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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437828/population-exposure-to-smoking-and-tobacco-branding-in-the-uk-reality-show-love-island
#1
Alexander B Barker, Magdalena Opazo Breton, Joanne Cranwell, John Britton, Rachael L Murray
BACKGROUND: Reality television shows are popular with children and young adults; inclusion of tobacco imagery in these programmes is likely to cause smoking in these groups. Series 3 of the UK reality show Love Island, broadcast in 2017, attracted widespread media criticism for high levels of smoking depicted. We have quantified this tobacco content and estimated the UK population exposure to generic and branded tobacco imagery generated by the show. METHODS: We used 1-min interval coding to quantify actual or implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia or branding, in alternate episodes of series 3 of Love Island, and Census data and viewing figures from Kantar Media to estimate gross and per capita tobacco impressions...
February 5, 2018: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436770/a-review-of-the-role-of-estrogen-in-dermal-aging-and-facial-attractiveness-in-women
#2
REVIEW
Edwin D Lephart
Estrogens are known to have protective and favorable influences on skin health; conversely, androgens oppose the actions of estrogens. Estrogen's chemical messages are transmitted via the classical nuclear hormone estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta and the rapid-acting G-coupled membrane estrogen receptor. Androgens [both testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT)] bind the same androgen receptor. Estrogen levels peak in the mid- to late 20s in women and then decline by 50% by 50 years of age and dramatically decrease further after menopause...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431460/attentional-and-evaluative-biases-help-people-maintain-relationships-by-avoiding-infidelity
#3
James K McNulty, Andrea L Meltzer, Anastasia Makhanova, Jon K Maner
Two longitudinal studies of 233 newlywed couples suggest that automatic attentional and evaluative biases regarding attractive relationship alternatives can help people maintain relationships by avoiding infidelity. Both studies assessed participants' tendency to automatically disengage attention from photos of attractive, opposite sex individuals; one study assessed participants' tendency to devalue those individuals by comparing their attractiveness evaluations to evaluations made by single people, and both studies assessed infidelity and relationship status multiple times for approximately three years...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429409/medical-students-perceptions-of-a-career-in-family-medicine
#4
Sody Naimer, Yan Press, Charles Weissman, Rachel Yaffa Zisk-Rony, Yoram G Weiss, Howard Tandeter
BACKGROUND: In Israel, there is a shortage of family medicine (FM) specialists that is occasioned by a shortage of students pursuing a FM career. METHODS: A questionnaire, based on methods adapted from marketing research, was used to provide insight into the medical specialty selection process. It was distributed to 6th-year medical students from two Israeli medical schools. RESULTS: A response rate of 66% resulted in collecting 218 completed questionnaires...
February 12, 2018: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423522/societal-identification-of-facial-paralysis-and-paralysis-location
#5
Peiyi Su, Lisa E Ishii, Jason Nellis, Jacob Dey, Kristin L Bater, Patrick J Byrne, Kofi D O Boahene, Masaru Ishii
Importance: When able to identify facial paralysis, members of society regard individuals with facial paralysis differently. They perceive a decrease in attractiveness, more negative affect, and lower quality of life. However, the ability of lay people in society to accurately identify the presence of facial paralysis has not yet been defined. Objective: To determine societal members' ability to (1) identify paralysis in varying degrees of paralysis severity and (2) localize the defect on the face...
February 8, 2018: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421010/training-cardiovascular-outcomes-researchers-a-survey-of-mentees-and-mentors-to-identify-critical-training-gaps-and-needs
#6
Prateeti Khazanie, Sana M Al-Khatib, Tracy Y Wang, Matthew J Crowley, Nancy R Kressin, Harlan M Krumholz, Catarina I Kiefe, Barbara L Wells, Sean M O'Brien, Eric D Peterson, Gillian D Sanders
BACKGROUND: Many young investigators are interested in cardiovascular (CV) outcomes research; however, the current training experience of early investigators across the United States is uncertain. METHODS: From April to November 2014, we surveyed mentees and mentors of early-stage CV outcomes investigators across the United States. We contacted successful grantees of government agencies, members of professional organizations, and trainees in CV outcomes training programs...
February 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419930/stat1-is-a-sex-specific-tumor-suppressor-in-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer
#7
Ilija Crnčec, Madhura Modak, Claire Gordziel, Jasmin Svinka, Irene Scharf, Stefan Moritsch, Paulina Pathria, Michaela Schlederer, Lukas Kenner, Gerald Timelthaler, Mathias Müller, Birgit Strobl, Emilio Casanova, Editha Bayer, Thomas Mohr, Johannes Stöckl, Karlheinz Friedrich, Robert Eferl
The interferon-inducible transcription factor STAT1 is a tumor suppressor in various malignancies. We investigated sex-specific STAT1 functions in colitis and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CRC) using mice with specific STAT1 deletion in intestinal epithelial cells (STAT1∆IEC ). Male but not female STAT1∆IEC mice were more resistant to DSS-induced colitis than sex-matched STAT1flox/flox controls and displayed reduced intraepithelial infiltration of CD8+ TCRαβ+ Granzyme B+ T cells. Moreover, DSS treatment failed to induce expression of T cell-attracting chemokines in intestinal epithelial cells of male but not of female STAT1∆IEC mice...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419358/-hold-on-bambelela-lyrical-interpretations-of-participation-in-an-hiv-prevention-clinical-trial
#8
Jonathan Stadler, Hayley MacGregor, Eirik Saethre, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe
During a five-day workshop, former clinical trial participants and local musicians wrote the lyrics and recorded a song about an HIV prevention trial. Born of concerns about misconceptions regarding experimental drug trials, the aim was to engender engagement with medical researchers and open dialogue about the risks and benefits of trial participation. Composing lyrics that highlighted their credibility as communicators of medical scientific knowledge and their selfless sacrifice to stem the transmission of HIV, women performed their social positioning and cultural authority in contrast to men as well as other women not part of the trial...
February 8, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417143/accuracy-of-predictions-of-patients-with-breast-cancer-of-future-well-being-after-immediate-breast-reconstruction
#9
Clara Nan-Hi Lee, Michael Patrick Pignone, Allison M Deal, Lillian Blizard, Caprice Hunt, Ruth Huh, Yuen-Jong Liu, Peter Anthony Ubel
Importance: Making a good decision about breast reconstruction requires predicting how one would feel after the procedure, but people tend to overestimate the impact of events on future well-being. Objective: To assess how well patients predict future well-being after mastectomy, with or without immediate reconstruction, with the following a priori hypotheses: Patients will overestimate the negative impact of mastectomy and positive impact of reconstruction, and prediction accuracy will be associated with decision satisfaction and decision regret...
February 7, 2018: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411046/-the-use-of-free-of-charge-prescription-contraceptives-among-women-results-of-a%C3%A2-pilot-project-in-the-german-federal-state-of-mecklenburg-western-pomerania
#10
Sabina Ulbricht, Angelika Beyer, Ulrich John
BACKGROUND: There is a connection between the receipt of unemployment benefits and the failure to use contraceptives in Germany. This study aims to understand the use of contraceptives among women entitled to unemployment benefits under the Sozialgesetzbuch II or XII (SGB II or SGB XII), prior and during an offer of contraceptives free of charge (CFOC). METHODS: The criteria for the use of CFOC (pill, intrauterine device, or ring) over a 12-month period were: age between 20 and 35 years, resident in predefined urban or rural postal codes in the German federal state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, and participation in a self-administered survey...
February 6, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408371/women-in-danger-detecting-coronary-artery-disease-are-there-any-sex-differences
#11
EDITORIAL
A P Patrianakos
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women in the western countries. Women are less likely to seek medical assistance and are often misdiagnosed, facts that increase incrementally their CVD mortality. Exercise stress test is often non diagnostic and thus dobutamine stress echocardiography represents an excellent tool in the evaluation of coronary artery disease in women. Especially with the additional use of echocardiographic contrast agents that help to overcome the technical difficulties in the evaluation of the female small,usually, cardiac chambers, dobutamine stress echocardiography seems to be the most attractive non-invasive, radiation free diagnostic imaging modality, in the daily clinical practice with a proven diagnostic and prognostic value...
February 3, 2018: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407605/dynamic-competition-account-of-men-s-perceptions-of-women-s-sexual-interest
#12
Jodi R Smith, Teresa A Treat, Thomas A Farmer, Bob McMurray
This work applies a dynamic competition framework of decision making to the domain of sexual perception, which is linked theoretically and empirically to college men's risk for exhibiting sexual coercion and aggression toward female acquaintances. Within a mouse-tracking paradigm, 152 undergraduate men viewed full-body photographs of women who varied in affect (sexual interest or rejection), clothing style (provocative or conservative), and attractiveness, and decided whether each woman currently felt sexually interested or rejecting...
February 5, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405204/labiaplasty-motivation-techniques-and-ethics
#13
REVIEW
Müjde Özer, Indiana Mortimore, Elise P Jansma, Margriet G Mullender
Labiaplasty (also known as labia minora reduction) is attracting increasing attention in the media and in online forums. Controversy exists among health-care professionals on how to manage a request for this surgery. Furthermore, the indications for and outcomes of labiaplasty have not yet been systematically assessed, and long-term outcomes have not yet been reported. Labia minora hypertrophy is defined as enlargement of the labia minora; however, the natural variation of labia minora size has scarcely been studied, with only one study suggesting objective criteria...
February 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401052/psychiatric-aspects-of-extreme-sports-three-case-studies
#14
Ian R Tofler, Brandon M Hyatt, David S Tofler
Extreme sports, defined as sporting or adventure activities involving a high degree of risk, have boomed since the 1990s. These types of sports attract men and women who can experience a life-affirming transcendence or "flow" as they participate in dangerous activities. Extreme sports also may attract people with a genetic predisposition for risk, risk-seeking personality traits, or underlying psychiatric disorders in which impulsivity and risk taking are integral to the underlying problem. In this report, we attempt to illustrate through case histories the motivations that lead people to repeatedly risk their lives and explore psychiatry's role in extreme sports...
2018: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389206/vicarious-social-touch-biases-gazing-at-faces-and-facial-emotions
#15
Annett Schirmer, Tabitha Ng, Richard P Ebstein
Research has suggested that interpersonal touch promotes social processing and other-concern, and that women may respond to it more sensitively than men. In this study, we asked whether this phenomenon would extend to third-party observers who experience touch vicariously. In an eye-tracking experiment, participants (N = 64, 32 men and 32 women) viewed prime and target images with the intention of remembering them. Primes comprised line drawings of dyadic interactions with and without touch. Targets comprised two faces shown side-by-side, with one being neutral and the other being happy or sad...
February 1, 2018: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388505/gender-differences-in-sexual-attraction-and-moral-judgment-research-with-artificial-face-models
#16
Julio González-Álvarez, Teresa Cervera-Crespo
Sexual attraction in humans is influenced by cultural or moral factors, and some gender differences can emerge in this complex interaction. A previous study found that men dissociate sexual attraction from moral judgment more than women do. Two experiments consisting of giving attractiveness ratings to photos of real opposite-sex individuals showed that men, compared to women, were significantly less influenced by the moral valence of a description about the person shown in each photo. There is evidence of some processing differences between real and artificial computer-generated faces...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383460/patterns-of-asexuality-in-china-sexual-activity-sexual-and-romantic-attraction-and-sexual-desire
#17
Lijun Zheng, Yanchen Su
This study examined patterns of asexuality in Chinese asexual people in terms of sexual activities, sexual/romantic attraction, and sexual desire. The sample included 227 (64 men and 163 women) asexual participants and 57 (26 men and 31 women) uncertain asexual participants recruited from social networks for asexual people. The control group included 217 (115 men and 102 women) heterosexual participants recruited from general social networks. Participants scoring 40 or higher on the Asexuality Identification Scale were classified as asexual...
January 30, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380023/comparison-of-facial-proportions-between-beauty-pageant-contestants-and-ordinary-young-women-of-korean-ethnicity-a-three-dimensional-photogrammetric-analysis
#18
Sung-Chan Kim, Hyung Bae Kim, Woo Shik Jeong, Kyung S Koh, Chang Hun Huh, Hee Jin Kim, Woo Shun Lee, Jong Woo Choi
BACKGROUND: Although the harmony of facial proportions is traditionally perceived as an important element of facial attractiveness, there have been few objective studies that have investigated this esthetic balance using three-dimensional photogrammetric analysis. OBJECTIVES: To better understand why some women appear more beautiful, we investigated differences in facial proportions between beauty pageant contestants and ordinary young women of Korean ethnicity using three-dimensional (3D) photogrammetric analyses...
January 29, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379046/human-mate-choice-copying-is-domain-general-social-learning
#19
Sally E Street, Thomas J H Morgan, Alex Thornton, Gillian R Brown, Kevin N Laland, Catharine P Cross
Women appear to copy other women's preferences for men's faces. This 'mate-choice copying' is often taken as evidence of psychological adaptations for processing social information related to mate choice, for which facial information is assumed to be particularly salient. No experiment, however, has directly investigated whether women preferentially copy each other's face preferences more than other preferences. Further, because prior experimental studies used artificial social information, the effect of real social information on attractiveness preferences is unknown...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364575/childbirth-fear-relation-to-birth-and-care-provider-preferences
#20
Kathrin Stoll, Nichole Fairbrother, Dana S Thordarson
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to assess how preferences for place of birth and mode of birth relate to different dimensions of childbirth fear and whether there is an association between Canadian women's prenatal fear of childbirth and the type and quality of prenatal care they received. METHODS: A link to an online survey was posted on Canadian pregnancy and birth websites; 409 women completed the survey that included sociodemographic questions, questions about the current pregnancy and previous pregnancy experiences (if applicable), and the Childbirth Fear Questionnaire, a validated 40-item scale that measures 9 dimensions of childbirth fear...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
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