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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533360/female-peer-mentors-early-in-college-increase-women-s-positive-academic-experiences-and-retention-in-engineering
#1
Tara C Dennehy, Nilanjana Dasgupta
Scientific and engineering innovation is vital for American competitiveness, quality of life, and national security. However, too few American students, especially women, pursue these fields. Although this problem has attracted enormous attention, rigorously tested interventions outside artificial laboratory settings are quite rare. To address this gap, we conducted a longitudinal field experiment investigating the effect of peer mentoring on women's experiences and retention in engineering during college transition, assessing its impact for 1 y while mentoring was active, and an additional 1 y after mentoring had ended...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528727/sexual-inactivity-in-partnered-female-cancer-survivors
#2
Jennifer L Marino, Christobel M Saunders, Martha Hickey
OBJECTIVE: To measure sexual activity in a clinic population of partnered female cancer survivors, and to better understand reasons for sexual inactivity in this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Partnered peri- or post-menopausal cancer survivors seen at a specialty clinic for menopause symptoms after cancer completed Fallowfield's Sexual Activity Questionnaire, quality of life measures (the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy General, Breast Cancer, and Endocrine Symptom Scales), and the Greene Climacteric Scale...
May 9, 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526048/men-s-and-women-s-response-to-treatment-and-perceptions-of-outcomes-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-injectable-opioid-assisted-treatment-for-severe-opioid-use-disorder
#3
Heather Palis, Kirsten Marchand, Daphne Guh, Suzanne Brissette, Kurt Lock, Scott MacDonald, Scott Harrison, Aslam H Anis, Michael Krausz, David C Marsh, Martin T Schechter, Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes
BACKGROUND: To test whether there are gender differences in treatment outcomes among patients receiving injectable opioids for the treatment of long-term opioid-dependence. The study additionally explores whether men and women have different perceptions of treatment effectiveness. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis from SALOME, a double-blind, phase III, randomized controlled trial testing the non-inferiorirty of injectable hydromorphone to injectable diacetylmorphine among 202 long-term street opioid injectors in Vancouver (Canada)...
May 19, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525961/passive-and-active-immunization-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-for-the-young-and-old
#4
Tonya Villafana, Judith Falloon, M Pamela Griffin, Qing Zhu, Mark T Esser
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants worldwide and also causes significant disease in the elderly. Despite 60 years of RSV research and vaccine development, there is only one approved medicine to prevent RSV infections. Palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the RSV fusion (F) protein, is indicated for preterm infants and children at high-risk for RSV infections. It is an active time in RSV vaccine and mAb development with 14 vaccines and 2 mAbs currently being tested in clinical trials as of 13 February 2017...
May 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522781/laparoscopic-gastric-resections-with-per-oral-specimen-extraction-in-treatment-of-intramural-gastric-tumors
#5
Maciej Stanek, Piotr Major, Mateusz Wierdak, Michał Pędziwiatr, Dorota Radkowiak, Anna Zychowicz, Andrzej Budzyński
AIM: The goal of this work was to present our experiences and results of treatment of gastric tumors using the per oral specimen extraction (POSE) technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis a group of patients treated with laparoscopic stomach wedge resection of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). During that time 50 patients underwent laparoscopy due to the suspicion of GIST. In 12 patients resected material was removed endoscopically per os (POSE)...
February 28, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516174/when-personal-tracking-becomes-social-examining-the-use-of-instagram-for-healthy-eating
#6
Chia-Fang Chung, Elena Agapie, Jessica Schroeder, Sonali Mishra, James Fogarty, Sean A Munson
Many people appropriate social media and online communities in their pursuit of personal health goals, such as healthy eating or increased physical activity. However, people struggle with impression management, and with reaching the right audiences when they share health information on these platforms. Instagram, a popular photo-based social media platform, has attracted many people who post and share their food photos. We aim to inform the design of tools to support healthy behaviors by understanding how people appropriate Instagram to track and share food data, the benefits they obtain from doing so, and the challenges they encounter...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511205/-stability-and-change-of-medical-specialty-of-residents-over-four-years-of-postgraduate-training-in-germany
#7
Hendrik van den Bussche, Stine Ziegler, Lea Krause-Solberg, Martin Scherer
Aim We analyzed medical residents' preferences in Germany with regard to the specialization fields after 4 years of postgraduate training and compared them to their preferences in the years before, e. g. at the end of undergraduate education in a gender comparative perspective, including the influence of parenthood. Methods The study is based on annual postal surveys of students of 7 medical faculties in Germany from their last year of medical school ("Practical Year") until after 4 years of postgraduate training...
May 16, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511046/effects-of-stress-on-women-s-preference-for-male-facial-masculinity-and-their-endocrine-correlates
#8
Beate Ditzen, Simona Palm-Fischbacher, Lara Gossweiler, Livia Stucky, Ulrike Ehlert
Women's preferences for masculinity in men's faces seem to vary across the menstrual cycle and are assumed to be strongest around ovulation. A number of hormones have been proposed to underlie these subtle cyclic shifts. Furthermore, mating preferences are context-dependent, and stress has been found to alter mate choice, both in animals and humans. Currently, the effects of stress on women's preference for masculinity remain unknown. To examine the hormonal basis and the impact of stress on facial masculinity preference, we tested for within-subject changes in 52 healthy young women who underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and the placebo-TSST in randomized order in the late follicular and mid-luteal phases of their menstrual cycle...
May 3, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507070/limited-colonization-undermined-by-inadequate-early-immune-responses-define-the-dynamics-of-decidual-listeriosis
#9
Gabrielle Rizzuto, Elisa Tagliani, Priyanka Manandhar, Adrian Erlebacher, Anna I Bakardjiev
The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes causes a food-borne systemic disease in pregnant women that can lead to preterm labor, stillbirth, or severe neonatal disease. Colonization of the maternal decidua appears to be an initial step in the maternal component of the disease as well as bacterial transmission to the placenta and fetus. Host-pathogen interactions in the decidua during this early stage of infection remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed the dynamics of L. monocytogenes infection in primary human decidual organ cultures and in the murine decidua in vivo...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506297/cervical-cancer-treatment-costs-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-in-vietnam-a-prime-modeling-study
#10
Hoang Van Minh, Nguyen Thi Tuyet My, Mark Jit
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in South Vietnam and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in North Vietnam. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has the potential to substantially decrease this burden. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that a cost-effectiveness analysis of HPV vaccination is conducted before nationwide introduction. METHODS: The Papillomavirus Rapid Interface for Modeling and Economics (PRIME) model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccine introduction...
May 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492018/impact-of-leishmaniasis-in-women-a-practical-review-with-an-update-on-my-isd-supported-initiative-to-combat-leishmaniasis-in-yemen-elyp
#11
REVIEW
Mohamed A Al-Kamel
Stigma is synonymous with leishmaniasis, an endemic deadly flesh-eating disease in Yemen that affects predominantly poor rural women and children. Women with leishmaniasis often present late and experience not only physical deformities and the risk of death, but also the painful stigma of the disease and its consequences, a similar situation to that of leprosy decades ago. The International Society of Dermatology-sponsored community dermatology project Eradication of Leishmaniasis from Yemen Project has made a difference in the leishmaniasis situation in Yemen and addressed its magnitude...
September 2016: International Journal of Women's Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490419/development-usability-and-efficacy-of-a-serious-game-to-help-patients-learn-about-pain-management-after-surgery-an-evaluation-study
#12
Brynja Ingadottir, Katrin Blondal, David Thue, Sigridur Zoega, Ingela Thylen, Tiny Jaarsma
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain is a persistent problem after surgery and can delay recovery and develop into chronic pain. Better patient education has been proposed to improve pain management of patients. Serious games have not been previously developed to help patients to learn how to manage their postoperative pain. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the development of a computer-based game for surgical patients to learn about postoperative pain management and to evaluate the usability, user experience, and efficacy of the game...
May 10, 2017: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485703/relative-physical-position-as-an-impression-management-strategy-sex-differences-in-its-use-and-implications
#13
Anastasia Makhanova, James K McNulty, Jon K Maner
People's physical position relative to others may shape how those others perceive them. The research described here suggests that people use relative physical position to manage impressions by strategically positioning themselves either higher or lower relative to ostensible observers. Five studies supported the prediction that women take and display photographs portraying themselves in a low relative physical position to highlight their youthful features and appear attractive, whereas men take and display photographs portraying themselves in a high relative physical position to highlight their size and appear dominant...
May 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484614/creating-beauty-creativity-compensates-for-low-physical-attractiveness-when-individuals-assess-the-attractiveness-of-social-and-romantic-partners
#14
Christopher D Watkins
Although creativity is attractive in a potential mate, it is unclear (i) whether the effects of creativity on attractiveness generalize to other social contexts and (ii) whether creativity has equivalent effects on men's and women's attractiveness. As social knowledge of creativity may either enhance or 'offset' the appeal of social partners who differ in physical attractiveness, three repeated measures experiments were conducted to directly address these issues. Here, participants rated a series of face-text pairs for attractiveness on trials that differed in one of four combinations of facial attractiveness (attractive and less attractive) and creativity (creative and less creative), rating story-tellers in two experiments (short interpretations of an identical painting) and creative ideas in a further experiment (alternative uses for an everyday object)...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484408/presenting-your-best-self-ie-the-influence-of-gender-on-vertical-orientation-of-selfies-on-tinder
#15
Jennifer R Sedgewick, Meghan E Flath, Lorin J Elias
When taking a self-portrait or "selfie" to display in an online dating profile, individuals may intuitively manipulate the vertical camera angle to embody how they want to be perceived by the opposite sex. Concepts from evolutionary psychology and grounded cognition suggest that this manipulation can provide cues of physical height and impressions of power to the viewer which are qualities found to influence mate-selection. We predicted that men would orient selfies more often from below to appear taller (i...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475170/urinary-tract-infections-in-postmenopausal-women-with-type-2-diabetes-clinical-correlates-and-quinolone-susceptibility
#16
Martyna Borowczyk, Anna Chmielarz-Czarnocińska, Paula Faner, Andrzej Paciorkowski, Jan K Nowak, Ewelina Szczepanek-Parulska, Marek Ruchała, Maciej Cymerys
INTRODUCTION    Both diabetes mellitus and the postmenopausal period predispose to urinary tract infections (UTIs). However, the data on UTIs in postmenopausal diabetics are scarce.  OBJECTIVES    The aim was to determine the prevalence of UTIs in postmenopausal women with type 2 DM (T2DM), identify the potential risk factors, describe the causative pathogens, and assess their susceptibility to quinolones. PATIENTS AND METHODS    The patients were interviewed, examined, and had their hospital records analyzed...
May 5, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468747/using-computer-simulations-for-investigating-a-sex-education-intervention-an-exploratory-study
#17
Anastasia Eleftheriou, Seth Bullock, Cynthia A Graham, Roger Ingham
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are ongoing concerns. The best method for preventing the transmission of these infections is the correct and consistent use of condoms. Few studies have explored the use of games in interventions for increasing condom use by challenging the false sense of security associated with judging the presence of an STI based on attractiveness. OBJECTIVES: The primary purpose of this study was to explore the potential use of computer simulation as a serious game for sex education...
May 3, 2017: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466434/non-heterosexuality-relationships-and-young-women-s-contraceptive-behavior
#18
Elizabeth J Ela, Jamie Budnick
Non-heterosexual young women have a higher rate of unintended pregnancy than their heterosexual peers, but their fertility behaviors are understudied. We use longitudinal data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life study to investigate mechanisms contributing to non-heterosexual women's higher pregnancy risk. These data include weekly reports of relationships, sex, and contraceptive use over 30 months. We compare the relationships and fertility behaviors of three groups: exclusively heterosexual (consistent heterosexual behavior, identity, and attraction); mostly heterosexual (heterosexual identity with same-sex behavior and/or same-sex attraction); and LGBTQ (any non-heterosexual identity)...
May 2, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461793/nina-braunwald-a-female-pioneer-in-cardiac-surgery
#19
Nikhil Sabharwal, Harmanjit Dev, Hassiba Smail, David C McGiffin, Pankaj Saxena
Nina Starr Braunwald, the first female cardiac surgeon, made headlines during a time when almost all specialty surgeons were men. Women have typically been deterred from entering surgical specialties, in part because of their traditional dual burden of managing their households and careers. Instead, female medical students and junior doctors have tended to be more attracted to medical specialties. This was the reality during Dr. Braunwald's venture into medicine in 1949. However, she never allowed negative ideas to keep her from joining a surgical training program...
April 2017: Texas Heart Institute Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458123/the-motivation-and-capacity-to-go-above-and-beyond-qualitative-analysis-of-free-text-survey-responses-in-the-m-ngo-randomised-controlled-trial-of-caseload-midwifery
#20
Jyai Allen, Sue Kildea, Donna L Hartz, Mark Tracy, Sally Tracy
OBJECTIVE: to explore whether women allocated to caseload care characterise their midwife differently to those allocated to standard care. DESIGN: multi-site unblinded, randomised, controlled, parallel-group trial. SETTING: the study was conducted in two metropolitan teaching hospitals across two Australian cities. POPULATION: women of all obstetric risk were eligible to participate. Inclusion criteria were: 18 years or older, less than 24 week's gestation with a singleton pregnancy...
March 29, 2017: Midwifery
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