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Chess intelligence

Frederik Coomans, Abe Hofman, Matthieu Brinkhuis, Han L J van der Maas, Gunter Maris
We investigate the relation between speed and accuracy within problem solving in its simplest non-trivial form. We consider tests with only two items and code the item responses in two binary variables: one indicating the response accuracy, and one indicating the response speed. Despite being a very basic setup, it enables us to study item pairs stemming from a broad range of domains such as basic arithmetic, first language learning, intelligence-related problems, and chess, with large numbers of observations for every pair of problems under consideration...
2016: PloS One
Rachael M Hunter, Colin Reilly, Patricia Atkinson, Krishna B Das, Christopher Gillberg, Richard F Chin, Rod C Scott, Brian G R Neville, Stephen Morris
OBJECTIVE: To provide data on the health, social care, and education costs of active childhood epilepsy and factors associated with these costs over an 18-month period in a population-based sample. METHODS: The Children with Epilepsy in Sussex Schools (CHESS) study is a population-based study involving school-aged children (5-15 years) with active epilepsy (taking one or more antiepileptic drug and/or had a seizure in the last year) in a defined geographical area in England...
July 2015: Epilepsia
Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla, Marisa Gonzalez-Perez, Raquel Garcia-Lopez, Belen Poza-Cano, Maria Rosario Perez-Moreno, Victoria de Leon-Martinez, Jose Otero-Perez
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of playing chess as a treatment option for children with ADHD. METHODS: Parents of 44 children ages 6 to 17 with a primary diagnosis of ADHD consented to take part in the study. Parents completed the Spanish version of the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Scale for parents (SNAP-IV) and the Abbreviated Conner's Rating Scales for parents (CPRS-HI) prior to an 11-week chess-training program. We used a paired t-test to compare pre- and post-intervention outcomes, and Cohen-d calculations to measure the magnitude of the effect...
January 2016: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
P F Bolton, M Clifford, C Tye, C Maclean, A Humphrey, K le Maréchal, J N P Higgins, B G R Neville, F Rijsdjik, J R W Yates
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is associated with intellectual disability, but the risk pathways are poorly understood. METHOD: The Tuberous Sclerosis 2000 Study is a prospective longitudinal study of the natural history of TSC. One hundred and twenty-five UK children age 0-16 years with TSC and born between January 2001 and December 2006 were studied. Intelligence was assessed using standardized measures at ≥2 years of age. The age of onset of epilepsy, the type of seizure disorder, the frequency and duration of seizures, as well as the response to treatment was assessed at interview and by review of medical records...
August 2015: Psychological Medicine
Hubert P H Shum, Taku Komura, Shuntaro Yamazaki
This paper proposes a new methodology for synthesizing animations of multiple characters, allowing them to intelligently compete with one another in dense environments, while still satisfying requirements set by an animator. To achieve these two conflicting objectives simultaneously, our method separately evaluates the competition and collaboration of the interactions, integrating the scores to select an action that maximizes both criteria. We extend the idea of min-max search, normally used for strategic games such as chess...
May 2012: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Nathan Ensmenger
Since the mid 1960s, researchers in computer science have famously referred to chess as the 'drosophila' of artificial intelligence (AI). What they seem to mean by this is that chess, like the common fruit fly, is an accessible, familiar, and relatively simple experimental technology that nonetheless can be used productively to produce valid knowledge about other, more complex systems. But for historians of science and technology, the analogy between chess and drosophila assumes a larger significance. As Robert Kohler has ably described, the decision to adopt drosophila as the organism of choice for genetics research had far-reaching implications for the development of 20th century biology...
February 2012: Social Studies of Science
Josef Martin Unterrainer, Christoph Philipp Kaller, Rainer Leonhart, Benjamin Rahm
In a previous study (Unterrainer, Kaller, Halsband, & Rahm, 2006), chess players outperformed non-chess players in the Tower of London planning task but exhibited disproportionately longer processing times. This pattern of results raises the question of whether chess players' planning capabilities are superior or whether the results reflect differences in the speed-accuracy trade-off between the groups, possibly attributable to sports motivation. The present study was designed to disambiguate these alternative suggestions by implementing various constraints on planning time and by assessing self-reported motivation...
2011: American Journal of Psychology
Robert Axelrod
This article describes three aspects of the author's early work on the evolution of the cooperation. First, it explains how the idea for a computer tournament for the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma was inspired by the artificial intelligence research on computer checkers and computer chess. Second, it shows how the vulnerability of simple reciprocity of misunderstanding or misimplementation can be eliminated with the addition of some degree of generosity or contrition. Third, it recounts the unusual collaboration between the author, a political scientist, and William D...
April 21, 2012: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Hubert Pak Ho Shum, Taku Komura, Shuntaro Yamazaki
This paper proposes a new methodology for synthesizing animations of multiple characters, allowing them to intelligently compete with one another in dense environments, while still satisfying requirements set by an animator. To achieve these two conflicting objectives simultaneously, our method separately evaluates the competition and collaboration of the interactions, integrating the scores to select an action that maximizes both criteria. We extend the idea of min-max search, normally used for strategic games such as chess...
December 7, 2010: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Yasutaka Tatsuzawa, Aihide Yoshino, Soichiro Nomura
We describe a case of reflex seizures induced by abstract reasoning but not other cognitive processes. The patient, a 46-year-old man, experienced myoclonic seizures whenever he played shogi (Japanese chess). To identify the critical thought processes responsible for inducing his seizures, we monitored his clinical seizures and epileptiform discharges while he performed comprehensive neuropsychological tests, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), spatial working memory, mental rotation, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) tasks...
April 2010: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Ahuva Meilik, Arnon Afek, Zeev Rotstein
The management of medical organizations is based on a profound understanding of the essence of the organization, its vision and missions, as well as the methods the organization utilizes to gather and analyze information. In order to maintain a maximal function level in an ever-changing environment, all organization components must function in tandem. In a previous article the authors presented medical organizations as macro systems composed of micro systems, and discussed the challenges these organization face today...
March 2009: Harefuah
Robert W Howard
Learners acquire expertise at different rates and reach different peak performance levels. Key questions arise regarding what patterns of individual differences in expertise development occur and whether innate talent affects such development. International chess is a good test domain for both issues, because it has objective performance measures, actual practice measures (number of games), longitudinal population data, and minimal gatekeeper influence. Players' expertise development typically follows either a logarithmic or a power-function curve, approaching asymptote by around 750 games...
March 2009: Memory & Cognition
Merim Bilalić, Kieran Smallbone, Peter McLeod, Fernand Gobet
A popular explanation for the small number of women at the top level of intellectually demanding activities from chess to science appeals to biological differences in the intellectual abilities of men and women. An alternative explanation is that the extreme values in a large sample are likely to be greater than those in a small one. Although the performance of the 100 best German male chess players is better than that of the 100 best German women, we show that 96 per cent of the observed difference would be expected given the much greater number of men who play chess...
March 22, 2009: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Abidemi A Adegbola, Michael L Gonzales, Andrew Chess, Janine M LaSalle, Gerald F Cox
The MECP2 gene on Xq28 encodes a transcriptional repressor, which binds to and modulates expression of active genes. Mutations in MECP2 cause classic or preserved speech variant Rett syndrome and intellectual disability in females and early demise or marked neurodevelopmental handicap in males. The consequences of a hypomorphic Mecp2 allele were recently investigated in a mouse model, which developed obesity, motor, social, learning, and behavioral deficits, predicting a human neurobehavioral syndrome. Here, we describe mutation analysis of a nondysmorphic female proband and her father who presented with primarily neuropsychiatric manifestations and obesity with relative sparing of intelligence, language, growth, and gross motor skills...
January 2009: Human Genetics
Cinzia Volonté, Susanna Amadio, Nadia D'Ambrosi
Fundamental concepts shared by several classes of ionotropic and metabotropic cell surface receptors, such as receptor mosaic, cooperation, clustering, propensity to oligomerize, all finding expression in the dynamically structured mosaic membrane, will be revisited here in the light of the "combinatorial receptor web model" and the unifying information-processing mechanism defined as "chunking theory". Particularly the ubiquitous and phylogenetically most ancient P2 receptors for extracellular nucleotides will be regarded here as a prototype of receptor family...
November 2008: Brain Research Reviews
Fernand Gobet, Philippe Chassy
The origin of talent and expertise is currently the subject of intense debate, with explanations ranging from purely biological to purely environmental. This report shows that the population of expert chess players in the northern hemisphere shows a seasonal pattern, with an excess of births in late winter and early spring. This effect remains when taking into account the distribution of births in the population at large, using statistics from the European Union member countries. A similar pattern has been found with schizophrenia, and the possible link between these two phenomena is discussed...
March 2008: Journal of Biosocial Science
Jonathan Schaeffer, Neil Burch, Yngvi Björnsson, Akihiro Kishimoto, Martin Müller, Robert Lake, Paul Lu, Steve Sutphen
The game of checkers has roughly 500 billion billion possible positions (5 x 10(20)). The task of solving the game, determining the final result in a game with no mistakes made by either player, is daunting. Since 1989, almost continuously, dozens of computers have been working on solving checkers, applying state-of-the-art artificial intelligence techniques to the proving process. This paper announces that checkers is now solved: Perfect play by both sides leads to a draw. This is the most challenging popular game to be solved to date, roughly one million times as complex as Connect Four...
September 14, 2007: Science
Robert W Howard
Chess is an oft-used study domain in psychology and artificial intelligence because it is well defined, its performance rating systems allow ea sy identification o f experts and their development, andchess playing is a complex intellectual task However, usable computerized chess data have been very limited. The present article has two aims. The first is to highlight the methodological value of chess data and how researchers can use them to address questions in quite different areas. The second is to present a computerized database of all international chess players and official performance ratings beginning from the inaugural 1970 international rating list...
November 2006: Behavior Research Methods
Merim Bilalić, Peter McLeod
The superiority of men over women in chess has been cited as evidence that there are fundamental differences in male and female intelligence (Howard, 2005a, 2006; Irwing & Lynn, 2005). An alternative interpretation of the difference is that it is due to differential male and female participation rates in chess (Charness & Gerchak, 1996; Bilalić & McLeod, 2006; Chabris & Glickman, in press). This has been dismissed by Howard (2006) on the grounds that changes in the difference in skill level between top male and female players in recent years are not correlated with changing relative participation rates...
September 2007: Journal of Biosocial Science
Christopher F Chabris, Mark E Glickman
Only 1% of the world's chess grandmasters are women. This underrepresentation is unlikely to be caused by discrimination, because chess ratings objectively reflect competitive results. Using data on the ratings of more than 250,000 tournament players over 13 years, we investigated several potential explanations for the male domination of elite chess. We found that (a) the ratings of men are higher on average than those of women, but no more variable; (b) matched boys and girls improve and drop out at equal rates, but boys begin chess competition in greater numbers and at higher performance levels than girls; and (c) in locales where at least 50% of the new young players are girls, their initial ratings are not lower than those of boys...
December 2006: Psychological Science
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