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Chess correlation

Joanne L Powell, Davide Grossi, Rhiannon Corcoran, Fernand Gobet, Marta García-Fiñana
Chess involves the capacity to reason iteratively about potential intentional choices of an opponent and therefore involves high levels of explicit theory of mind [ToM] (i.e. ability to infer mental states of others) alongside clear, strategic rule-based decision-making. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used on 12 healthy male novice chess players to identify cortical regions associated with chess, ToM and empathizing. The blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response for chess and empathizing tasks was extracted from each ToM region...
May 8, 2017: Neuroscience
Heather Sheridan, Eyal M Reingold
To explore the perceptual component of chess expertise, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players during a chess-related visual search task that tested anecdotal reports that a key differentiator of chess skill is the ability to visualize the complex moves of the knight piece. Specifically, chess players viewed an array of four minimized chessboards, and they rapidly searched for the target board that allowed a knight piece to reach a target square in three moves. On each trial, there was only one target board (i...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Antonio Cerasa, Alessia Sarica, Iolanda Martino, Carmelo Fabbricatore, Francesco Tomaiuolo, Federico Rocca, Manuela Caracciolo, Aldo Quattrone
OBJECTIVE: Chefs exert expert motor and cognitive performances on a daily basis. Neuroimaging has clearly shown that that long-term skill learning (i.e., athletes, musicians, chess player or sommeliers) induces plastic changes in the brain thus enabling tasks to be performed faster and more accurately. How a chef's expertise is embodied in a specific neural network has never been investigated. METHODS: Eleven Italian head chefs with long-term brigade management expertise and 11 demographically-/ psychologically- matched non-experts underwent morphological evaluations...
2017: PloS One
Ana L Schaigorodsky, Juan I Perotti, Orlando V Billoni
A series of recent works studying a database of chronologically sorted chess games-containing 1.4 million games played by humans between 1998 and 2007- have shown that the popularity distribution of chess game-lines follows a Zipf's law, and that time series inferred from the sequences of those game-lines exhibit long-range memory effects. The presence of Zipf's law together with long-range memory effects was observed in several systems, however, the simultaneous emergence of these two phenomena were always studied separately up to now...
2016: PloS One
Giovanni Sala, Fernand Gobet
Experts' remarkable ability to recall meaningful domain-specific material is a classic result in cognitive psychology. Influential explanations for this ability have focused on the acquisition of high-level structures (e.g., schemata) or experts' capability to process information holistically. However, research on chess players suggests that experts maintain some reliable memory advantage over novices when random stimuli (e.g., shuffled chess positions) are presented. This skill effect cannot be explained by theories emphasizing high-level memory structures or holistic processing of stimuli, because random material does not contain large structures nor wholes...
February 2017: Memory & Cognition
Michael A Campitelli, Susan E Bronskill, David B Hogan, Christina Diong, Joseph E Amuah, Sudeep Gill, Dallas Seitz, Kednapa Thavorn, Walter P Wodchis, Colleen J Maxwell
BACKGROUND: Evaluating different approaches to identifying frail home care clients at heightened risk for adverse health outcomes is an important but understudied area. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence and correlates of frailty (as operationally defined by three measures) in a home care cohort, the agreement between these measures, and their predictive validity for several outcomes assessed over one year. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study with linked population-based administrative and clinical (Resident Assessment Instrument [RAI]) data for all long-stay home care clients (aged 66+) assessed between April 2010-2013 in Ontario, Canada (n = 234,552)...
July 7, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
Yu-Hsuan A Chang, David M Lane
The recognition-action theory of chess skill holds that expertise in chess is due primarily to the ability to recognize familiar patterns of pieces. Despite its widespread acclaim, empirical evidence for this theory is indirect. One source of indirect evidence is that there is a high correlation between speed chess and standard chess. Assuming that there is little or no time for calculation in speed chess, this high correlation implies that calculation is not the primary factor in standard chess. Two studies were conducted analyzing 100 games of speed chess...
2016: American Journal of Psychology
Ahmed G Radwan, Sherif H AbdElHaleem, Salwa K Abd-El-Hafiz
This paper summarizes the symmetric image encryption results of 27 different algorithms, which include substitution-only, permutation-only or both phases. The cores of these algorithms are based on several discrete chaotic maps (Arnold's cat map and a combination of three generalized maps), one continuous chaotic system (Lorenz) and two non-chaotic generators (fractals and chess-based algorithms). Each algorithm has been analyzed by the correlation coefficients between pixels (horizontal, vertical and diagonal), differential attack measures, Mean Square Error (MSE), entropy, sensitivity analyses and the 15 standard tests of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) SP-800-22 statistical suite...
March 2016: Journal of Advanced Research
Pavel Sidorov, Israel Desta, Matthieu Chessé, Dragos Horvath, Gilles Marcou, Alexandre Varnek, Elisabeth Davioud-Charvet, Mourad Elhabiri
3-Benzylmenadiones are potent antimalarial agents that are thought to act through their 3-benzoylmenadione metabolites as redox cyclers of two essential targets: the NADPH-dependent glutathione reductases (GRs) of Plasmodium-parasitized erythrocytes and methemoglobin. Their physicochemical properties were characterized in a coupled assay using both targets and modeled with QSPR predictive tools built in house. The substitution pattern of the west/east aromatic parts that controls the oxidant character of the electrophore was highlighted and accurately predicted by QSPR models...
June 20, 2016: ChemMedChem
R Jabbarli, A-M Bohrer, D Pierscianek, D Müller, K H Wrede, P Dammann, N El Hindy, N Özkan, U Sure, O Müller
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute hydrocephalus is an early and common complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, considerably fewer patients develop chronic hydrocephalus requiring shunt placement. Our aim was to develop a risk score for early identification of patients with shunt dependency after SAH. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-two SAH individuals who were treated in our institution between January 2008 and December 2013 and survived the initial impact were retrospectively analyzed...
May 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Alex Lewin, Habib Saadi, James E Peters, Aida Moreno-Moral, James C Lee, Kenneth G C Smith, Enrico Petretto, Leonardo Bottolo, Sylvia Richardson
MOTIVATION: Analysing the joint association between a large set of responses and predictors is a fundamental statistical task in integrative genomics, exemplified by numerous expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) studies. Of particular interest are the so-called ': hotspots ': , important genetic variants that regulate the expression of many genes. Recently, attention has focussed on whether eQTLs are common to several tissues, cell-types or, more generally, conditions or whether they are specific to a particular condition...
February 15, 2016: Bioinformatics
M V Simkin, V P Roychowdhury
We investigate a pool of international chess title holders born between 1901 and 1943. Using Elo ratings, we compute for every player his expected score in a game with a randomly selected player from the pool. We use this figure as the player's merit. We measure players' fame as the number of Google hits. The correlation between fame and merit is 0.38. At the same time, the correlation between the logarithm of fame and merit is 0.61. This suggests that fame grows exponentially with merit.
December 12, 2015: Applied Economics Letters
Laure Johann, Didier Belorgey, Hsin-Hung Huang, Latasha Day, Matthieu Chessé, Katja Becker, David L Williams, Elisabeth Davioud-Charvet
Investigations regarding the chemistry and mechanism of action of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (or menadione) derivatives revealed 3-phenoxymethyl menadiones as a novel anti-schistosomal chemical series. These newly synthesized compounds (1-7) and their difluoromethylmenadione counterparts (8, 9) were found to be potent and specific inhibitors of Schistosoma mansoni thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (SmTGR), which has been identified as a potential target for anti-schistosomal drugs. The compounds were also tested in enzymic assays using both human flavoenzymes, i...
August 2015: FEBS Journal
Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla, Marisa Gonzalez-Perez, Raquel Garcia-Lopez, Belen Poza-Cano, Maria Rosario Perez-Moreno, Victoria de Leon-Martinez, Jose Otero-Perez
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of playing chess as a treatment option for children with ADHD. METHODS: Parents of 44 children ages 6 to 17 with a primary diagnosis of ADHD consented to take part in the study. Parents completed the Spanish version of the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Scale for parents (SNAP-IV) and the Abbreviated Conner's Rating Scales for parents (CPRS-HI) prior to an 11-week chess-training program. We used a paired t-test to compare pre- and post-intervention outcomes, and Cohen-d calculations to measure the magnitude of the effect...
January 2016: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
P F Bolton, M Clifford, C Tye, C Maclean, A Humphrey, K le Maréchal, J N P Higgins, B G R Neville, F Rijsdjik, J R W Yates
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is associated with intellectual disability, but the risk pathways are poorly understood. METHOD: The Tuberous Sclerosis 2000 Study is a prospective longitudinal study of the natural history of TSC. One hundred and twenty-five UK children age 0-16 years with TSC and born between January 2001 and December 2006 were studied. Intelligence was assessed using standardized measures at ≥2 years of age. The age of onset of epilepsy, the type of seizure disorder, the frequency and duration of seizures, as well as the response to treatment was assessed at interview and by review of medical records...
August 2015: Psychological Medicine
Vincenzo Della Mea, Eddy Maddalena, Stefano Mizzaro, Piernicola Machin, Carlo A Beltrami
BACKGROUND: Crowdsourcing, i.e., the outsourcing of tasks typically performed by a few experts to a large crowd as an open call, has been shown to be reasonably effective in many cases, like Wikipedia, the Chess match of Kasparov against the world in 1999, and several others. The aim of the present paper is to describe the setup of an experimentation of crowdsourcing techniques applied to the quantification of immunohistochemistry. METHODS: Fourteen Images from MIB1-stained breast specimens were first manually counted by a pathologist, then submitted to a crowdsourcing platform through a specifically developed application...
December 2014: Diagnostic Pathology
Yanfei Gong, K Anders Ericsson, Jerad H Moxley
Individual differences in memory performance in a domain of expertise have traditionally been accounted for by previously acquired chunks of knowledge and patterns. These accounts have been examined experimentally mainly in chess. The role of chunks (clusters of chess pieces recalled in rapid succession during recall of chess positions) and their relations to chess skill are, however, under debate. By introducing an independent chunk-identification technique, namely repeated-recall technique, this study identified individual chunks for particular chess players...
2015: PloS One
Chess Stetson, Richard A Andersen
Cortical planning activity has traditionally been probed with visual targets. However, external sensory signals might obscure early correlates of internally generated plans. We devised a nonspatial decision-making task in which the monkey is encouraged to decide randomly whether to reach or saccade in the absence of sensory stimuli. Neurons in frontal and parietal planning areas (in and around the arcuate and intraparietal sulci) showed responses predictive of the monkey's upcoming movement at early stages during the planning process...
June 1, 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
Rosanna Tofalo, Maria Schirone, Giuseppe Fasoli, Giorgia Perpetuini, Francesca Patrignani, Anna Chiara Manetta, Rosalba Lanciotti, Aldo Corsetti, Giuseppe Martino, Giovanna Suzzi
The use of pig rennet is very ancient and in Italy is only applied in the manufacture of Pecorino di Farindola cheese. In order to evaluate the key role of this rennet in the establishment of peculiar features of Pecorino di Farindola, cheeses made from raw ewes' milk using calf (A) and kid (B) rennets were compared to those produced with pig (C) rennet. The use of pig rennet for Pecorino di Farindola cheese making confers physico-chemical and proteolytic characteristics that differentiate it from cheeses produced with other coagulants...
May 15, 2015: Food Chemistry
Vincenzo Della Mea, Eddy Maddalena, Stefano Mizzaro, Piernicola Machin, Carlo A Beltrami
BACKGROUND: Crowdsourcing, i.e., the outsourcing of tasks typically performed by a few experts to a large crowd as an open call, has been shown to be reasonably effective in many cases, like Wikipedia, the Chess match of Kasparov against the world in 1999, and several others. The aim of the present paper is to describe the setup of an experimentation of crowdsourcing techniques applied to the quantification of immunohistochemistry. METHODS: Fourteen Images from MIB1-stained breast specimens were first manually counted by a pathologist, then submitted to a crowdsourcing platform through a specifically developed application...
2014: Diagnostic Pathology
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