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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528489/the-ribosome-bound-quality-control-complex-from-aberrant-peptide-clearance-to-proteostasis-maintenance
#1
REVIEW
Quentin Defenouillère, Micheline Fromont-Racine
Proteostasis in eukaryotes is maintained by compartment-specific quality control pathways, which enable the refolding or the degradation of defective polypeptides to prevent the toxicity that may arise from their aggregation. Among these processes, translational protein quality control is performed by the Ribosome-bound Quality Control complex (RQC), which recognizes nascent peptides translated from aberrant mRNAs, polyubiquitylates these aberrant peptides, extracts them from the stalled 60S subunit and finally escorts them to the proteasome for degradation...
May 20, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528401/cardiovascular-disease-biomarkers-are-associated-with-declining-renal-function-in-type-2-diabetes
#2
Sara J Jenks, Bryan R Conway, Stela McLachlan, Wei Leng Teoh, Rachel M Williamson, David J Webb, Paul Welsh, Naveed Sattar, Mark W J Strachan, Jackie F Price
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated whether biochemical cardiovascular risk factors and/or markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease were associated with the development of reduced renal function in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A cohort of 1066 Scottish men and women aged 60-74 years with type 2 diabetes from the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study were followed up for a median of 6.7 years. New-onset reduced renal function was defined as two eGFRs <60 ml(-1) min(-1) (1...
May 20, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528353/adrenomedullin-ameliorates-podocyte-injury-induced-by-puromycin-aminonucleoside-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-through-modulation-of-rho-gtpases
#3
Nan Dong, Lixia Meng, Ruqun Xue, Meng Yu, Zhonghua Zhao, Xueguang Liu
PURPOSE: Podocyte injury is a key event in proteinuric kidney disease and eventually glomerular scarring. While adrenomedullin (AM), a potent vasodilatory peptide, has been reported to confer renoprotection in several experimental models of kidney diseases, its effect on injured podocytes and the related mechanism is still largely unknown. METHODS: Employing Western blotting analysis, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence, we investigated the effects of AM on the expressions of podocyte cytoskeletal proteins and Rho-family small GTPases (Rho GTPases) in puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced podocyte injury, both in cultured podocytes and in PAN nephrosis rats...
May 20, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528342/an-insight-into-the-changes-in-skin-texture-and-properties-following-dietary-intervention-with-a-nutricosmeceutical-containing-a-blend-of-collagen-bioactive-peptides-and-antioxidants
#4
Licia Genovese, Andrea Corbo, Sara Sibilla
BACKGROUND: Skin aging is a multifactorial phenomenon which causes alterations in skin physiological functions and, most visibly, phenotypic changes. In particular, during the aging process, hyaluronic acid, collagen, and elastin fibers undergo structural and functional changes. AIMS: This study aimed to give an insight into the photo-protective benefits and efficacy of an oral liquid nutricosmeceutical containing collagen bioactive peptides and antioxidants to counteract the signs of aging...
May 20, 2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528220/properties-of-the-tapasin-homologue-tapbpr
#5
REVIEW
Andreas Neerincx, Louise H Boyle
The presentation of antigenic peptides by MHC class I molecules plays a vital role in generating T cell responses against infection and cancer. Over the last two decades the central role of tapasin as a peptide editor that influences the loading and optimisation of peptides onto MHC class I molecules has been extensively characterised. Recently, it has become evident that the tapasin-related protein, TAPBPR, functions as a second peptide editor which influences the peptides displayed by MHC class I molecules...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528219/the-ongoing-saga-of-the-mechanism-s-of-mhc-class-i-restricted-cross-presentation
#6
Jeff E Grotzke, Debrup Sengupta, Qiao Lu, Peter Cresswell
Cross-presentation is an MHC-I antigen processing pathway that results in the presentation of peptides from exogenous viral, bacterial, parasitic, and tumor antigens and ultimately leads to priming of naïve CD8(+) T cells. This process involves several cellular compartments and multiple components. Successful generation of MHC-I-peptide complexes requires that these components act together in a coordinated fashion. We discuss recent findings on the source of MHC-I, the role of the TAP transporter, the importance of intracellular trafficking events, mechanisms of antigen access the cytosol, and how innate immune signals can affect presentation, with an emphasis on how these pathways compare to conventional antigen presentation and how they correlate with existing data...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528205/heterotrimeric-complex-of-p38-mapk-pkc%C3%AE-and-tirap-is-required-for-ap1-mediated-inflammatory-response
#7
Mirza S Baig, Dongfang Liu, Kannan Muthu, Anjali Roy, Uzma Saqib, Adnan Naim, Syed M Faisal, Mansi Srivastava, Rohit Saluja
Inflammation could be described as a physiological response of the body to tissue injury, pathogen invasion, and irritants. During the inflammatory phase, cells of both the innate as well as adaptive immune system are activated and recruited to the site of inflammation. These mediators are downstream targets for the transcription factors; activator protein-1 (AP1), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer (NF-κB), signal transducers and activators of transcription factors (STAT1), as well as interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), which control the expression of most immunomodulatory genes...
May 18, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528116/ph-controllable-cell-penetrating-polypeptide-possessing-cancer-targeting
#8
DaeYong Lee, IlKoo Noh, Jisang Yoo, N Sanoj Rejinold, Yeu-Chun Kim
Helical peptides were naturally-occurring ordered conformations that mediated various biological functions essential for biotechnology. However, it was difficult for natural helical polypeptides to be applied in biomedical fields due to low bioavailability. To avoid these problems, synthetic alpha-helical polypeptides have recently been introduced by further modifying pendants in the side chain. In spite of an attractive biomimetic helical motif, these systems could not be tailored for targeted delivery mainly due to nonspecific binding events...
May 17, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528097/protein-digestomic-analysis-reveals-the-bioactivity-of-deer-antler-velvet-in-simulated-gastrointestinal-digestion
#9
Yang Yu, Yan Jin, Fangjun Wang, Jiaze Yan, Yanxia Qi, Mingliang Ye
Proteins are the most prominent bioactive component in deer antler velvet. The aim of the present study was to track the fate of protein of antler velvet by protein digestomics. The peptide profile identified by LC-MS/MS and the in vitro bioactivity of antler velvet aqueous extract (AAE) were investigated in simulated gastrointestinal digestion. A total of 23, 387 and 417 peptides in AAE, gastric and pancreatic digests were identified using LC-MS/MS, respectively. Collagens, the predominant proteins, released 34 peptides in gastric digests and 146 peptides in pancreatic digests...
June 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528024/structure-diverse-phylomer-libraries-as-a-rich-source-of-bioactive-hits-from-phenotypic-and-target-directed-screens-against-intracellular-proteins
#10
REVIEW
Paul M Watt, Nadia Milech, Shane R Stone
Phylomers are peptides derived from biodiverse protein fragments. Genetically encoded Phylomer libraries have been constructed, containing hundreds of billions of peptides derived from virtually all of the few thousand fold families found in the protein universe. They offer a rich source of high quality hits against diverse target sequences and have been used for three main purposes: firstly, to identify and validate targets in phenotypic screens; secondly, to block protein interactions with nanomolar potency binding affinities; thirdly as a source of more efficient cell penetrating peptides for the delivery of a wide range of biologics...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528007/luteolin-as-a-potential-preventive-and-therapeutic-candidate-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Youngjoo Kwon
Amyloid cascade hypothesis is the main theoretical framework describing the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, most clinical trials of therapy targeting amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) are unsuccessful because AD is a complex disease involving many genetic and environmental factors. Among various factors, inflammation within the brain in particular has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of AD. Furthermore, it has been shown that systemic inflammation can initiate AD. Therefore, anti-inflammatory agents might be beneficial for prevention and/or treatment of AD...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527999/nanocellulose-collagen-apatite-composite-associated-with-osteogenic-growth-peptide-bone-regeneration
#12
Sybele Saska, Lucas Novaes Teixeira, Larissa Moreira Spinola de Castro Raucci, Raquel Mantuaneli Scarel-Caminaga, Leonardo Pereira Franchi, Raquel Alves Dos Santos, Silvia Helena Santagneli, Marisa Veiga Capela, Paulo Tambasco de Oliveira, Catarina Satie Takahashi, Ana Maria Minarelli Gaspar, Younès Messaddeq, Sidney José Lima Ribeiro, Reinaldo Marchetto
Despite advances in the field of biomaterials for bone repair/regeneration, some challenges for developing an ideal bone substitute need to be overcome. Herein, this study synthesized and evaluated in vitro a nanocomposite based on bacterial cellulose (BC), collagen (COL), apatite (Ap) and osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) or its C-terminal pentapeptide [OGP(10-14)] for bone regeneration purposes. The BC-COL nanocomposites were successfully obtained by carbodiimide-mediated coupling as demonstrated by spectroscopy analysis...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527994/purification-and-characterization-of-a-protease-resistant-phytase-of-aspergillus-oryzae-sbs50-whose-properties-make-it-exceptionally-useful-as-a-feed-supplement
#13
Sapna, Bijender Singh
An extracellular phytase of Aspergillus oryzae SBS50 was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Purified phytase has a monomeric molecular mass of ∼80kDa exhibiting its optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 50°C with a T 1/2 of 300min at 50°C. Phytase of A. oryzae displayed broad substrate specificity with Vmax and Km values of 58.82μmol/ml/min and 1.14mM, respectively, for calcium phytate. Purity and homogeneity of the phytase was confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography and MALDI-TOF analysis revealed the identification of a peptide showing homology with acid phosphatase of Aspergillus oryzae RIB40...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527974/the-effect-of-%C3%AE-sheet-breaker-peptides-on-metal-associated-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-aggregation-process
#14
F Stellato, Z Fusco, R Chiaraluce, V Consalvi, S Dinarelli, E Placidi, M Petrosino, G C Rossi, V Minicozzi, S Morante
Far-UV Circular Dichroism experiments and Atomic Force Microscopy tomography are employed to assess the impact of β-sheet breakers on the Aβ1-40 peptide aggregation process in the presence of Cu(2+) or Zn(2+) transition metals. In this work we focus on two specific 5-amino acids long β-sheet breakers, namely the LPFFD Soto peptide, already known in the literature, and the LPFFN peptide recently designed and studied by our team. We provide evidence that both β-sheet breakers are effective in reducing the Aβ1-40 aggregation propensity, even in the presence of metal ions...
May 15, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527897/advanced-glycation-endproducts-form-during-ovalbumin-digestion-in-the-presence-of-fructose-inhibition-by-chlorogenic-acid
#15
Yasmin Bains, Alejandro Gugliucci, Russell Caccavello
BACKGROUND: One mechanism by which fructose could exert deleterious effects is through intestinal formation and absorption of pro-inflammatory advanced glycation endproducts via the Maillard reaction. We employed simulated stomach and duodenum digestion of ovalbumin (OVA) to test the hypothesis that advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are formed by fructose during simulated digestion of a ubiquitous food protein under model physiological conditions. METHODS: OVA was subjected to simulated gastric and intestinal digestion using standard models, in presence of fructose or glucose (0-100mM)...
May 17, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527782/protective-roles-of-bioactive-peptides-during-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-from-bench-to-bedside
#16
REVIEW
Dongdong Wu, Jun Wang, Honggang Wang, Ailing Ji, Yanzhang Li
Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a well-known pathological condition which may lead to disability and mortality. I/R injury remains an unresolved and complicated situation in a number of clinical conditions, such as cardiac arrest with successful reanimation, as well as ischemic events in brain and heart. Peptides have many attractive advantages which make them suitable candidate drugs in treating I/R injury, such as low toxicity and immunogenicity, good solubility property, distinct tissue distribution pattern, and favorable pharmacokinetic profile...
May 17, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527686/local-innate-responses-and-protective-immunity-after-intradermal-immunization-with-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-e2-protein-formulated-with-a-combination-adjuvant-in-cattle
#17
Sams M A Sadat, Marlene Snider, Ravendra Garg, Robert Brownlie, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most serious pathogens in cattle. Recently, we developed a novel adjuvant platform (TriAdj) that includes a toll-like receptor 3 agonist, poly (I:C); an innate defense regulatory peptide; and water-soluble polymer, poly[di(sodiumcarboxylatoethylphenoxy)]-phosphazene (PCEP). To develop a needle-free intradermal (ID) subunit vaccine, the BVDV type-2 E2 protein was formulated with TriAdj, and immune protection was evaluated in calves against a BVDV-2 strain. Intradermal delivery of E2/TriAdj elicited robust virus neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses including CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527630/diagnostic-accuracy-of-csf-neurofilament-light-chain-protein-in-the-biomarker-guided-classification-system-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Simone Lista, Nicola Toschi, Filippo Baldacci, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Ingo Kilimann, Stefan J Teipel, Enrica Cavedo, Antonio Melo Dos Santos, Stéphane Epelbaum, Foudil Lamari, Bruno Dubois, Roberto Floris, Francesco Garaci, Harald Hampel
We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light chain (NFL) protein in the classification of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cognitively healthy control individuals (HCs) and patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) as comparisons. Particularly, we tested the performance of CSF NFL concentration in differentiating patient groups stratified by fluid biomarker profiles, independently of the severity of cognitive impairment (mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD dementia individuals), using a biomarker-guided descriptive classification system for AD...
May 17, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527393/a-combination-of-platelet-features-allows-detection-of-early-stage-cancer
#19
Siamack Sabrkhany, Marijke J E Kuijpers, Sander M J van Kuijk, Linda Sanders, Sharo Pineda, Steven W M Olde Damink, Anne-Marie C Dingemans, Arjan W Griffioen, Mirjam G A Oude Egbrink
BACKGROUND: Detection of early-stage cancer significantly improves patient survival. As platelets play an important role in cancer progression, we aimed to investigate whether platelets can be used for the discovery of early-stage cancer. METHODS: Patients with lung (n = 86) or head of pancreas (n = 42) cancer were included, as were healthy sex- and age-matched controls (n = 92). Blood was collected before initiation of treatment. Platelet count, volume and activation status were quantified in whole blood...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527391/melanin-concentrating-hormone-and-sleep
#20
REVIEW
Jozelia Gomes Pacheco Ferreira, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Antoine Adamantidis
The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an essential neuromodulator involved with homeostatic regulation and motivated behaviors. The majority of MCH neurons are localized within the zona incerta, lateral hypothalamic and incerto-hypothalamic areas but others regions, as the olfactory turbecle, the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, the paramediam pontine reticular formation and the medial preoptic area, can also express the peptide depending on the gender and metabolic state of the animal. If the MCH on these novel sites of expression are also related with the control of wake-sleep cycle will be discuss in this review...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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