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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920880/conditional-electrical-stimulation-in-animal-and-human-models-for-neurogenic-bladder-working-toward-a-neuroprosthesis
#1
C R Powell
Sacral neuromodulation has had a tremendous impact on the treatment of urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract symptoms for patients with neurologic conditions. This stimulation does not use real-time data from the body or input from the patient. Incorporating this is the goal of those pursuing a neuroprosthesis to enhance bladder function for these patients. Investigators have demonstrated the effectiveness of conditional (also called closed-loop) feedback in animal models as well as limited human studies...
December 2016: Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920750/fluid-intelligence-as-a-mediator-of-the-relationship-between-executive-control-and-balanced-time-perspective
#2
Marcin Zajenkowski, Maciej Stolarski, Joanna Witowska, Oliwia Maciantowicz, Paweł Łowicki
This study examined the cognitive foundations of the balanced time perspective (BTP) proposed by Zimbardo and Boyd (1999). Although BTP is defined as the mental ability to switch effectively between different temporal perspectives, its connection with cognitive functioning has not yet been established. We addressed this by exploring the relationships between time perspectives and both fluid intelligence (measured with Raven's and Cattell's tests) and executive control (Go/No-go and anti-saccade tasks). An investigation conducted among Polish adults (N = 233) revealed that more balanced TP profile was associated with higher fluid intelligence, and higher executive control...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919314/advances-in-the-neuroscience-of-intelligence-from-brain-connectivity-to-brain-perturbation
#3
Emiliano Santarnecchi, Simone Rossi
Our view is that intelligence, as expression of the complexity of the human brain and of its evolutionary path, represents an intriguing example of "system level brain plasticity": tangible proofs of this assertion lie in the strong links intelligence has with vital brain capacities as information processing (i.e., pure, rough capacity to transfer information in an efficient way), resilience (i.e., the ability to cope with loss of efficiency and/or loss of physical elements in a network) and adaptability (i...
December 6, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919311/education-and-intelligence-pity-the-poor-teacher-because-student-characteristics-are-more-significant-than-teachers-or-schools
#4
Douglas K Detterman
Education has not changed from the beginning of recorded history. The problem is that focus has been on schools and teachers and not students. Here is a simple thought experiment with two conditions: 1) 50 teachers are assigned by their teaching quality to randomly composed classes of 20 students, 2) 50 classes of 20 each are composed by selecting the most able students to fill each class in order and teachers are assigned randomly to classes. In condition 1, teaching ability of each teacher and in condition 2, mean ability level of students in each class is correlated with average gain over the course of instruction...
December 6, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916962/lightweight-sensor-authentication-scheme-for-energy-efficiency-in-ubiquitous-computing-environments
#5
Jaeseung Lee, Yunsick Sung, Jong Hyuk Park
The Internet of Things (IoT) is the intelligent technologies and services that mutually communicate information between humans and devices or between Internet-based devices. In IoT environments, various device information is collected from the user for intelligent technologies and services that control the devices. Recently, wireless sensor networks based on IoT environments are being used in sectors as diverse as medicine, the military, and commerce. Specifically, sensor techniques that collect relevant area data via mini-sensors after distributing smart dust in inaccessible areas like forests or military zones have been embraced as the future of information technology...
December 1, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904573/clinical-teaching-with-emotional-intelligence-a-teaching-toolbox
#6
REVIEW
Athar Omid, Fariba Haghani, Peyman Adibi
BACKGROUND: Emotional intelligence (EI) helps humans to perceive their own and others' emotions. It helps to make better interpersonal communication that consequently leads to an increase in everyday performance and professional career. Teaching, particularly teaching in the clinical environment, is among the professions that need a high level of EI due to its relevance to human interactions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We adopted EI competencies with characteristics of a good clinical teacher...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893761/high-accuracy-human-activity-recognition-based-on-sparse-locality-preserving-projections
#7
Xiangbin Zhu, Huiling Qiu
Human activity recognition(HAR) from the temporal streams of sensory data has been applied to many fields, such as healthcare services, intelligent environments and cyber security. However, the classification accuracy of most existed methods is not enough in some applications, especially for healthcare services. In order to improving accuracy, it is necessary to develop a novel method which will take full account of the intrinsic sequential characteristics for time-series sensory data. Moreover, each human activity may has correlated feature relationship at different levels...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885312/implementing-speed-and-separation-monitoring-in-collaborative-robot-workcells
#8
Jeremy A Marvel, Rick Norcross
We provide an overview and guidance for the Speed and Separation Monitoring methodology as presented in the International Organization of Standardization's technical specification 15066 on collaborative robot safety. Such functionality is provided by external, intelligent observer systems integrated into a robotic workcell. The SSM minimum protective distance function equation is discussed in detail, with consideration for the input values, implementation specifications, and performance expectations. We provide analytical analyses and test results of the current equation, discuss considerations for implementing SSM in human-occupied environments, and provide directions for technological advancements toward standardization...
April 2017: Robotics and Computer-integrated Manufacturing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884523/the-anthroposphere-as-an-anticipatory-system-open-questions-on-steering-the-climate
#9
Rocco Scolozzi, Davide Geneletti
Climate change research and action counteracting it affect everyone and would involve cross-societal transformations reshaping the anthroposphere in its entirety. Scrutinizing climate-related science and policies, we recognize attempts to steer the evolution of climate according to expected (or modelled) futures. Such attempts would turn the anthroposphere into a large "anticipatory system", in which human society seeks to anticipate and, possibly, to govern climate dynamics. The chief aim of this discussion paper is to open a critical debate on the climate change paradigm (CCP) drawing on a strategic and systemic framework grounded in the concept of anticipatory system sensu Rosen (1991)...
November 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881894/competition-related-factors-directly-influence-preferences-for-facial-cues-of-dominance-in-allies
#10
Christopher D Watkins, Benedict C Jones
ABSTRACT: Alliance formation is a critical dimension of social intelligence in political, social and biological systems. As some allies may provide greater "leverage" than others during social conflict, the cognitive architecture that supports alliance formation in humans may be shaped by recent experience, for example in light of the outcomes of violent or non-violent forms intrasexual competition. Here we used experimental priming techniques to explore this issue. Consistent with our predictions, while men's preferences for dominant allies strengthened following losses (compared to victories) in violent intrasexual contests, women's preferences for dominant allies weakened following losses (compared to victories) in violent intrasexual contests...
2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881212/building-machines-that-learn-and-think-like-people
#11
Brenden M Lake, Tomer D Ullman, Joshua B Tenenbaum, Samuel J Gershman
Recent progress in artificial intelligence (AI) has renewed interest in building systems that learn and think like people. Many advances have come from using deep neural networks trained end-to-end in tasks such as object recognition, video games, and board games, achieving performance that equals or even beats humans in some respects. Despite their biological inspiration and performance achievements, these systems differ from human intelligence in crucial ways. We review progress in cognitive science suggesting that truly human-like learning and thinking machines will have to reach beyond current engineering trends in both what they learn, and how they learn it...
November 24, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876343/implications-of-the-idea-of-neurodiversity-for-understanding-the-origins-of-developmental-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Nobuo Masataka
Neurodiversity, a term initially used mostly by civil and human rights movements since the 1990s, refers to the notion that cognitive as well as emotional properties characteristic of developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are not necessarily deficits, but fall within normal behavioural variations exhibited by humans. The purpose of the present article is to examine the relevance of this notion to scientific research on ASD. On the assumption that one crucial survival advantage of intelligent activity is vigilance toward dangers in the external world, and such vigilance must work in the social domain as well as in the non-social domain, the author argues that the pattern of operation of an individual person's mind can be categorized according to the domain toward which that individual is more oriented...
November 9, 2016: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875654/biological-risks-to-public-health-lessons-from-an-international-conference-to-inform-the-development-of-national-risk-communication-strategies
#13
Petra Dickmann, Aphaluck Bhatiasevi, Fadela Chaib, Ombretta Baggio, Christina Banluta, Lilian Hollenweger, Abderrahmane Maaroufi
Biological risk management in public health focuses on the impact of outbreaks on health, the economy, and other systems and on ensuring biosafety and biosecurity. To address this broad range of risks, the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005) request that all member states build defined core capacities, risk communication being one of them. While there is existing guidance on the communication process and on what health authorities need to consider to design risk communication strategies that meet the requirements on a governance level, little has been done on implementation because of a number of factors, including lack of resources (human, financial, and others) and systems to support effective and consistent capacity for risk communication...
November 22, 2016: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875541/new-perspective-on-impact-of-folic-acid-supplementation-during-pregnancy-on-neurodevelopment-autism-in-the-offspring-children-a-systematic-review
#14
Yunfei Gao, Chao Sheng, Ri-Hua Xie, Wen Sun, Elizabeth Asztalos, Diane Moddemann, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Mark Walker, Shi Wu Wen
It has been conclusively established that folic acid supplementation prior to and during early pregnancy (up to 12 weeks of gestation) can prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). We hypothesized that folate effects may extend from neuro-structural defects to alterations in neuro-behavioural and emotional skills including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and other developmental disorders. The objective of this review was to comprehensively evaluate evidence on the impact of folic acid on neurodevelopment other than NTDs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875232/a-novel-algorithm-for-learning-sparse-spatio-spectral-patterns-for-event-related-potentials
#15
Chaohua Wu, Ke Lin, Wei Wu, Xiaorong Gao
Recent years have witnessed brain-computer interface (BCI) as a promising technology for integrating human intelligence and machine intelligence. Currently, event-related potential (ERP)-based BCI is an important branch of noninvasive electroencephalogram (EEG)-based BCIs. Extracting ERPs from a limited number of trials remains challenging due to their low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and low spatial resolution caused by volume conduction. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic model for trial-by-trial concatenated EEG, in which the concatenated ERPs are expressed as a linear combination of a set of discrete sine and cosine bases...
November 17, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871788/do-monkeys-have-a-theory-of-mind-how-to-answer-the-question
#16
REVIEW
Hélène Meunier
Since Premack and Woodruf (1978), the study of mindreading abilities in nonhumans, especially primates, has been thoroughly investigated. But attempts to understand the evolution of this aspect of human intelligence have mainly focused on comparisons between apes and human infants, while relatively little is known about the abilities of monkeys. This lack of data on monkeys seems mainly due to the hypothesis of a cognitive "gap" between apes and monkeys. However, in recent years monkeys have been featuring more prominently in the landscape of social cognition research, and some of these systematic studies appear promising...
November 18, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870408/sex-specific-effects-of-the-huntington-gene-on-normal-neurodevelopment
#17
Jessica K Lee, Yue Ding, Amy L Conrad, Elena Cattaneo, Eric Epping, Kathy Mathews, Pedro Gonzalez-Alegre, Larry Cahill, Vincent Magnotta, Bradley L Schlaggar, Joel S Perlmutter, Regina E Y Kim, Jeffrey D Dawson, Peg Nopoulos
Huntington disease is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a gene (HTT) with a unique feature of trinucleotide repeats ranging from 10 to 35 in healthy people; when expanded beyond 39 repeats, Huntington disease develops. Animal models demonstrate that HTT is vital to brain development; however, this has not been studied in humans. Moreover, evidence suggests that triplet repeat genes may have been vital in evolution of the human brain. Here we evaluate brain structure using magnetic resonance imaging and brain function using cognitive tests in a sample of school-aged children ages 6 to 18 years old...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869148/motor-noise-is-rich-signal-in-autism-research-and-pharmacological-treatments
#18
E B Torres, K Denisova
The human body is in constant motion, from every breath that we take, to every visibly purposeful action that we perform. Remaining completely still on command is a major achievement as involuntary fluctuations in our motions are difficult to keep under control. Here we examine the noise-to-signal ratio of micro-movements present in time-series of head motions extracted from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans in 1048 participants. These included individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and healthy-controls in shared data from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) and the Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-200) databases...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866176/hypoglycemia-alert-dogs-a-novel-cost-effective-approach-for-diabetes-monitoring
#19
Giuseppe Lippi, Gianfranco Cervellin, Maurizio Dondi, Giovanni Targher
The recent publication of the results of 3 small trials, and as many as 5 case reports on dogs producing clear and intelligible alerts in the presence of their owners' hypoglycemia, opens an intriguing clinical scenario for management of diabetes. The skill seems attributable to the ability of dogs to identify patterns in skin and breath odors as well as to understand and interpret visual cues from humans during hypoglycemia. Provided that further trials can confirm the findings, the use of diabetes alert dogs that are trained to detect the onset of hypoglycemia can be regarded as a fast, versatile, reliable, and cost-effective approach for safeguarding the health of individuals with diabetes...
November 2016: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857695/information-compression-multiple-alignment-and-the-representation-and-processing-of-knowledge-in-the-brain
#20
J Gerard Wolff
The SP theory of intelligence, with its realization in the SP computer model, aims to simplify and integrate observations and concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, mathematics, and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. This paper describes how abstract structures and processes in the theory may be realized in terms of neurons, their interconnections, and the transmission of signals between neurons. This part of the SP theory-SP-neural-is a tentative and partial model for the representation and processing of knowledge in the brain...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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