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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339817/cooperating-with-machines
#1
Jacob W Crandall, Mayada Oudah, Tennom, Fatimah Ishowo-Oloko, Sherief Abdallah, Jean-François Bonnefon, Manuel Cebrian, Azim Shariff, Michael A Goodrich, Iyad Rahwan
Since Alan Turing envisioned artificial intelligence, technical progress has often been measured by the ability to defeat humans in zero-sum encounters (e.g., Chess, Poker, or Go). Less attention has been given to scenarios in which human-machine cooperation is beneficial but non-trivial, such as scenarios in which human and machine preferences are neither fully aligned nor fully in conflict. Cooperation does not require sheer computational power, but instead is facilitated by intuition, cultural norms, emotions, signals, and pre-evolved dispositions...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276344/does-far-transfer-exist-negative-evidence-from-chess-music-and-working-memory-training
#2
Giovanni Sala, Fernand Gobet
Chess masters and expert musicians appear to be, on average, more intelligent than the general population. Some researchers have thus claimed that playing chess or learning music enhances children's cognitive abilities and academic attainment. We here present two meta-analyses assessing the effect of chess and music instruction on children's cognitive and academic skills. A third meta-analysis evaluated the effects of working memory training-a cognitive skill correlated with music and chess expertise-on the same variables...
December 2017: Current Directions in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101550/chess-knowledge-predicts-chess-memory-even-after-controlling-for-chess-experience-evidence-for-the-role-of-high-level-processes
#3
David M Lane, Yu-Hsuan A Chang
The expertise effect in memory for chess positions is one of the most robust effects in cognitive psychology. One explanation of this effect is that chess recall is based on the recognition of familiar patterns and that experts have learned more and larger patterns. Template theory and its instantiation as a computational model are based on this explanation. An alternative explanation is that the expertise effect is due, in part, to stronger players having better and more conceptual knowledge, with this knowledge facilitating memory performance...
November 3, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073472/epilepsy-may-be-the-major-risk-factor-of-mental-retardation-in-children-with-tuberous-sclerosis-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#4
Yang-Yang Wang, Ling-Yu Pang, Shu-Fang Ma, Meng-Na Zhang, Li-Ying Liu, Li-Ping Zou
Mental retardation (MR) is one of the most common cognitive comorbidities in children with tuberous sclerosis, and there are enormous studies about its risk factors. The genetic difference and the severity of epilepsy are the two main factors, but their weight in the occurrence of MR is still unclear. Two hundred twenty-three patients with tuberous sclerosis who received intelligence assessment, genetic mutation analysis, and the epilepsy severity assessment were included in our study. Genotype-neurocognitive phenotype correlations and epilepsy-neurocognitive phenotype correlations were analyzed by binary logistic regression analysis...
December 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620199/predicting-the-outcomes-of-organic-reactions-via-machine-learning-are-current-descriptors-sufficient
#5
G Skoraczyński, P Dittwald, B Miasojedow, S Szymkuć, E P Gajewska, B A Grzybowski, A Gambin
As machine learning/artificial intelligence algorithms are defeating chess masters and, most recently, GO champions, there is interest - and hope - that they will prove equally useful in assisting chemists in predicting outcomes of organic reactions. This paper demonstrates, however, that the applicability of machine learning to the problems of chemical reactivity over diverse types of chemistries remains limited - in particular, with the currently available chemical descriptors, fundamental mathematical theorems impose upper bounds on the accuracy with which raction yields and times can be predicted...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447631/artificial-intelligence-chess-match-of-the-century
#6
Demis Hassabis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389682/-the-triumph-of-stupidity-deep-blue-s-victory-over-garri-kasparov-the-controversy-about-its-impact-on-artficial-intelligence-research
#7
Martina Heßler
The competition between the chess computer Deep Blue and the former chess world champion Garri Kasparov in 1997 was a spectacle staged for the media. However, the chess game, like other games, was also a test field for artificial intelligence research. On the one hand Deep Blue's victory was called a "milestone" for AI research, on the other hand, a dead end, since the superiority of the chess computer was based on pure computing power and had nothing to do with "real" AI.The article questions the premises of these different interpretations and maps Deep Blue and its way of playing chess into the history of AI...
March 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27167518/distinguishing-fast-and-slow-processes-in-accuracy-response-time-data
#8
Frederik Coomans, Abe Hofman, Matthieu Brinkhuis, Han L J van der Maas, Gunter Maris
We investigate the relation between speed and accuracy within problem solving in its simplest non-trivial form. We consider tests with only two items and code the item responses in two binary variables: one indicating the response accuracy, and one indicating the response speed. Despite being a very basic setup, it enables us to study item pairs stemming from a broad range of domains such as basic arithmetic, first language learning, intelligence-related problems, and chess, with large numbers of observations for every pair of problems under consideration...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26040629/the-health-education-and-social-care-costs-of-school-aged-children-with-active-epilepsy-a-population-based-study
#9
Rachael M Hunter, Colin Reilly, Patricia Atkinson, Krishna B Das, Christopher Gillberg, Richard F Chin, Rod C Scott, Brian G R Neville, Stephen Morris
OBJECTIVE: To provide data on the health, social care, and education costs of active childhood epilepsy and factors associated with these costs over an 18-month period in a population-based sample. METHODS: The Children with Epilepsy in Sussex Schools (CHESS) study is a population-based study involving school-aged children (5-15 years) with active epilepsy (taking one or more antiepileptic drug and/or had a seizure in the last year) in a defined geographical area in England...
July 2015: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25911280/efficacy-of-chess-training-for-the-treatment-of-adhd-a-prospective-open-label-study
#10
Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla, Marisa Gonzalez-Perez, Raquel Garcia-Lopez, Belen Poza-Cano, Maria Rosario Perez-Moreno, Victoria de Leon-Martinez, Jose Otero-Perez
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of playing chess as a treatment option for children with ADHD. METHODS: Parents of 44 children ages 6 to 17 with a primary diagnosis of ADHD consented to take part in the study. Parents completed the Spanish version of the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Scale for parents (SNAP-IV) and the Abbreviated Conner's Rating Scales for parents (CPRS-HI) prior to an 11-week chess-training program. We used a paired t-test to compare pre- and post-intervention outcomes, and Cohen-d calculations to measure the magnitude of the effect...
January 2016: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25827976/intellectual-abilities-in-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-risk-factors-and-correlates-from-the-tuberous-sclerosis-2000-study
#11
P F Bolton, M Clifford, C Tye, C Maclean, A Humphrey, K le Maréchal, J N P Higgins, B G R Neville, F Rijsdjik, J R W Yates
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is associated with intellectual disability, but the risk pathways are poorly understood. METHOD: The Tuberous Sclerosis 2000 Study is a prospective longitudinal study of the natural history of TSC. One hundred and twenty-five UK children age 0-16 years with TSC and born between January 2001 and December 2006 were studied. Intelligence was assessed using standardized measures at ≥2 years of age. The age of onset of epilepsy, the type of seizure disorder, the frequency and duration of seizures, as well as the response to treatment was assessed at interview and by review of medical records...
August 2015: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22844676/simulating-multiple-character-interactions-with-collaborative-and-adversarial-goals
#12
Hubert P H Shum, Taku Komura, Shuntaro Yamazaki
This paper proposes a new methodology for synthesizing animations of multiple characters, allowing them to intelligently compete with one another in dense environments, while still satisfying requirements set by an animator. To achieve these two conflicting objectives simultaneously, our method separately evaluates the competition and collaboration of the interactions, integrating the scores to select an action that maximizes both criteria. We extend the idea of min-max search, normally used for strategic games such as chess...
May 2012: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22530382/is-chess-the-drosophila-of-artificial-intelligence-a-social-history-of-an-algorithm
#13
Nathan Ensmenger
Since the mid 1960s, researchers in computer science have famously referred to chess as the 'drosophila' of artificial intelligence (AI). What they seem to mean by this is that chess, like the common fruit fly, is an accessible, familiar, and relatively simple experimental technology that nonetheless can be used productively to produce valid knowledge about other, more complex systems. But for historians of science and technology, the analogy between chess and drosophila assumes a larger significance. As Robert Kohler has ably described, the decision to adopt drosophila as the organism of choice for genetics research had far-reaching implications for the development of 20th century biology...
February 2012: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21834406/revising-superior-planning-performance-in-chess-players-the-impact-of-time-restriction-and-motivation-aspects
#14
Josef Martin Unterrainer, Christoph Philipp Kaller, Rainer Leonhart, Benjamin Rahm
In a previous study (Unterrainer, Kaller, Halsband, & Rahm, 2006), chess players outperformed non-chess players in the Tower of London planning task but exhibited disproportionately longer processing times. This pattern of results raises the question of whether chess players' planning capabilities are superior or whether the results reflect differences in the speed-accuracy trade-off between the groups, possibly attributable to sports motivation. The present study was designed to disambiguate these alternative suggestions by implementing various constraints on planning time and by assessing self-reported motivation...
2011: American Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21540040/launching-the-evolution-of-cooperation
#15
Robert Axelrod
This article describes three aspects of the author's early work on the evolution of the cooperation. First, it explains how the idea for a computer tournament for the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma was inspired by the artificial intelligence research on computer checkers and computer chess. Second, it shows how the vulnerability of simple reciprocity of misunderstanding or misimplementation can be eliminated with the addition of some degree of generosity or contrition. Third, it recounts the unusual collaboration between the author, a political scientist, and William D...
April 21, 2012: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21149886/simulating-multiple-character-interactions-with-collaborative-and-adversarial-goals
#16
Hubert Pak Ho Shum, Taku Komura, Shuntaro Yamazaki
This paper proposes a new methodology for synthesizing animations of multiple characters, allowing them to intelligently compete with one another in dense environments, while still satisfying requirements set by an animator. To achieve these two conflicting objectives simultaneously, our method separately evaluates the competition and collaboration of the interactions, integrating the scores to select an action that maximizes both criteria. We extend the idea of min-max search, normally used for strategic games such as chess...
December 7, 2010: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20171146/a-case-of-seizures-induced-by-abstract-reasoning
#17
Yasutaka Tatsuzawa, Aihide Yoshino, Soichiro Nomura
We describe a case of reflex seizures induced by abstract reasoning but not other cognitive processes. The patient, a 46-year-old man, experienced myoclonic seizures whenever he played shogi (Japanese chess). To identify the critical thought processes responsible for inducing his seizures, we monitored his clinical seizures and epileptiform discharges while he performed comprehensive neuropsychological tests, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), spatial working memory, mental rotation, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) tasks...
April 2010: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19485280/-a-clinical-health-economic-and-satisfaction-simulation-model-chess-a-tool-for-healthcare-organization-management
#18
Ahuva Meilik, Arnon Afek, Zeev Rotstein
The management of medical organizations is based on a profound understanding of the essence of the organization, its vision and missions, as well as the methods the organization utilizes to gather and analyze information. In order to maintain a maximal function level in an ever-changing environment, all organization components must function in tandem. In a previous article the authors presented medical organizations as macro systems composed of micro systems, and discussed the challenges these organization face today...
March 2009: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19223569/individual-differences-in-expertise-development-over-decades-in-a-complex-intellectual-domain
#19
Robert W Howard
Learners acquire expertise at different rates and reach different peak performance levels. Key questions arise regarding what patterns of individual differences in expertise development occur and whether innate talent affects such development. International chess is a good test domain for both issues, because it has objective performance measures, actual practice measures (number of games), longitudinal population data, and minimal gatekeeper influence. Players' expertise development typically follows either a logarithmic or a power-function curve, approaching asymptote by around 750 games...
March 2009: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19129102/why-are-the-best-women-so-good-at-chess-participation-rates-and-gender-differences-in-intellectual-domains
#20
Merim Bilalić, Kieran Smallbone, Peter McLeod, Fernand Gobet
A popular explanation for the small number of women at the top level of intellectually demanding activities from chess to science appeals to biological differences in the intellectual abilities of men and women. An alternative explanation is that the extreme values in a large sample are likely to be greater than those in a small one. Although the performance of the 100 best German male chess players is better than that of the 100 best German women, we show that 96 per cent of the observed difference would be expected given the much greater number of men who play chess...
March 22, 2009: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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