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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800613/ongoing-slow-oscillatory-phase-modulates-speech-intelligibility-in-cooperation-with-motor-cortical-activity
#1
Takayuki Onojima, Keiichi Kitajo, Hiroaki Mizuhara
Neural oscillation is attracting attention as an underlying mechanism for speech recognition. Speech intelligibility is enhanced by the synchronization of speech rhythms and slow neural oscillation, which is typically observed as human scalp electroencephalography (EEG). In addition to the effect of neural oscillation, it has been proposed that speech recognition is enhanced by the identification of a speaker's motor signals, which are used for speech production. To verify the relationship between the effect of neural oscillation and motor cortical activity, we measured scalp EEG, and simultaneous EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a speech recognition task in which participants were required to recognize spoken words embedded in noise sound...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799918/developmental-pbde-exposure-and-iq-adhd-in-childhood-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Juleen Lam, Bruce P Lanphear, David Bellinger, Daniel A Axelrad, Jennifer McPartland, Patrice Sutton, Lisette Davidson, Natalyn Daniels, Saunak Sen, Tracey J Woodruff
BACKGROUND: In the United States, one in six children are affected by neurodevelopmental disorders, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in flame-retardant chemicals are measured ubiquitously in children. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic a systematic review regarding developmental exposure to PBDEs and intelligence or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and attention-related behavioral conditions in humans. METHODS: We searched articles published up to 26 September 2016, and included original studies that quantified exposures to PBDEs incurred any time in proximity to conception or during in utero, perinatal, or childhood time periods...
August 3, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793162/automatic-speech-recognition-predicts-speech-intelligibility-and-comprehension-for-listeners-with-simulated-age-related-hearing-loss
#3
Lionel Fontan, Isabelle Ferrané, Jérôme Farinas, Julien Pinquier, Julien Tardieu, Cynthia Magnen, Pascal Gaillard, Xavier Aumont, Christian Füllgrabe
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to assess speech processing for listeners with simulated age-related hearing loss (ARHL) and to investigate whether the observed performance can be replicated using an automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. The long-term goal of this research is to develop a system that will assist audiologists/hearing-aid dispensers in the fine-tuning of hearing aids. Method: Sixty young participants with normal hearing listened to speech materials mimicking the perceptual consequences of ARHL at different levels of severity...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783586/dynamic-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-and-chemometric-methods-for-fast-detection-and-intelligent-identification-of-methamphetamine-and-3-4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine-in-human-urine
#4
Shizhuang Weng, Ronglu Dong, Zede Zhu, Dongyan Zhang, Jinling Zhao, Linsheng Huang, Dong Liang
Conventional Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) for fast detection of drugs in urine on the portable Raman spectrometer remains challenges because of low sensitivity and unreliable Raman signal, and spectra process with manual intervention. Here, we develop a novel detection method of drugs in urine using chemometric methods and dynamic SERS (D-SERS) with mPEG-SH coated gold nanorods (GNRs). D-SERS combined with the uniform GNRs can obtain giant enhancement, and the signal is also of high reproducibility...
August 2, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782029/eye-motion-triggered-self-powered-mechnosensational-communication-system-using-triboelectric-nanogenerator
#5
Xianjie Pu, Hengyu Guo, Jie Chen, Xue Wang, Yi Xi, Chenguo Hu, Zhong Lin Wang
Mechnosensational human-machine interfaces (HMIs) can greatly extend communication channels between human and external devices in a natural way. The mechnosensational HMIs based on biopotential signals have been developing slowly owing to the low signal-to-noise ratio and poor stability. In eye motions, the corneal-retinal potential caused by hyperpolarization and depolarization is very weak. However, the mechanical micromotion of the skin around the corners of eyes has never been considered as a good trigger signal source...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777490/a-novel-genetic-syndrome-with-stard9-mutation-and-abnormal-spindle-morphology
#6
Nobuhiko Okamoto, Yuki Tsuchiya, Fuyuki Miya, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Kumiko Yamashita, Keith A Boroevich, Mitsuhiro Kato, Shinji Saitoh, Mami Yamasaki, Yonehiro Kanemura, Kenjiro Kosaki, Daiju Kitagawa
Intellectual disability (ID) is one of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by serious defects in both intelligence and adaptive behavior. Although it has been suggested that genetic aberrations associated with the process of cell division underlie ID, the cytological evidence for mitotic defects in actual patient's cells is rarely reported. Here, we report a novel mutation in the STARD9 (also known as KIF16A) gene found in a patient with severe ID, characteristic features, epilepsy, acquired microcephaly, and blindness...
August 4, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771788/her2-challenge-contest-a-detailed-assessment-of-automated-her2-scoring-algorithms-in-whole-slide-images-of-breast-cancer-tissues
#7
Talha Qaiser, Abhik Mukherjee, Chaitanya Reddy Pb, Sai Dileep Munugoti, Vamsi Tallam, Tomi Pitkäaho, Taina Lehtimäki, Thomas Naughton, Matt Berseth, Aníbal Pedraza, Ramakrishnan Mukundan, Matthew Smith, Abhir Bhalerao, Erik Rodner, Marcel Simon, Joachim Denzler, Chao-Hui Huang, Gloria Bueno, David Snead, Ian O Ellis, Mohammad Ilyas, Nasir Rajpoot
AIMS: Evaluating expression of the Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) by visual examination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) on invasive breast cancer (BCa) is a key part of the diagnostic assessment of BCa due to its recognised importance as a predictive and prognostic marker in clinical practice. However, visual scoring of Her2 is subjective and consequently prone to inter-observer variability. Given the prognostic and therapeutic implications of Her2 scoring, a more objective method is required...
August 3, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758326/a-novel-optimal-coordinated-control-strategy-for-the-updated-robot-system-for-single-port-surgery
#8
Weibang Bai, Qixin Cao, Chuntao Leng, Yang Cao, Masakatsu G Fujie, Tiewen Pan
BACKGROUND: Research into robotic systems for single port surgery (SPS) has become widespread around the world in recent years. A new robot arm system for SPS was developed, but its positioning platform and other hardware components were not efficient. Special features of the developed surgical robot system make good teleoperation with safety and efficiency difficult. METHODS: A robot arm is combined and used as new positioning platform, and the remote center motion is realized by a new method using active motion control...
July 30, 2017: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741111/label-free-fluorescence-turn-on-aptasensor-for-prostate-specific-antigen-sensing-based-on-aggregation-induced-emission-silica-nanospheres
#9
Rong-Mei Kong, Xiaobin Zhang, Lu Ding, Daoshan Yang, Fengli Qu
Fluorescent light-up probes based on aggregation-induced emission (AIE)-active molecules have recently attracted great research interest due to the intelligent fluorescence activation mechanism and high sensitivity. In this work, an AIE-silica nanosphere (SiO2 NP)-based label-free fluorescent aptasensor for the sensitive "turn-on" detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is reported for the first time. The positively charged amino-functionalized SiO2 NPs were used as efficient nanocapturer to electrostatically adsorb single-stranded PSA aptamer (PA) to form SiO2 NP-PA nanocomposite as well as adsorb negatively charged tetraphenylethylene derivative 3 (TPE3) to form AIE-SiO2 NP nanocomposite...
July 24, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739950/coevolution-of-cultural-intelligence-extended-life-history-sociality-and-brain-size-in-primates
#10
Sally E Street, Ana F Navarrete, Simon M Reader, Kevin N Laland
Explanations for primate brain expansion and the evolution of human cognition and culture remain contentious despite extensive research. While multiple comparative analyses have investigated variation in brain size across primate species, very few have addressed why primates vary in how much they use social learning. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis that the enhanced reliance on socially transmitted behavior observed in some primates has coevolved with enlarged brains, complex sociality, and extended lifespans...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733602/distinct-selective-forces-and-neanderthal-introgression-shaped-genetic-diversity-at-genes-involved-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#11
Alessandra Mozzi, Diego Forni, Rachele Cagliani, Uberto Pozzoli, Mario Clerici, Manuela Sironi
In addition to high intelligence, humans evolved specialized social-cognitive skills, which are specifically affected in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Genes affected in ASD represent suitable candidates to study the evolution of human social cognition. We performed an evolutionary analysis on 68 genes associated to neurodevelopmental disorders; our data indicate that genetic diversity was shaped by distinct selective forces, including natural selection and introgression from archaic hominins...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729621/genotype-environment-interaction-on-human-cognitive-function-conditioned-on-the-status-of-breastfeeding-and-maternal-smoking-around-birth
#12
S Hong Lee, W M Shalanee P Weerasinghe, Julius H J van der Werf
We estimated genotype by environment interaction (G × E) on later cognitive performance and educational attainment across four unique environments, i.e. 1) breastfed without maternal smoking, 2) breastfed with maternal smoking, 3) non-breastfed without maternal smoking and 4) non-breastfed with maternal smoking, using a novel design and statistical approach that was facilitated by the availability of datasets with the genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). There was significant G × E for both fluid intelligence (p-value = 1...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729443/theta-and-beta-band-neural-activity-reflect-independent-syllable-tracking-and-comprehension-of-time-compressed-speech
#13
Maria Pefkou, Luc H Arnal, Lorenzo Fontolan, Anne-Lise Giraud
Recent psychophysics data suggest that speech perception is not limited by the capacity of the auditory system to encode fast acoustic variations through neural gamma activity, but rather by the time given to the brain to decode them. Whether the decoding process is bounded by the capacity of theta rhythm to follow speech syllabic rhythm, or constrained by a more endogenous top-down mechanism, e.g. involving beta activity, is unknown. We addressed the dynamics of auditory decoding in speech comprehension by challenging syllable tracking and speech decoding using comprehensible and incomprehensible time-compressed auditory sentences...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728020/neuroscience-inspired-artificial-intelligence
#14
REVIEW
Demis Hassabis, Dharshan Kumaran, Christopher Summerfield, Matthew Botvinick
The fields of neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI) have a long and intertwined history. In more recent times, however, communication and collaboration between the two fields has become less commonplace. In this article, we argue that better understanding biological brains could play a vital role in building intelligent machines. We survey historical interactions between the AI and neuroscience fields and emphasize current advances in AI that have been inspired by the study of neural computation in humans and other animals...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727549/learning-and-inferring-dark-matter-and-predicting-human-intents-and-trajectories-in-videos
#15
Dan Xie, Tianmin Shu, Sinisa Todorovic, Song-Chun Zhu
This paper presents a method for localizing functional objects and predicting human intents and trajectories in surveillance videos of public spaces, under no supervision in training. People in public spaces are expected to intentionally take shortest paths (subject to obstacles) toward certain objects (e.g. vending machine, picnic table, dumpster etc.) where they can satisfy certain needs (e.g., quench thirst). Since these objects are typically very small or heavily occluded, they cannot be inferred by their visual appearance but indirectly by their influence on people's trajectories...
July 19, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726439/a-stability-bias-effect-among-deceivers
#16
Adam Charles Harvey, Aldert Vrij, Lorraine Hope, Sharon Leal, Samantha Mann
Research examining how truth tellers' and liars' verbal behavior is attenuated as a function of delay is largely absent from the literature, despite its important applied value. We examined this factor across 2 studies in which we examined the effects of a hypothetical delay (Experiment 1) or actual delay (Experiment 2) on liars' accounts. In Experiment 1-an insurance claim interview setting-claimants either genuinely experienced a (staged) loss of a tablet device (n = 40) or pretended to have experienced the same loss (n = 40)...
July 20, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719002/eyeslam-real-time-simultaneous-localization-and-mapping-of-retinal-vessels-during-intraocular-microsurgery
#17
Daniel Braun, Sungwook Yang, Joseph N Martel, Cameron N Riviere, Brian C Becker
BACKGROUND: Fast and accurate mapping and localization of the retinal vasculature is critical to increasing the effectiveness and clinical utility of robot-assisted intraocular microsurgery such as laser photocoagulation and retinal vessel cannulation. METHODS: The proposed EyeSLAM algorithm delivers 30 Hz real-time simultaneous localization and mapping of the human retina and vasculature during intraocular surgery, combining fast vessel detection with 2D scan-matching techniques to build and localize a probabilistic map of the vasculature...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714884/design-and-implementation-of-a-smart-home-system-using-multisensor-data-fusion-technology
#18
Yu-Liang Hsu, Po-Huan Chou, Hsing-Cheng Chang, Shyan-Lung Lin, Shih-Chin Yang, Heng-Yi Su, Chih-Chien Chang, Yuan-Sheng Cheng, Yu-Chen Kuo
This paper aims to develop a multisensor data fusion technology-based smart home system by integrating wearable intelligent technology, artificial intelligence, and sensor fusion technology. We have developed the following three systems to create an intelligent smart home environment: (1) a wearable motion sensing device to be placed on residents' wrists and its corresponding 3D gesture recognition algorithm to implement a convenient automated household appliance control system; (2) a wearable motion sensing device mounted on a resident's feet and its indoor positioning algorithm to realize an effective indoor pedestrian navigation system for smart energy management; (3) a multisensor circuit module and an intelligent fire detection and alarm algorithm to realize a home safety and fire detection system...
July 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713235/connecting-the-brain-to-itself-through-an-emulation
#19
Mijail D Serruya
Pilot clinical trials of human patients implanted with devices that can chronically record and stimulate ensembles of hundreds to thousands of individual neurons offer the possibility of expanding the substrate of cognition. Parallel trains of firing rate activity can be delivered in real-time to an array of intermediate external modules that in turn can trigger parallel trains of stimulation back into the brain. These modules may be built in software, VLSI firmware, or biological tissue as in vitro culture preparations or in vivo ectopic construct organoids...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713231/grip-force-and-3d-push-pull-force-estimation-based-on-semg-and-grnn
#20
Changcheng Wu, Hong Zeng, Aiguo Song, Baoguo Xu
The estimation of the grip force and the 3D push-pull force (push and pull force in the three dimension space) from the electromyogram (EMG) signal is of great importance in the dexterous control of the EMG prosthetic hand. In this paper, an action force estimation method which is based on the eight channels of the surface EMG (sEMG) and the Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) is proposed to meet the requirements of the force control of the intelligent EMG prosthetic hand. Firstly, the experimental platform, the acquisition of the sEMG, the feature extraction of the sEMG and the construction of GRNN are described...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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