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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632337/non-equilibrium-assembly-of-light-activated-colloidal-mixtures
#1
Dhruv P Singh, Udit Choudhury, Peer Fischer, Andrew G Mark
The collective phenomena exhibited by artificial active matter systems present novel routes to fabricating out-of-equilibrium microscale assemblies. Here, the crystallization of passive silica colloids into well-controlled 2D assemblies is shown, which is directed by a small number of self-propelled active colloids. The active colloids are titania-silica Janus particles that are propelled when illuminated by UV light. The strength of the attractive interaction and thus the extent of the assembled clusters can be regulated by the light intensity...
June 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621998/hydrodynamic-electron-flow-and-hall-viscosity
#2
Thomas Scaffidi, Nabhanila Nandi, Burkhard Schmidt, Andrew P Mackenzie, Joel E Moore
In metallic samples of small enough size and sufficiently strong momentum-conserving scattering, the viscosity of the electron gas can become the dominant process governing transport. In this regime, momentum is a long-lived quantity whose evolution is described by an emergent hydrodynamical theory. Furthermore, breaking time-reversal symmetry leads to the appearance of an odd component to the viscosity called the Hall viscosity, which has attracted considerable attention recently due to its quantized nature in gapped systems but still eludes experimental confirmation...
June 2, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621416/all-in-one-integrating-cell-polarity-meiosis-mitosis-and-mechanical-forces-in-early-oocyte-differentiation-in-vertebrates
#3
Yaniv M Elkouby
While the differentiation of oocytes is key for embryonic development, and its investigation is crucial for advancing our understanding of human reproduction and fertility, many fundamental questions in oogenesis have been long standing. However, recent technical advances have led to several breakthroughs mainly in mice and zebrafish. Here I review these recent findings, including regulation and organization of the germline cyst, the mechanistics of chromosomal pairing, establishment of cell polarity, and formation of a universal mRNA-protein (mRNP) granule called the Balbiani body...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618777/rare-earth-pcu-mof-platform-based-on-re4-%C3%AE-3-oh-4-coo-62-clusters-rational-design-directed-synthesis-and-deliberate-tuning-of-excitation-wavelengths
#4
Tian-Yi Luo, Chong Liu, Svetlana V Eliseeva, Patrick Flynn Muldoon, Stephane Petoud, Nathaniel L Rosi
The Td point group symmetry of rare earth (RE3+) metal clusters RE4(μ3-OH)4(COO)62+ makes them attractive building blocks for creating metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with controllable topologies. Herein, we describe the design and synthesis of a series of isoreticular MOFs featuring pcu topology [MOF-1114(RE) and MOF-1115(RE)] with variable rare earth metal ions (RE3+ = Y3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, Tm3+, Yb3+) and linear amino-functionalized dicarboxylate linkers of different lengths. In total, we report 22 MOFs that vary in both composition and structure yet share the same RE4(μ3-OH)4 cluster motif...
June 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616940/dirac-node-lines-in-two-dimensional-lieb-lattices
#5
Bo Yang, Xiaoming Zhang, Mingwen Zhao
As a new type of quantum matter, Dirac node line (DNL) semimetals are currently attracting widespread interest in condensed matter physics and materials science. The DNL, featured by a closed line consisting of linear band crossings in the momentum space, was mostly predicted in three-dimensional materials. Here, we propose a tight-binding (TB) model of pz + px,y or pz + s orbitals defined on the two-dimensional (2D) Lieb lattice for the 2D version of DNL semimetals. The DNL states in these models are caused by the inversion of the bands with different symmetries and thus robust against spin-orbit interaction...
June 15, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615688/interaction-induced-edge-states-in-anisotropic-non-fermi-liquids
#6
I V Yurkevich
We devise an approach to calculation of scaling dimensions of generic operators describing scattering within multi-channel Luttinger liquid. The local impurity scattering in arbitrary configuration of conducting and insulating channels is investigated and the problem is reduced to a single algebraic matrix equation. The application to a semi-infinite array of chains described by Luttinger liquid models demonstrates that for a weak inter-chain hybridisation and intra-channel electron-electron attraction the edge wire is robust against disorder whereas bulk wires, on contrary, become insulating in some region of inter-chain interaction parameters...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602092/in-situ-observation-of-oxygen-vacancy-dynamics-and-ordering-in-the-epitaxial-lacoo3-system
#7
Jae Hyuck Jang, Young-Min Kim, Qian He, Rohan Mishra, Liang Qiao, Michael D Biegalski, Andrew R Lupini, Sokrates T Pantelides, Stephen J Pennycook, Sergei V Kalinin, Albina Y Borisevich
Vacancy dynamics and ordering underpin the electrochemical functionality of complex oxides and strongly couple to their physical properties. In the field of the epitaxial thin films, where connection between chemistry and film properties can be most clearly revealed, the effects related to oxygen vacancies are attracting increasing attention. In this article, we report a direct, real-time, atomic level observation of the formation of oxygen vacancies in the epitaxial LaCoO3 thin films and heterostructures under the influence of the electron beam utilizing scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)...
June 14, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595045/symmetry-breaking-in-space-time-hierarchies-shapes-brain-dynamics-and-behavior
#8
REVIEW
Ajay S Pillai, Viktor K Jirsa
In order to maintain brain function, neural activity needs to be tightly coordinated within the brain network. How this coordination is achieved and related to behavior is largely unknown. It has been previously argued that the study of the link between brain and behavior is impossible without a guiding vision. Here we propose behavioral-level concepts and mechanisms embodied as structured flows on manifold (SFM) that provide a formal description of behavior as a low-dimensional process emerging from a network's dynamics dependent on the symmetry and invariance properties of the network connectivity...
June 7, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577372/effects-of-objective-3-dimensional-measures-of-facial-shape-and-symmetry-on-perceptions-of-facial-attractiveness
#9
Cory D Hatch, George L Wehby, Nichole L Nidey, Lina M Moreno Uribe
PURPOSE: Meeting patient desires for enhanced facial esthetics requires that providers have standardized and objective methods to measure esthetics. The authors evaluated the effects of objective 3-dimensional (3D) facial shape and asymmetry measurements derived from 3D facial images on perceptions of facial attractiveness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 3D facial images of 313 adults in Iowa were digitized with 32 landmarks, and objective 3D facial measurements capturing symmetric and asymmetric components of shape variation, centroid size, and fluctuating asymmetry were obtained from the 3D coordinate data using geo-morphometric analyses...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558313/fertility-affects-asymmetry-detection-not-symmetry-preference-in-assessments-of-3d-facial-attractiveness
#10
Michael B Lewis
Consistent with theories from evolutionary psychology, facial symmetry correlates with attractiveness. Further, the preference for symmetrical faces appears to be affected by fertility in women. One limitation of previous research is that faces are often symmetrically lit front-views and so symmetry can be assessed using 2D pictorial information. Another limitation is that two-alternative-forced-choice (2afc) tasks are often used to assess symmetry preference and these cannot distinguish between differences in preference for symmetry and differences in ability of asymmetry detection...
May 27, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556552/does-the-presence-of-unilateral-maxillary-incisor-edge-asymmetries-influence-the-perception-of-smile-esthetics
#11
Joanna Betrine Ribeiro, Bruna Alecrim Figueiredo, Andre Wilson Machado
OBJECTIVE: Determine orthodontists and laypersons' perception of maxillary central and lateral incisor edge asymmetries in full-face and close-up smiles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four smile photos were selected for this study: two full-face and two close-up smile photos of two male subjects, a white man and an Afro-descendant man. Both were considered pleasant smiles, following some principles of an ideal smile. Images were digitally altered to create tooth wear asymmetries on the maxillary left central and lateral incisor in 0...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548522/zero-phase-difference-josephson-current-based-on-spontaneous-symmetry-breaking-via-parametric-excitation-of-a-movable-superconducting-dot
#12
A M Eriksson, A Vikström
Recent advances have attracted attention to nonstandard Josephson junctions in which a supercurrent can flow despite zero phase difference between the constituent superconducting leads. Here, we propose a zero-phase-difference nanoelectromechanical junction which, in contrast to other considered systems, exhibits symmetry between leftward and rightward tunneling through the junction. We show that a supercurrent is, nevertheless, possible as a result of spontaneous symmetry breaking. In the suggested junction, the supercurrent is mediated by tunneling via a superconducting Cooper-pair box on a mechanical resonator...
May 12, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539436/nontrivial-berry-phase-in-magnetic-bamnsb2-semimetal
#13
Silu Huang, Jisun Kim, W A Shelton, E W Plummer, Rongying Jin
The subject of topological materials has attracted immense attention in condensed-matter physics because they host new quantum states of matter containing Dirac, Majorana, or Weyl fermions. Although Majorana fermions can only exist on the surface of topological superconductors, Dirac and Weyl fermions can be realized in both 2D and 3D materials. The latter are semimetals with Dirac/Weyl cones either not tilted (type I) or tilted (type II). Although both Dirac and Weyl fermions have massless nature with the nontrivial Berry phase, the formation of Weyl fermions in 3D semimetals require either time-reversal or inversion symmetry breaking to lift degeneracy at Dirac points...
June 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534627/highly-stable-and-regenerative-metal-organic-framework-designed-by-multiwalled-divider-installation-strategy-for-detection-of-co-ii-ions-and-organic-aromatics-in-water
#14
Kai Xing, Ruiqing Fan, Jiaqi Wang, Siqi Zhang, Kai Feng, Xi Du, Yang Song, Ping Wang, Yulin Yang
MOF-based sensors capable of effectively and stably detecting toxic species in water have attracted huge attention in terms of improving environmental monitoring levels and water quality. Combining the flexibility of structure and modifying of pore surface, a multiwalled divider installation (MWDI) strategy is proposed and used for property enhancement. We herein report three metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) 1-3 based on a C3 symmetry organic phosphonic ligand with topology increased from 3,6-connected to 3,8-connected...
June 1, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534298/formulation-and-in-vitro-characterization-of-bioactive-mesoporous-silica-with-doxorubicin-and-metronidazole-intended-for-bone-treatment-and-regeneration
#15
Katarzyna Czarnobaj, Magdalena Prokopowicz, Wiesław Sawicki
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface mineralization activity and in vitro drug behavior potential of two forms of mesoporous silica: powder and granulate. Ordered mesoporous SiO2 powder was synthesized by surfactant-assisted sol-gel process using tetraethoxysilane as a silica precursor and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide as the structure-directing agent. The granulate was prepared using silica powder and ethyl cellulose as a binding agent. Metronidazole (MT)-an anti-inflammatory substance and doxorubicin hydrochloride (ChD)-an anti-cancer drug were chosen as drug models for delivery studies...
May 22, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530829/highly-oriented-atomically-thin-ambipolar-mose2-grown-by-molecular-beam-epitaxy
#16
Ming-Wei Chen, Dmitry Ovchinnikov, Sorin Lazar, Michele Pizzochero, Michael Brian Whitwick, Alessandro Surrente, Michal Baranowski, Oriol Lopez Sanchez, Philippe Gillet, Paulina Plochocka, Oleg V Yazyev, Andras Kis
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), together with other two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted great interest due to the unique optical and electrical properties of atomically thin layers. In order to fulfill their potential, developing large-area growth and understanding the properties of TMDCs have become crucial. Here, we used molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to grow atomically thin MoSe2 on GaAs(111)B. No intermediate compounds were detected at the interface of as-grown films. Careful optimization of the growth temperature can result in the growth of highly aligned films with only two possible crystalline orientations due to broken inversion symmetry...
May 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530750/first-principles-study-of-the-structural-stability-and-electrochemical-properties-of-na2msio4-m-mn-fe-co-and-ni-polymorphs
#17
F Bianchini, H Fjellvåg, P Vajeeston
Sodium orthosilicates Na2MSiO4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) have attracted much attention due to the possibility of exchanging two electrons per formula unit. They are also found to exhibit great structural stability due to a diamond-like arrangement of tetrahedral groups. In this work, we have systematically studied the possible polymorphism of these compounds by means of density functional theory, optimising the structure of a number of systems with different group symmetries. The ground state is found to be Pc-symmetric for all the considered M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and several similar structures exhibiting different symmetries coexist within a 0...
June 7, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524069/helical-plant-viral-nanoparticles-bioinspired-synthesis-of-nanomaterials-and-nanostructures
#18
Kannan Badri Narayanan, Sung Soo Han
Viral nanotechnology is revolutionizing the biomimetic and bioinspired synthesis of novel nanomaterials. Bottom-up nanofabrication by self-assembly of individual molecular components of elongated viral nanoparticles (VNPs) and virus-like particles (VLPs) has resulted in the production of superior materials and structures in the nano(bio)technological fields. Viral capsids are attractive materials, because of their symmetry, monodispersity, and polyvalency. Helical VNPs/VLPs are unique prefabricated nanoscaffolds with large surface area to volume ratios and high aspect ratios, and enable the construction of exquisite supramolecular nanostructures...
May 19, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514711/self-assembly-of-dna-porphyrin-hybrid-molecules-for-the-creation-of-antimicrobial-nanonetwork
#19
Rina Kumari, Mohd Imran Khan, Sourav Bhowmick, Kislay K Sinha, Neeladri Das, Prolay Das
DNA derived well-controlled arrangement of porphyrins has emerged as promising hybrid nanostructures. Exceptional biocompatibility and DNA-directed surface addressability coupled with rich symmetry features of the porphyrin have made these hybrid nanostructures attractive candidates for potential biomedical and biotechnological applications. However, the noteworthy photophysical properties of porphyrin and related molecules when present in DNA based nanostructures are yet to be explored fully and should be a matter of intense research that may unearth a plethora of interesting applications of these nanostructures...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513560/meta-chirality-fundamentals-construction-and-applications
#20
REVIEW
Xiaoliang Ma, Mingbo Pu, Xiong Li, Yinghui Guo, Ping Gao, Xiangang Luo
Chiral metamaterials represent a special type of artificial structures that cannot be superposed to their mirror images. Due to the lack of mirror symmetry, cross-coupling between electric and magnetic fields exist in chiral mediums and present unique electromagnetic characters of circular dichroism and optical activity, which provide a new opportunity to tune polarization and realize negative refractive index. Chiral metamaterials have attracted great attentions in recent years and have given rise to a series of applications in polarization manipulation, imaging, chemical and biological detection, and nonlinear optics...
May 17, 2017: Nanomaterials
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