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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210764/review-biosafety-assessment-of-bt-rice-and-other-bt-crops-using-spiders-as-example-for-non-target-arthropods-in-china
#1
REVIEW
Huilin Yang, Yuande Peng, Jianxiang Tian, Juan Wang, Jilin Hu, Qisheng Song, Zhi Wang
Since the birth of transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin for pest control, the public debate regarding ecological and environmental risks as well as benefits of Bt crops has continued unabated. The impact of Bt crops, especially on non-target invertebrates, has received particular attention. In this review, we summarize and analyze evidences for non-target effects of Bt rice on spiders, major predators in rice fields. Bt rice has been genetically modified to express the Bt protein, which has been shown to be transferred and accumulate in spiders as part of their food chain...
February 16, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208796/recent%C3%A2-trends%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-marine%C3%A2-phycotoxins%C3%A2-from%C3%A2-australian%C3%A2-coastal%C3%A2-waters
#2
Penelope Ajani, D Tim Harwood, Shauna A Murray
Phycotoxins, which are produced by harmful microalgae and bioaccumulate in the  marine food web, are of growing concern for Australia. These harmful algae pose a threat to  ecosystem and human health, as well as constraining the progress of aquaculture, one of the fastest  growing food sectors in the world. With better monitoring, advanced analytical skills and an  increase in microalgal expertise, many phycotoxins have been identified in Australian coastal  waters in recent years...
February 9, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208576/optimization-for-the-production-of-deoxynivalenoland-zearalenone-by-fusarium-graminearum-usingresponse-surface-methodology
#3
Li Wu, Lijuan Qiu, Huijie Zhang, Juan Sun, Xuexu Hu, Bujun Wang
Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are the mostcommon contaminants in cereals worldwide, causing a wide range of adverse health effects onanimals and humans. Many environmental factors can affect the production of these mycotoxins.Here, we have used response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the Fusarium graminearumstrain 29 culture conditions for maximal toxin production. Three factors, medium pH, incubationtemperature and time, were optimized using a Box-Behnken design (BBD)...
February 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202386/paraquat-and-maneb-co-exposure-induces-noradrenergic-locus-coeruleus-neurodegeneration-through-nadph-oxidase-mediated-microglial-activation
#4
Liyan Hou, Cong Zhang, Ke Wang, Xiaofang Liu, Hongwei Wang, Yuning Che, Fuqiang Sun, Xueying Zhou, Xiulan Zhao, Qingshan Wang
Co-exposure to paraquat (PQ) and maneb (Mb) has been shown to increase the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) is observed in PQ and Mb-treated experimental animals. The loss of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC/NE) neurons in brainstem is a common feature shared by multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including PD. However, whether PQ and Mb is able to damage LC/NE neurons remains undefined. In this study, mice treated with combined PQ and Mb displayed progressive LC/NE neurodegeneration...
February 12, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193079/correlation-between-mmp-9-and-mmp-9-timps-complex-with-pulmonary-function-in-sulfur-mustard-exposed-civilians-sardasht-iran-cohort-study
#5
Sara Ghaffarpour, Tooba Ghazanfari, Sussan Kabudanian Ardestani, Shahryar Pourfarzam, Faramarz Fallahi, Jalaleddin Shams, Ensieh Sadat Mirsharif, Ali Mohammad Mohseni Majd, Soghrat Faghihzadeh
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteinases and have the vigorous capacity to degrade all parts of the extracellular matrix. MMP enzymes strongly participate in physiological processes such as normal tissue remodeling and wound healing and in pathology of pulmonary diseases. They are released in response to environmental stimuli such as toxins and regulated by endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical toxic which can cause severe permanent damages to lung tissues...
February 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176876/engineering-a-ph-responsive-pore-forming-protein
#6
Matic Kisovec, Saša Rezelj, Primož Knap, Miša Mojca Cajnko, Simon Caserman, Ajda Flašker, Nada Žnidaršič, Matej Repič, Janez Mavri, Yi Ruan, Simon Scheuring, Marjetka Podobnik, Gregor Anderluh
Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a cytolysin capable of forming pores in cholesterol-rich lipid membranes of host cells. It is conveniently suited for engineering a pH-governed responsiveness, due to a pH sensor identified in its structure that was shown before to affect its stability. Here we introduced a new level of control of its hemolytic activity by making a variant with hemolytic activity that was pH-dependent. Based on detailed structural analysis coupled with molecular dynamics and mutational analysis, we found that the bulky side chain of Tyr406 allosterically affects the pH sensor...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175954/multiple-resistance-to-carcinogens-and-xenobiotics-p-glycoproteins-as-universal-detoxifiers
#7
REVIEW
Thomas Efferth, Manfred Volm
The detoxification of toxic substances is of general relevance in all biological systems. The plethora of exogenous xenobiotic compounds and endogenous toxic metabolic products explains the evolutionary pressure of all organisms to develop molecular mechanisms to detoxify and excrete harmful substances from the body. P-glycoprotein and other members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family extrude innumerous chemical compounds out of cells. Their specific expression in diverse biological contexts cause different phenotypes: (1) multidrug resistance (MDR) and thus failure of cancer chemotherapy, (2) avoidance of accumulation of carcinogens and prevention of carcinogenesis in healthy tissues, (3) absorption, distribution, metabolization and excretion (ADME) of pharmacological drugs in human patients, (4) protection from environmental toxins in aquatic organisms (multi-xenobiotic resistance, MXR)...
February 7, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160920/age-related-alterations-in-the-genetics-and-genomics-of-the-male-germ-line
#8
REVIEW
Amin S Herati, Boryana H Zhelyazkova, Peter R Butler, Dolores J Lamb
Paternal aging is associated with increased risk of genetic disease transmission to the offspring. The changes associated with aging arise predominantly through formation of single nucleotide variation through DNA replication errors, as well as possibly chronic exposure to environmental toxins and reactive oxygen species exposure. Several age-related reproductive factors are also contributory, including the systemic hormonal milieu, accumulation of environmental toxin exposure, aging germ cells, and accumulation of de novo genetic and genomic abnormalities in germ cells...
February 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155242/sensory-neuron-regulation-of-gastrointestinal-inflammation-and-bacterial-host-defence
#9
N Y Lai, K Mills, I M Chiu
Sensory neurons in the gastrointestinal tract have multifaceted roles in maintaining homeostasis, detecting danger and initiating protective responses. The gastrointestinal tract is innervated by three types of sensory neurons: dorsal root ganglia, nodose/jugular ganglia and intrinsic primary afferent neurons. Here, we examine how these distinct sensory neurons and their signal transducers participate in regulating gastrointestinal inflammation and host defence. Sensory neurons are equipped with molecular sensors that enable neuronal detection of diverse environmental signals including thermal and mechanical stimuli, inflammatory mediators and tissue damage...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153514/association-of-acute-toxic-encephalopathy-with-litchi-consumption-in-an-outbreak-in-muzaffarpur-india-2014-a-case-control-study
#10
Aakash Shrivastava, Anil Kumar, Jerry D Thomas, Kayla F Laserson, Gyan Bhushan, Melissa D Carter, Mala Chhabra, Veena Mittal, Shashi Khare, James J Sejvar, Mayank Dwivedi, Samantha L Isenberg, Rudolph Johnson, James L Pirkle, Jon D Sharer, Patricia L Hall, Rajesh Yadav, Anoop Velayudhan, Mohan Papanna, Pankaj Singh, D Somashekar, Arghya Pradhan, Kapil Goel, Rajesh Pandey, Mohan Kumar, Satish Kumar, Amit Chakrabarti, P Sivaperumal, A Ramesh Kumar, Joshua G Schier, Arthur Chang, Leigh Ann Graham, Thomas P Mathews, Darryl Johnson, Liza Valentin, Kathleen L Caldwell, Jeffery M Jarrett, Leslie A Harden, Gary R Takeoka, Suxiang Tong, Krista Queen, Clinton Paden, Anne Whitney, Dana L Haberling, Ram Singh, Ravi Shankar Singh, Kenneth C Earhart, A C Dhariwal, L S Chauhan, S Venkatesh, Padmini Srikantiah
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of unexplained illness frequently remain under-investigated. In India, outbreaks of an acute neurological illness with high mortality among children occur annually in Muzaffarpur, the country's largest litchi cultivation region. In 2014, we aimed to investigate the cause and risk factors for this illness. METHODS: In this hospital-based surveillance and nested age-matched case-control study, we did laboratory investigations to assess potential infectious and non-infectious causes of this acute neurological illness...
January 30, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150704/genome-wide-dna-methylation-reprogramming-in-response-to-inorganic-arsenic-links-inhibition-of-ctcf-binding-dnmt-expression-and-cellular-transformation
#11
Matthew Rea, Meredith Eckstein, Rebekah Eleazer, Caroline Smith, Yvonne N Fondufe-Mittendorf
Chronic low dose inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure leads to changes in gene expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation. During this transformation, cells adopt a fibroblast-like phenotype accompanied by profound gene expression changes. While many mechanisms have been implicated in this transformation, studies that focus on the role of epigenetic alterations in this process are just emerging. DNA methylation controls gene expression in physiologic and pathologic states. Several studies show alterations in DNA methylation patterns in iAs-mediated pathogenesis, but these studies focused on single genes...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149008/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-smad3-signaling-and-redox-status-in-experimentally-induced-nephrotoxicity-impact-of-carnosine
#12
Walaa Arafa Keshk, Mohamed Alaa Katary
: Exposure to various organic compounds including drugs and environmental toxins causes cellular damage through generation of free radicals. Carnosine a dipeptide was used in this study to evaluate its effect against CCl4-induced nephrotoxicity. Sixty male albino rats were involved in this study and were equally divided into four groups. CCl4 (3 ml/kg body weight; biweekly for 4 weeks) was given to group II and III. Carnosine (10 mg/kg body weight; once daily for 4 weeks) was given to group III and VI...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147270/auxilin-underlies-progressive-locomotor-deficits-and-dopaminergic-neuron-loss-in-a-drosophila-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Li Song, Yijing He, Jiayao Ou, Yongbo Zhao, Ruoyu Li, Jingjing Cheng, Chin-Hsien Lin, Margaret S Ho
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that exhibits motor and non-motor symptoms, as well as pathological hallmarks, including dopaminergic (DA) neuron death and formation of α-synuclein (α-Syn) Lewy bodies. Cyclin-G-associated kinase (GAK), a PD susceptibility gene identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), is a ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase involved in clathrin uncoating, though its PD-related function remains elusive. Here, we implicate the Drosophila GAK homolog, auxilin (aux), in a broad spectrum of parkinsonian-like symptoms...
January 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145477/efficient-electrochemical-remediation-of-microcystin-lr-in-tap-water-using-designer-tio2-carbon-electrodes
#14
Germán Sanz Lobón, Alfonso Yepez, Luane Ferreira Garcia, Ruiter Lima Morais, Boniek Gontijo Vaz, Veronica Vale Carvalho, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues de Oliveira, Rafael Luque, Eric de Souza Gil
Microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) is the most abundant and toxic secondary metabolite produced by freshwater cyanobacteria. This toxin has a high potential hazard health due to potential interactions with liver, kidney and the nervous system. The aim of this work was the design of a simple and environmentally friendly electrochemical system based on highly efficient nanostructured electrodes for the removal of MC-LR in tap water. Titania nanoparticles were deposited on carbon (graphite) under a simple and efficient microwave assisted approach for the design of the electrode, further utilized in the electrochemical remediation assays...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137564/exoproteomics-of-pathogens-analysis-of-toxins-and-other-virulence-factors-by-proteomics
#15
J Armengaud, C Duport
Pathogens are known to release in their environment a large range of toxins and other virulence factors. Their pathogenicity relies on this arsenal of exoproteins and their orchestrated release upon changing environmental conditions. Exoproteomics aims at describing and quantifying the proteins found outside of the cells, thus takes advantage of the most recent methodologies of next-generation proteomics. This approach has been applied with great success to a variety of pathogens increasing the fundamental knowledge on pathogenicity...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133586/possible-health-impacts-of-bt-toxins-and-residues-from-spraying-with-complementary-herbicides-in-genetically-engineered-soybeans-and-risk-assessment-as-performed-by-the-european-food-safety-authority-efsa
#16
REVIEW
Christoph Then, Andreas Bauer-Panskus
BACKGROUND: MON89788 was the first genetically engineered soybean worldwide to express a Bt toxin. Under the brand name Intacta, Monsanto subsequently engineered a stacked trait soybean using MON89788 and MON87701-this stacked soybean expresses an insecticidal toxin and is, in addition, tolerant to glyphosate. After undergoing risk assessment by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the stacked event was authorised for import into the EU in June 2012, including for use in food and feed...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125013/involvement-of-fvset1-in-fumonisin-b1-biosynthesis-vegetative-growth-fungal-virulence-and-environmental-stress-responses-in-fusarium-verticillioides
#17
Qin Gu, Hafiz Abdul Samad Tahir, Hao Zhang, Hai Huang, Tiantian Ji, Xiao Sun, Liming Wu, Huijun Wu, Xuewen Gao
Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph, Gibberella moniliformis) is an important plant pathogen that causes seedling blight, stalk rot, and ear rot in maize (Zea mays). During infection, F. verticillioides produce fumonsins B1 (FB1) that pose a serious threat to human and animal health. Recent studies showed that Set1, a methyltransferase of H3K4, was responsible for toxin biosynthesis in filamentous fungi. However, to date, the regulation of FvSet1 on FB1 biosynthesis remains unclear. In the current study, we identified only one Set1 ortholog in F...
January 24, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123103/embryonic-exposure-to-the-environmental-neurotoxin-bmaa-negatively-impacts-early-neuronal-development-and-progression-of-neurodegeneration-in-the-sod1-g93r-zebrafish-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#18
Samantha Powers, Samantha Kwok, Emily Lovejoy, Tom Lavin, Roger Sher
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder leading to progressive paralysis and death within 2-5 years after diagnosis. Sporadic cases (SALS) comprise ∼90% of cases with the remaining 10% familial (FALS) caused by mutations in ∼27 genes. The vast heterogeneity seen in age and location of disease onset, rate of progression, and duration of disease have been linked with genetic and environmental influences in both SALS and FALS cases. Increased ALS incidence clusters in Guam, southern France, and Maryland have been linked with exposure to Beta-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a non-proteinogenic amino acid produced by cyanobacteria, dinoflaggelates, and diatoms...
January 25, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119512/detection-and-quantification-of-toxin-producing-microcystis-aeruginosa-strain-in-water-by-nanogene-assay
#19
Eun-Hee Lee, Kyung-Suk Cho, Ahjeong Son
We demonstrated the quantitative detection of toxin-producing Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) strain with the laboratory protocol of the NanoGene assay. NanoGene assay was selected because its laboratory protocol is in the process of being transplanted into a portable system. The mcyD gene of M. aeruginosa was targeted and as expected, its corresponding fluorescence signal was linearly proportional to the mcyD gene copy number. The sensitivity of the NanoGene assay for this purpose was validated using both dsDNA mcyD gene amplicons and genomic DNAs (gDNA)...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111826/regulation-systems-of-protease-and-hemolysin-production-in-vibrio-vulnificus
#20
Abdelaziz Elgaml, Shin-Ichi Miyoshi
Vibrio vulnificus is a gram-negative halophilic estuarine bacterium. It is an opportunistic human pathogen causing rapidly progressive fatal septicemia and necrotizing wound infection. This species also causes hemorrhagic septicemia called vibriosis in cultured eels. A range of virulence factors have been proposed to play a role in pathogenesis of the bacterium during human and/or eel infection. Among these factors, the metalloprotease (V. vulnificus protease: VVP) and the cytolytic toxin (V. vulnificus hemolysin: VVH) are significantly important...
January 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
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