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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059495/ultrafast-self-healing-nanocomposites-via-infrared-laser-and-their-application-in-flexible-electronics
#1
Shuwen Wu, Jinhui Li, Guoping Zhang, Yimin Yao, Gang Li, Rong Sun, Chingping Wong
The continuous evolution toward flexible electronics with mechanical robust property and restoring structure simultaneously places high demand on a set of polymeric material substrate. Herein, we describe a composite material composed of a polyurethane based on Diels-Alder chemistry (PU-DA) covalently linked with functionalized graphene nanosheets (FGNS), which shows mechanical robust and infrared (IR) laser self-healing properties at ambient conditions and is therefore suitable for flexible substrate applications...
January 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058999/sex-differences-in-quadrupedal-walking-gaits-of-uner-tan-syndrome-cases-healthy-humans-and-nonhuman-primates
#2
Uner Tan
BACKGROUND: Uner Tan syndrome (UTS) cases with habitual quadrupedal locomotion (QL), impaired intelligence, and dysarthric or no speech predominantly use lateral sequence (LS) gait like nonprimates rather than the predominantly diagonal sequence (DS) gait of nonhuman primates. However, these studies neglected possible sex-related differences in these gait types. OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess the possible sex-related gait types in UTS cases, healthy infants and adults with requested QL, and the nonhuman primates...
January 6, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045495/bacterial-networks-on-hydrophobic-micropillars
#3
Zeinab Jahed, Hamed Shahsavan, Mohit S Verma, Jacob L Rogowski, Brandon B Seo, Boxin Zhao, Ting Y Tsui, Frank X Gu, Mohammad R K Mofrad
Bacteria have evolved as intelligent microorganisms that can colonize and form highly structured and cooperative multicellular communities with sophisticated singular and collective behaviors. The initial stages of colony formation and intercellular communication are particularly important to understand and depend highly on the spatial organization of cells. Controlling the distribution and growth of bacterial cells at the nanoscale is, therefore, of great interest in understanding the mechanisms of cell-cell communication at the initial stages of colony formation...
January 9, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045463/neurogenetics-of-developmental-dyslexia-from-genes-to-behavior-through-brain-neuroimaging-and-cognitive-and-sensorial-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
S Mascheretti, A De Luca, V Trezzi, D Peruzzo, A Nordio, C Marino, F Arrigoni
Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a complex neurodevelopmental deficit characterized by impaired reading acquisition, in spite of adequate neurological and sensorial conditions, educational opportunities and normal intelligence. Despite the successful characterization of DD-susceptibility genes, we are far from understanding the molecular etiological pathways underlying the development of reading (dis)ability. By focusing mainly on clinical phenotypes, the molecular genetics approach has yielded mixed results...
January 3, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043026/venturing-into-the-uncanny-valley-of-mind-the-influence-of-mind-attribution-on-the-acceptance-of-human-like-characters-in-a-virtual-reality-setting
#5
Jan-Philipp Stein, Peter Ohler
For more than 40years, the uncanny valley model has captivated researchers from various fields of expertise. Still, explanations as to why slightly imperfect human-like characters can evoke feelings of eeriness remain the subject of controversy. Many experiments exploring the phenomenon have emphasized specific visual factors in connection to evolutionary psychological theories or an underlying categorization conflict. More recently, studies have also shifted away focus from the appearance of human-like entities, instead exploring their mental capabilities as basis for observers' discomfort...
December 30, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042926/the-potential-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-your-health-current-status-and-future-challenges
#6
Stitaya Sirisinha
Our health and probably also our behaviors and mood depend not only on what we eat or what we do (lifestyle behaviors), but also on what we host. It is well established for decades that all vertebrates including humans are colonized by a wide array of bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses, and that, at steady state (homeostasis), this community of microbes establishes a friendly mutual relationship with the host. The term microbiota was originally meant to represent an ecological community of commensals and potentially pathogenic microbes that live within our bodies, but it is now used interchangeably with the term microbiome which was initially meant to represent a collective genome of the microbiota...
December 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039373/a-model-of-the-superior-colliculus-predicts-fixation-locations-during-scene-viewing-and-visual-search
#7
Hossein Adeli, Françoise Vitu, Gregory J Zelinsky
: Modern computational models of attention predict fixations using saliency maps and target maps, which prioritize locations for fixation based on feature contrast and target goals, respectively. But while many such models are biologically plausible, none have looked to the oculomotor system for design constraints or parameter specification. Conversely, while most models of saccade programming are tightly coupled to underlying neurophysiology, none have been tested using real-world stimuli and tasks...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039015/longitudinal-follow-up-to-evaluate-speech-disorders-in-early-treated-patients-with-infantile-onset-pompe-disease
#8
Yin-Ting Zeng, Wuh-Liang Hwu, Pao-Chuan Torng, Ni-Chung Lee, Jeng-Yi Shieh, Lu Lu, Yin-Hsiu Chien
BACKGROUND: Patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease (IOPD) can be treated by recombinant human acid alpha glucosidase (rhGAA) replacement beginning at birth with excellent survival rates, but they still commonly present with speech disorders. This study investigated the progress of speech disorders in these early-treated patients and ascertained the relationship with treatments. METHODS: Speech disorders, including hypernasal resonance, articulation disorders, and speech intelligibility, were scored by speech-language pathologists using auditory perception in seven early-treated patients over a period of 6 years...
December 19, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034660/social-learning-culture-and-the-socio-cultural-brain-of-human-and-non-human-primates
#9
REVIEW
Andrew Whiten, Erica van de Waal
Noting important recent discoveries, we review primate social learning, traditions and culture, together with associated findings about primate brains. We survey our current knowledge of primate cultures in the wild, and complementary experimental diffusion studies testing species' capacity to sustain traditions. We relate this work to theories that seek to explain the enlarged brain size of primates as specializations for social intelligence, that have most recently extended to learning from others and the cultural transmission this permits...
December 26, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026067/fuel-free-synthetic-micro-nanomachines
#10
Tailin Xu, Wei Gao, Li-Ping Xu, Xueji Zhang, Shutao Wang
Inspired by the swimming of natural microorganisms, synthetic micro-/nanomachines, which convert energy into movement, are able to mimic the function of these amazing natural systems and help humanity by completing environmental and biological tasks. While offering autonomous propulsion, conventional micro-/nanomachines usually rely on the decomposition of external chemical fuels (e.g., H2 O2 ), which greatly hinders their applications in biologically relevant media. Recent developments have resulted in various micro-/nanomotors that can be powered by biocompatible fuels...
December 27, 2016: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018662/the-power-of-associative-learning-and-the-ontogeny-of-optimal-behaviour
#11
Magnus Enquist, Johan Lind, Stefano Ghirlanda
Behaving efficiently (optimally or near-optimally) is central to animals' adaptation to their environment. Much evolutionary biology assumes, implicitly or explicitly, that optimal behavioural strategies are genetically inherited, yet the behaviour of many animals depends crucially on learning. The question of how learning contributes to optimal behaviour is largely open. Here we propose an associative learning model that can learn optimal behaviour in a wide variety of ecologically relevant circumstances. The model learns through chaining, a term introduced by Skinner to indicate learning of behaviour sequences by linking together shorter sequences or single behaviours...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005457/modelling-difficulties-in-abstract-thinking-in-psychosis-the-importance-of-socio-developmental-background
#12
A O Berg, I Melle, V Zuber, C Simonsen, M Nerhus, T Ueland, O A Andreassen, K Sundet, A Vaskinn
INTRODUCTION: Abstract thinking is important in modern understanding of neurocognitive abilities, and a symptom of thought disorder in psychosis. In patients with psychosis, we assessed if socio-developmental background influences abstract thinking, and the association with executive functioning and clinical psychosis symptoms. METHODS: Participants (n = 174) had a diagnosis of psychotic or bipolar disorder, were 17-65 years, intelligence quotient (IQ) > 70, fluent in a Scandinavian language, and their full primary education in Norway...
December 22, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004959/modeling-visual-problem-solving-as-analogical-reasoning
#13
Andrew Lovett, Kenneth Forbus
We present a computational model of visual problem solving, designed to solve problems from the Raven's Progressive Matrices intelligence test. The model builds on the claim that analogical reasoning lies at the heart of visual problem solving, and intelligence more broadly. Images are compared via structure mapping, aligning the common relational structure in 2 images to identify commonalities and differences. These commonalities or differences can themselves be reified and used as the input for future comparisons...
January 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004039/building-an-evaluation-scale-using-item-response-theory
#14
John P Lalor, Hao Wu, Hong Yu
Evaluation of NLP methods requires testing against a previously vetted gold-standard test set and reporting standard metrics (accuracy/precision/recall/F1). The current assumption is that all items in a given test set are equal with regards to difficulty and discriminating power. We propose Item Response Theory (IRT) from psychometrics as an alternative means for gold-standard test-set generation and NLP system evaluation. IRT is able to describe characteristics of individual items - their difficulty and discriminating power - and can account for these characteristics in its estimation of human intelligence or ability for an NLP task...
November 2016: Proc Conf Empir Methods Nat Lang Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003527/ni%C3%A3-pce-bell-or-turing-how-to-test-odour-reproduction
#15
REVIEW
David Harel
Decades before the existence of anything resembling an artificial intelligence system, Alan Turing raised the question of how to test whether machines can think, or, in modern terminology, whether a computer claimed to exhibit intelligence indeed does so. This paper raises the analogous issue for olfaction: how to test the validity of a system claimed to reproduce arbitrary odours artificially, in a way recognizable to humans. Although odour reproduction systems are still far from being viable, the question of how to test candidates thereof is claimed to be interesting and non-trivial, and a novel method is proposed...
December 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001440/who-believes-in-the-storybook-image-of-the-scientist
#16
Coosje L S Veldkamp, Chris H J Hartgerink, Marcel A L M van Assen, Jelte M Wicherts
Do lay people and scientists themselves recognize that scientists are human and therefore prone to human fallibilities such as error, bias, and even dishonesty? In a series of three experimental studies and one correlational study (total N = 3,278) we found that the 'storybook image of the scientist' is pervasive: American lay people and scientists from over 60 countries attributed considerably more objectivity, rationality, open-mindedness, intelligence, integrity, and communality to scientists than other highly-educated people...
December 21, 2016: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000439/expediting-combinatorial-data-set-analysis-by-combining-human-and-algorithmic-analysis
#17
Helge Sören Stein, Sally Jiao, Alfred Ludwig
A challenge in combinatorial materials science remains the efficient analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) data and its correlation to functional properties. Rapid identification of phase-regions and proper assignment of corresponding crystal structures is necessary to keep pace with the improved methods for synthesizing and characterizing materials libraries. Therefore, a new modular software called htAx (high-throughput analysis of X-ray and functional properties data) is presented that couples human intelligence tasks used for "ground-truth" phase-region identification with subsequent unbiased verification by an algorithm to efficiently analyze which phases are present in a materials library...
December 21, 2016: ACS Combinatorial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996965/rapid-tuning-shifts-in-human-auditory-cortex-enhance-speech-intelligibility
#18
Christopher R Holdgraf, Wendy de Heer, Brian Pasley, Jochem Rieger, Nathan Crone, Jack J Lin, Robert T Knight, Frédéric E Theunissen
Experience shapes our perception of the world on a moment-to-moment basis. This robust perceptual effect of experience parallels a change in the neural representation of stimulus features, though the nature of this representation and its plasticity are not well-understood. Spectrotemporal receptive field (STRF) mapping describes the neural response to acoustic features, and has been used to study contextual effects on auditory receptive fields in animal models. We performed a STRF plasticity analysis on electrophysiological data from recordings obtained directly from the human auditory cortex...
December 20, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995319/prediction-of-biogeographical-ancestry-from-genotype-a-comparison-of-classifiers
#19
Elaine Y Y Cheung, Michelle Elizabeth Gahan, Dennis McNevin
DNA can provide forensic intelligence regarding a donor's biogeographical ancestry (BGA) and other externally visible characteristics (EVCs). A number of algorithms have been proposed to assign individual human genotypes to a BGA using ancestry informative marker (AIM) panels. This study compares the BGA assignment accuracy of the population clustering program STRUCTURE and three generic classification approaches including a Bayesian algorithm, genetic distance, and multinomial logistic regression (MLR). A selection of 142 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were chosen from existing marker panels (SNPforID 34-plex, Eurasiaplex, Seldin, and Kidd's AIM panels) to assess BGA classification at the continental level for Africans, Europeans, East Asians, and Amerindians...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989697/developmental-benzo-a-pyrene-b-a-p-exposure-impacts-larval-behavior-and-impairs-adult-learning-in-zebrafish
#20
Andrea L Knecht, Lisa Truong, Michael T Simonich, Robert L Tanguay
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are produced from incomplete combustion of organic materials or fossil fuels, and are present in crude oil and coal; therefore, they are ubiquitous environmental contaminants present in urban air, dust, soil, and water. It is widely recognized that PAHs pose risks to human health, especially for the developing fetus and infant where PAH exposures have been linked to in-utero mortality, cardiovascular effects, and lower intelligence. Using the zebrafish model, we evaluated the developmental toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)...
January 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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