Read by QxMD icon Read

Intelligence in humans

Chen Zhu, Xiaohui Zhang, Qiran Zhao, Qihui Chen
In genetics, heterosis refers to the phenomenon that cross-breeding within species leads to offspring that are genetically fitter than their parents and exhibit improved phenotypic characteristics. Based on the theory of heterosis and existing genetic evidence, offspring of "hybrid" marriages (spouses originating from different states/provinces/countries/areas), though relatively rare due to physical boundaries, may exhibit greater genetic fitness in terms of intelligence, height, or physical attractiveness (the "distance-performance" hypothesis)...
February 19, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
Ming Xiao, Daozhi Shen, Kevin P Musselman, Walter W Duley, Y Norman Zhou
Neuromorphic computational systems that emulate biological synapses in the human brain are fundamental in the development of artificial intelligence protocols beyond the standard von Neumann architecture. Such systems require new types of building blocks, such as memristors that access a quasi-continuous and wide range of conductive states, which is still an obstacle for the realization of high-efficiency and large-capacity learning in neuromorphoric simulation. Here, we introduce hydrogen and sodium titanate nanobelts, the intermediate products of hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2 nanobelts, to emulate the synaptic behavior...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Jean-Nicolas Audet, Lima Kayello, Simon Ducatez, Sara Perillo, Laure Cauchard, Jason T Howard, Lauren A O'Connell, Erich D Jarvis, Louis Lefebvre
Problem solving and innovation are key components of intelligence. We compare wild-caught individuals from two species that are close relatives of Darwin's finches, the innovative Loxigilla barbadensis , and its most closely related species in Barbados, the conservative Tiaris bicolor . We found an all-or-none difference in the problem-solving capacity of the two species. Brain RNA sequencing analyses revealed interspecific differences in genes related to neuronal and synaptic plasticity in the intrapallial neural populations (mesopallium and nidopallium), especially in the nidopallium caudolaterale, a structure functionally analogous to the mammalian prefrontal cortex...
March 2018: Science Advances
Carlos Crivelli, Alan J Fridlund
Based on modern theories of signal evolution and animal communication, the behavioral ecology view of facial displays (BECV) reconceives our 'facial expressions of emotion' as social tools that serve as lead signs to contingent action in social negotiation. BECV offers an externalist, functionalist view of facial displays that is not bound to Western conceptions about either expressions or emotions. It easily accommodates recent findings of diversity in facial displays, their public context-dependency, and the curious but common occurrence of solitary facial behavior...
March 12, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Ellen V S Hessel, Yvonne C M Staal, Aldert H Piersma
Developmental neurotoxicity entails one of the most complex areas in toxicology. Animal studies provide only limited information as to human relevance. A multitude of alternative models have been developed over the years, providing insights into mechanisms of action. We give an overview of fundamental processes in neural tube formation, brain development and neural specification, aiming at illustrating complexity rather than comprehensiveness. We also give a flavor of the wealth of alternative methods in this area...
March 12, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Juan Zhao, Zhihe Chi, Zhan Yang, Xiaojie Chen, Michael S Arnold, Yi Zhang, Jiarui Xu, Zhenguo Chi, Matthew P Aldred
Truly stretchable electronics, wherein all components themselves permit elastic deformation as the whole devices are stretched, exhibit unique advantages over other strategies, such as simple fabrication process, high integrity of entire components and intimate integration with curvilinear surfaces. In contrast to the stretchable devices using stretchable interconnectors to integrate with rigid active devices, truly stretchable devices are realized with or without intentionally employing structural engineering (e...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Christopher Wass, Bruno Sauce, Alessandro Pizzo, Louis D Matzel
In both humans and mice, performance on tests of intelligence or general cognitive ability (GCA) is related to dopamine D1 receptor-mediated activity in the prelimbic cortex, and levels of DRD1 mRNA predict the GCA of mice. Here we assessed the turnover rate of D1 receptors as well as the expression level of the D1 chaperone protein (DRiP78) in the medial PPC (mPFC) of mice to determine whether rate of receptor turnover was associated with variations in the GCA of genetically heterogeneous mice. Following assessment of GCA (aggregate performance on four diverse learning tests) mice were administered an irreversible dopamine receptor antagonist (EEDQ), after which the density of new D1 receptors were quantified...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Huijuan Guo, Xueting Jia, Lu Liu, Xia Cao, Ning Wang, Zhong Lin Wang
Recent development of interactive motion-tracking and positioning technologies is attracting increased interests in the many areas, such as wearable electronics, intelligent electronic and internet of things. For example, the so-called somatosensory technology can afford users strong empathy of immersion and realism due to their consistent interaction with the game. Here, we report a noncontact self-powered positioning and motion-tracking system based on freestanding triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG). The TENG was fabricated by nano-engineered surface in the contact-separation mode with the use of a free moving human body (hands or foot) as the trigger...
March 14, 2018: ACS Nano
Tianzhao Bu, Tianxiao Xiao, Zhiwei Yang, Guoxu Liu, Xianpeng Fu, Jinhui Nie, Tong Guo, Yaokun Pang, Junqing Zhao, Fengben Xi, Chi Zhang, Zhong Lin Wang
Smart skin is expected to be stretchable and tactile for bionic robots as the medium with the ambient environment. Here, a stretchable triboelectric-photonic smart skin (STPS) is reported that enables multidimensional tactile and gesture sensing for a robotic hand. With a grating-structured metal film as the bioinspired skin stripe, the STPS exhibits a tunable aggregation-induced emission in a lateral tensile range of 0-160%. Moreover, the STPS can be used as a triboelectric nanogenerator for vertical pressure sensing with a maximum sensitivity of 34 mV Pa-1 ...
March 13, 2018: Advanced Materials
Matthias von Davier
Utilizing technology for automated item generation is not a new idea. However, test items used in commercial testing programs or in research are still predominantly written by humans, in most cases by content experts or professional item writers. Human experts are a limited resource and testing agencies incur high costs in the process of continuous renewal of item banks to sustain testing programs. Using algorithms instead holds the promise of providing unlimited resources for this crucial part of assessment development...
March 12, 2018: Psychometrika
Alán Aspuru-Guzik, Roland Lindh, Markus Reiher
To date, the program for the development of methods and models for atomistic and continuum simulation directed toward chemicals and materials has reached an incredible degree of sophistication and maturity. Currently, one can witness an increasingly rapid emergence of advances in computing, artificial intelligence, and robotics. This drives us to consider the future of computer simulation of matter from the molecular to the human length and time scales in a radical way that deliberately dares to go beyond the foreseeable next steps in any given discipline...
February 28, 2018: ACS Central Science
Sebastian Polak, Barbara Wiśniowska, Aleksander Mendyk, Adam Pacławski, Jakub Szlęk
Human heart electrophysiology is complex biological phenomenon, which is indirectly assessed by the measured ECG signal. ECG trace is further analyzed to derive interpretable surrogates including QT interval, QRS complex, PR interval, and T wave morphology. QT interval and its modification are the most commonly used surrogates of the drug triggered arrhythmia, but it is known that the QT interval itself is determined by other nondrug related parameters, physiological and pathological. In the current study, we used the computational intelligence algorithms to analyze correlations between various simulated physiological parameters and QT interval...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Andi Rexha, Mark Kröll, Hermann Ziak, Roman Kern
The goal of our work is inspired by the task of associating segments of text to their real authors. In this work, we focus on analyzing the way humans judge different writing styles. This analysis can help to better understand this process and to thus simulate/ mimic such behavior accordingly. Unlike the majority of the work done in this field (i.e. authorship attribution, plagiarism detection, etc.) which uses content features, we focus only on the stylometric, i.e. content-agnostic, characteristics of authors...
2018: Scientometrics
Steven H Baete, Jingyun Chen, Ying-Chia Lin, Xiuyuan Wang, Ricardo Otazo, Fernando E Boada
A novel approach is presented for group statistical analysis of diffusion weighted MRI datasets through voxelwise Orientation Distribution Functions (ODF). Recent advances in MRI acquisition make it possible to use high quality diffusion weighted protocols (multi-shell, large number of gradient directions) for routine in vivo study of white matter architecture. The dimensionality of these data sets is however often reduced to simplify statistical analysis. While these approaches may detect large group differences, they do not fully capitalize on all acquired image volumes...
March 8, 2018: NeuroImage
Jiaxing Ye, Takumi Kobayashi, Masaya Iwata, Hiroshi Tsuda, Masahiro Murakawa
Developing efficient Artificial Intelligence (AI)-enabled systems to substitute the human role in non-destructive testing is an emerging topic of considerable interest. In this study, we propose a novel hammering response analysis system using online machine learning, which aims at achieving near-human performance in assessment of concrete structures. Current computerized hammer sounding systems commonly employ lab-scale data to validate the models. In practice, however, the response signal patterns can be far more complicated due to varying geometric shapes and materials of structures...
March 9, 2018: Sensors
Ana Rey-Rico, Magali Cucchiarini
Lineal (poloxamers or Pluronic® ) or X-shaped (poloxamines or Tetronic® ) amphiphilic tri-block copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) have been broadly explored for controlled drug delivery in different regenerative medicine approaches. The ability of these copolymers to self-assemble as micelles and to undergo sol-to-gel transitions upon heating has endowed the denomination of "smart" or "intelligent" systems. The use of PEO-PPO-PEO copolymers as gene delivery systems is a powerful emerging strategy to improve the performance of classical gene transfer vectors...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lucius Caviola, Jim A C Everett, Nadira S Faber
We introduce and investigate the philosophical concept of 'speciesism' -the assignment of different moral worth based on species membership -as a psychological construct. In five studies, using both general population samples online and student samples, we show that speciesism is a measurable, stable construct with high interpersonal differences, that goes along with a cluster of other forms of prejudice, and is able to predict real-world decision-making and behavior. In Study 1 we present the development and empirical validation of a theoretically driven Speciesism Scale, which captures individual differences in speciesist attitudes...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Alejandro Villar, María T Zarrabeitia, Pablo Fdez-Arroyabe, Ana Santurtún
Processing data that originates from different sources (such as environmental and medical data) can prove to be a difficult task, due to the heterogeneity of variables, storage systems, and file formats that can be used. Moreover, once the amount of data reaches a certain threshold, conventional mining methods (based on spreadsheets or statistical software) become cumbersome or even impossible to apply. Data Extract, Transform, and Load (ETL) solutions provide a framework to normalize and integrate heterogeneous data into a local data store...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Fei Jiang, Yong Jiang, Hui Zhi, Yi Dong, Hao Li, Sufeng Ma, Yilong Wang, Qiang Dong, Haipeng Shen, Yongjun Wang
Artificial intelligence (AI) aims to mimic human cognitive functions. It is bringing a paradigm shift to healthcare, powered by increasing availability of healthcare data and rapid progress of analytics techniques. We survey the current status of AI applications in healthcare and discuss its future. AI can be applied to various types of healthcare data (structured and unstructured). Popular AI techniques include machine learning methods for structured data, such as the classical support vector machine and neural network, and the modern deep learning, as well as natural language processing for unstructured data...
December 2017: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
Victoria F Sisk, Alexander P Burgoyne, Jingze Sun, Jennifer L Butler, Brooke N Macnamara
Mind-sets (aka implicit theories) are beliefs about the nature of human attributes (e.g., intelligence). The theory holds that individuals with growth mind-sets (beliefs that attributes are malleable with effort) enjoy many positive outcomes-including higher academic achievement-while their peers who have fixed mind-sets experience negative outcomes. Given this relationship, interventions designed to increase students' growth mind-sets-thereby increasing their academic achievement-have been implemented in schools around the world...
March 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"