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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242708/physical-attractiveness-and-women-s-hiv-risk-in-rural-malawi
#1
Margaret Frye, Sophia Chae
BACKGROUND: Qualitative evidence from sub-Saharan Africa, where a generalized AIDS epidemic exists, suggests that attractiveness may play a role in shaping individual-level HIV risk. Attractive women, who are often blamed for the epidemic and stigmatized, are believed to pose a higher HIV risk because they are viewed as having more and riskier partners. OBJECTIVE: We examine the association between perceived attractiveness and HIV infection and risk in rural Malawi in the midst of the country's severe AIDS epidemic...
2017: Demographic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237852/cues-of-upper-body-strength-account-for-most-of-the-variance-in-men-s-bodily-attractiveness
#2
Aaron Sell, Aaron W Lukazsweski, Michael Townsley
Evolution equips sexually reproducing species with mate choice mechanisms that function to evaluate the reproductive consequences of mating with different individuals. Indeed, evolutionary psychologists have shown that women's mate choice mechanisms track many cues of men's genetic quality and ability to invest resources in the woman and her offspring. One variable that predicted both a man's genetic quality and his ability to invest is the man's formidability (i.e. fighting ability or resource holding power/potential)...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235690/improving-alcohol-and-mental-health-treatment-for-lesbian-bisexual-and-queer-women-identity-matters
#3
Amy Pennay, Ruth McNair, Tonda L Hughes, William Leonard, Rhonda Brown, Dan I Lubman
OBJECTIVE: Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience substantial unmet alcohol and mental health treatment needs. This paper explores the way in which sexual identity shapes experience, and needs, in relation to alcohol and mental health treatment, and presents key messages for improving treatment. METHODS: Twenty-five in-depth interviews were undertaken with same-sex attracted Australian women, aged 19-71. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically...
December 13, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222045/challenges-in-risk-estimation-using-routinely-collected-clinical-data-the-example-of-estimating-cervical-cancer-risks-from-electronic-health-records
#4
Rebecca Landy, Li C Cheung, Mark Schiffman, Julia C Gage, Noorie Hyun, Nicolas Wentzensen, Walter K Kinney, Philip E Castle, Barbara Fetterman, Nancy E Poitras, Thomas Lorey, Peter D Sasieni, Hormuzd A Katki
Electronic health-records (EHR) are increasingly used by epidemiologists studying disease following surveillance testing to provide evidence for screening intervals and referral guidelines. Although cost-effective, undiagnosed prevalent disease and interval censoring (in which asymptomatic disease is only observed at the time of testing) raise substantial analytic issues when estimating risk that cannot be addressed using Kaplan-Meier methods. Based on our experience analysing EHR from cervical cancer screening, we previously proposed the logistic-Weibull model to address these issues...
December 5, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198494/distribution-of-metastases-in-mesorectum-is-unpredictable-metastases-do-not-respect-tumor-localization-even-in-small-non-circumferential-rectal-cancers
#5
Magdaléna Linter Kapišinská, Eva Hovorková, Veronika Závalová, Zdeněk Šubrt, Martin Kuneš, Alexander Ferko
INTRODUCTION: Low anterior resection with total mesorectal excision (TME) is the gold standard for surgical treatment of rectal carcinoma. The radicality of this procedure is negatively counterbalanced by morbidity, lethality, and numerous other complications. Local excision would appear to be an attractive alternative, but its radicality is disputable due to risk of undetected metastasis to the mesorectum. The study aimed to determine the location of mesorectal metastases with respect to circumferentially - located tumors in patients with tumors involving less than one-third of the rectal circumference...
November 23, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190741/preoperative-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-exploration-of-a-novel-strategy-to-enhance-neuroplasticity-before-surgery-to-control-postoperative-pain-a-randomized-sham-controlled-study
#6
Hugo Ribeiro, Ricardo Bertol Sesterhenn, Andressa de Souza, Ana Claudia de Souza, Monique Alves, Jessica Catarina Machado, Nathalia Bofill Burger, Iraci Lucena da Silva Torres, Luciana Cadore Stefani, Felipe Fregni, Wolnei Caumo
BACKGROUND: An imbalance in the excitatory/inhibitory systems in the pain networks may explain the persistent chronic pain after hallux valgus surgery. Thus, to contra-regulate this dysfunction, the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) becomes attractive. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that two preoperative active(a)-tDCS sessions compared with sham(s)-tDCS could improve the postoperative pain [as indexed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at rest and during walking (primary outcomes)]...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190144/heterogeneity-in-gender-sex-sexualities-an-exploration-of-gendered-physical-and-psychological-traits-in-attractions-to-women-and-men
#7
Zach C Schudson, Melissa H Manley, Lisa M Diamond, Sari M van Anders
Sexuality research has generally privileged attractions based on partners' sexed physical bodies over attractions based on other features, including gender expression and personality traits. Gender may actually be quite central to sexual attractions. However, its role has received little empirical attention. To explore how gendered and sexed features, among others, are related to sexual attractions, the current study assessed how sexually diverse individuals described their attractions to feminine, masculine, and gender-nonspecific features of women and men...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188755/approach-and-avoidance-tendencies-toward-picture-stimuli-of-pre-pubescent-children-and-adults-an-investigation-in-pedophilic-and-nonpedophilic-samples
#8
K Weidacker, C Kärgel, C Massau, S Weiß, J Kneer, T H C Krueger, B Schiffer
The presence of pedophilic sexual interests is considered of high importance for predicting recidivism among individuals who have committed sexual offenses. However, objective and valid assessment methods that are robust against confounding issues such as cognitive capacity and manipulation are sparse. We applied the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) for detecting sexual interests in 38 pedophilic men (18 primarily attracted to boys) and 27 male nonpedophilic (11 gay) participants. The AAT relies on automatic approach and avoidance tendencies, independent of cognitive abilities such as memory capacity and intelligence...
March 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180972/why-women-wear-high-heels-evolution-lumbar-curvature-and-attractiveness
#9
David M G Lewis, Eric M Russell, Laith Al-Shawaf, Vivian Ta, Zeynep Senveli, William Ickes, David M Buss
Despite the widespread use of high-heeled footwear in both developing and modernized societies, we lack an understanding of this behavioral phenomenon at both proximate and distal levels of explanation. The current manuscript advances and tests a novel, evolutionarily anchored hypothesis for why women wear high heels, and provides convergent support for this hypothesis across multiple methods. Using a recently discovered evolved mate preference, we hypothesized that high heels influence women's attractiveness via effects on their lumbar curvature...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178517/women-s-attractiveness-is-linked-to-expected-age-at-menopause
#10
Jeanne Bovet, Mélissa Barkat-Defradas, Valérie Durand, Charlotte Faurie, Michel Raymond
A great number of studies have shown that features linked to immediate fertility explain a large part of the variance in female attractiveness. This is consistent with an evolutionary perspective, as men are expected to prefer females at the age at which fertility peaks (at least for short-term relationships) in order to increase their reproductive success. However, for long-term relationships, a high residual reproductive value (the expected future reproductive output, linked to age at menopause) becomes relevant as well...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177241/effectiveness-of-infertility-counseling-on-pregnancy-rate-in-infertile-patients-undergoing-assisted-reproductive-technologies-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Nahid Maleki-Saghooni, Malihe Amirian, Ramin Sadeghi, Robab Latifnejad Roudsari
Background: Psychological interventions such as counseling for infertile patients seem to increase pregnancy rate. Objective: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine if counseling improves pregnancy rate among infertile patients. Thus, randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of counseling on pregnancy rate in infertile patients undergoing ART were pooled in a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: The databases of PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and Persian databases including SID, Iran Medex, and Magiran were searched from 1997 to July 2016 to identify relevant articles...
July 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173614/pregnancy-after-transcatheter-pulmonary-valve-implantation
#12
Urszula Kozicka, Krzysztof Weroński, Witold Rużyłło, Marcin Demkow, Mirosław Kowalski, Mateusz Śpiewak, Ewa Piotrowicz, Hanna Siudalska, Piotr Hoffman, Elżbieta K Biernacka
Transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation (TPVI) is a relatively new method of treating patients with significant pulmonary regurgitation or pulmonary stenosis, or both, after reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract. It is an attractive alternative to conduit replacement in this group of patients, who are typically young and active. This report includes 4 young women who after successful TPVI became pregnant and gave birth. Transthoracic echocardiography, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging were performed in all patients...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169520/heterosexual-practices-among-young-people-in-britain-evidence-from-three-national-surveys-of-sexual-attitudes-and-lifestyles
#13
Ruth Lewis, Clare Tanton, Catherine H Mercer, Kirstin R Mitchell, Melissa Palmer, Wendy Macdowall, Kaye Wellings
PURPOSE: To describe time trends and current patterns in sexual practices with opposite-sex partners among men and women aged 16-24 years in Britain. METHODS: Complex survey analyses of cross-sectional probability survey data from three British National Surveys of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal), conducted approximately decennially 1990-2012, involving interviews with 45,199 people in total. RESULTS: Birth cohort analysis showed a decline in the median age at first sexual experience and first intercourse since the midtwentieth century and a narrowing of the interval between these events...
December 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164497/identifying-motives-of-midlife-black-triathlete-women-using-survey-transformation-to-guide-qualitative-inquiry
#14
Candace S Brown, Kevin S Masters, Amy G Huebschmann
Demonstrating health disparities related to race, age, and gender, older Black women (BW) are the most sedentary demographic group in the United States. Increasing PA in mid-life is important, as it improves health as BW age into their later years. Advancing our understanding of the exercise motives of BW triathletes presents a "reverse engineering" opportunity to identify motives that could influence sedentary mid-life BW to increase their activity. The purposes of this study were to: (a) utilize an innovative survey transformation method to adapt a measure developed primarily in Caucasian males, i...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Cross-cultural Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164046/comparative-analysis-of-the-trends-in-medical-utilization-of-cancer-inpatients-in-korea
#15
Hyun-Ju Lee, Sung-Soo Kim
Objectives: Cancer has attracted worldwide attention. The incidence and prevalence are increasing, and it is the main cause of death. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of hospitalized cancer patients. Methods: This study is a secondary data study using the Korean National Hospital Discharge In-depth Injury Survey Data conducted annually by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Using these data, we extracted inpatients who principal diagnosis is cancer for nine years from 2005 to 2013...
October 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161637/la-donna-%C3%A3-mobile-lack-of-cyclical-shifts-in-facial-symmetry-and-facial-and-body-masculinity-preferences-a-hormone-based-study
#16
Urszula M Marcinkowska, Andrzej Galbarczyk, Grazyna Jasienska
Although under investigation for more than two decades, a common agreement on the occurrence of cyclical shifts in women's masculinity and symmetry preferences is still missing. Such shifts are considered to be an important feature of sexual selection as they supposedly direct women's attention towards cues for "good genes" (e.g. masculinity and symmetry) during times when probability of conception is the highest. Multiple studies have, however, failed to find these shifts. We attempt to address this lack of agreement analysing a sample of 110 healthy women, using intra-participant design and repeated measurements of oestradiol and LH during the cycle...
November 14, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155379/women-break-an-engineering-barrier-while-other-engineering-disciplines-stumble-bme-represents-a-success-story-in-attracting-american-women-to-a-male-dominated-field
#17
Claudia Gutierrez, Meaghan Paulosky, Angeline Aguinaldo, Jackie Gerhart
While the field of engineering as a whole is largely male-dominated, biomedical engineering (BME) is one area poised to overturn this trend. Women in the United States were awarded only 20% of all engineering B.S. degrees in 2015; in BME, however, 40.9% of the degree recipients were women. This stands in stark contrast to the more traditional fields of mechanical and electrical engineering, where women were awarded just 13.2% and 12.5% of B.S. degrees, respectively. This trend toward more female participation in BME continues at both the M...
November 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152995/endorsement-of-social-and-personal-values-predicts-the-desirability-of-men-and-women-as-long-term-partners
#18
Guilherme S Lopes, Nicole Barbaro, Yael Sela, Austin J Jeffery, Michael N Pham, Todd K Shackelford, Virgil Zeigler-Hill
A prospective romantic partner's desirability as a long-term partner may be affected by the values that he or she endorses. However, few studies have examined the effects of "values" on a person's desirability as a long-term partner. We hypothesized that individuals who endorse social values (vs. personal values) will be perceived as more desirable long-term partners (Hypothesis 1) and that the endorsement of social values will be especially desirable in a male (vs. female) long-term partner (Hypothesis 2)...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145897/it-does-matter-where-you-come-from-mothers-experiences-of-childbirth-in-midwife-obstetric-units-tshwane-south-africa
#19
Sarie J Oosthuizen, Anne-Marie Bergh, Robert C Pattinson, Jackie Grimbeek
BACKGROUND: Health professionals are striving to improve respectful care for women, but they fall short in the domains of effective communication, respectful and dignified care and emotional support during labour. This study aimed to determine women's experiences of childbirth with a view to improving respectful clinical care practices in low-risk, midwife-led obstetric units in the Tshwane District Health District, South Africa. METHODS: A survey covering all midwife-led units in the district was conducted among 653 new mothers...
November 16, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145548/supported-discharge-teams-for-older-people-in-hospital-acute-care-hospital-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Matthew Parsons, John Parsons, Paul Rouse, Avinesh Pillai, Sean Mathieson, Rochelle Parsons, Christine Smith, Tim Kenealy
Background: Supported Discharge Teams aim to help with the transition from hospital to home, whilst reducing hospital length-of-stay. Despite their obvious attraction, the evidence remains mixed, ranging from strong support for disease-specific interventions to less favourable results for generic services. Objective: To determine whether older people referred to a Supported Discharge Team have: (i) reduced length-of-stay in hospital; (ii) reduced risk of hospital readmission; and (iii) reduced healthcare costs...
November 14, 2017: Age and Ageing
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