present study compares the 'bandwidth of cognition' between crows and primates. Working memory is the ability to maintain and manipulate information over short periods of time - a core component of cognition. The capacity of working memory is tightly limited, in humans correlated with individual intelligence and commonly used synonymously with cognitive capacity. Crows have remarkable cognitive skills and while birds and mammals share neural principles of working memory, its capacity has not been tested in crows...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814120/how-east-germany-fabricated-the-myth-of-hiv-being-man-made
#20
Anders Jeppsson
Despite the fact that the origin of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) being a contamination and a mutation originating from primates is well-documented alternative narratives are often being heard ofespecially in sub-Saharan Africa. One such narrative is about HIV being man-made in a military laboratory in the United States. In this article, it is shown how this narrative was fabricated by the intelligence services in East Germany (German Democratic Republic - GDR) as part of the ideological warfare during the Cold War...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
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