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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632016/the-bacteroides-fragilis-pathogenicity-island-links-virulence-and-strain-competition
#1
Benjamin W Casterline, Aaron L Hecht, Vivian M Choi, Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg
The mature microbiome is a stable ecosystem that resists perturbation despite constant host exposure to exogenous microbes. However, the microbial mechanisms determining microbiome development and composition are poorly understood. We recently demonstrated that a non-toxigenic B. fragilis (NTBF) strain restricts enteric colonization by an enterotoxigenic (ETBF) strain dependent on a type VI secretion system (T6SS). We show here that a second enterotoxigenic strain is competent to colonize, dependent on the Bacteroides fragilis pathogenicity island (BFPAI)...
February 23, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631500/pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-survival-and-proliferation-are-promoted-by-protein-kinase-g-type-i%C3%AE-and-downstream-regulation-of-akt-foxo1
#2
Janica C Wong, Van Vo, Priyatham Gorjala, Ronald R Fiscus
Early studies showed nitric oxide as a pro-inflammatory-cytokine-induced toxin involved in pancreatic β-cell destruction during pathogenesis of type-1 diabetes. However, nitric oxide has both cytotoxic and cytoprotective effects on mammalian cells, depending on concentration and micro-environmental surroundings. Our studies have shown that low/physiological-level nitric oxide selectively activates protein kinase G type Iα isoform, promoting cytoprotective/pro-cell-survival effects in many cell types. In bone marrow-derived stromal/mesenchymal stem cells, protein kinase G type Iα mediates autocrine effects of nitric oxide and atrial natriuretic peptide, promoting DNA-synthesis/proliferation and cell survival...
June 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631399/into-the-storm-chasing-the-opportunistic-pathogen-staphylococcus-aureus-from-skin-colonisation-to-life-threatening-infections
#3
James P O'Gara
Colonisation of the human skin by Staphylococcus aureus is a precursor for a variety of infections ranging from boils to sepsis and pneumonia. The rapid emergence of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) following the clinical introduction of this antimicrobial drug and reports of resistance to all currently used anti-staphylococcal drugs has added to its formidable reputation. S. aureus survival on the skin and in vivo virulence is underpinned by a remarkable environmental adaptability, made possible by highly orchestrated regulation of gene expression and a capacity to undertake genome remodelling...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625997/quantifying-vibrio-cholerae-enterotoxicity-in-a-zebrafish-infection-model
#4
Kristie C Mitchell, Paul Breen, Sarah Britton, Melody N Neely, Jeffrey H Withey
Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of cholera, an acute intestinal infection in humans characterized by voluminous watery diarrhea. Cholera is spread through ingestion of contaminated food or water, primarily in developing countries that lack the proper infrastructure for proper water and sewage treatment. Vibrio cholerae is an aquatic bacterium that inhabits coastal and estuarine areas, and is known to have several environmental reservoirs, including fish. Our laboratory has recently described the use of the zebrafish as a new animal model for the study of V...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625989/rapid-high-throughput-identification-of-anthrax-causing-and-emetic-bacillus-cereus-group-genome-assemblies-using-btyper-a-computational-tool-for-virulence-based-classification-of-bacillus-cereus-group-isolates-using-nucleotide-sequencing-data
#5
Laura M Carroll, Jasna Kovac, Rachel A Miller, Martin Wiedmann
The Bacillus cereus group comprises nine species, several of which are pathogenic. Differentiating between isolates that may cause disease and those that do not is a matter of public health and economic importance, but can be particularly challenging due to the high genomic similarity of the group. To this end, we have developed BTyper, a computational tool that employs a combination of (i) virulence gene-based typing, (ii) multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), (iii) panC clade typing, and (iv) rpoB allelic typing to rapidly classify B...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622368/minimal-genetic-change-in-vibrio-cholerae-in-mozambique-over-time-multilocus-variable-number-tandem-repeat-analysis-and-whole-genome-sequencing
#6
Marcelino Garrine, Inácio Mandomando, Delfino Vubil, Tacilta Nhampossa, Sozinho Acacio, Shan Li, Joseph N Paulson, Mathieu Almeida, Daryl Domman, Nicholas R Thomson, Pedro Alonso, Oscar Colin Stine
Although cholera is a major public health concern in Mozambique, its transmission patterns remain unknown. We surveyed the genetic relatedness of 75 Vibrio cholerae isolates from patients at Manhiça District Hospital between 2002-2012 and 3 isolates from river using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and whole genome sequencing (WGS). MLVA revealed 22 genotypes in two clonal complexes and four unrelated genotypes. WGS revealed i) the presence of recombination, ii) 67 isolates descended monophyletically from a single source connected to Wave 3 of the Seventh Pandemic, and iii) four clinical isolates lacking the cholera toxin gene...
June 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621534/construction-of-an-immunized-rabbit-phage-display-library-for-selecting-high-activity-of-against-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1f-toxin-single-chain-antibodies
#7
Chongxin Xu, Cunzheng Zhang, Jianfeng Zhong, Hui Hu, Shimin Luo, Xiaoqin Liu, Xiao Zhang, Yuan Liu, Xianjin Liu
In the present study, a Cry1F-immunized rabbit phage display library (6.96×108) was constructed for selecting high activity of anti-Cry1F toxin single-chain antibody (scFv) by bio-panning. Total 16 positive monoclonal phage scFvs were obtained after 4 rounds panning which identified by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), PCR and DNA sequencing. The most positive phage scFv (named RF4) was expressed in E.coli.HB2151 and the purified soluble protein approximate 30 kDa with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620370/environmental-t4-family-bacteriophages-evolve-to-escape-abortive-infection-via-multiple-routes-in-a-bacterial-host-employing-altruistic-suicide-through-type-iii-toxin-antitoxin-systems
#8
Bihe Chen, Chidiebere Akusobi, Xinzhe Fang, George P C Salmond
Abortive infection is an anti-phage mechanism employed by a bacterium to initiate its own death upon phage infection. This reduces, or eliminates, production of viral progeny and protects clonal siblings in the bacterial population by an act akin to an "altruistic suicide." Abortive infection can be mediated by a Type III toxin-antitoxin system called ToxINPa consisting of an endoribonuclease toxin and RNA antitoxin. ToxINPa is a heterohexameric quaternary complex in which pseudoknotted RNA inhibits the toxicity of the toxin until infection by certain phages causes destabilization of ToxINPa, leading to bacteriostasis and, eventually, lethality...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620294/gestational-exposure-to-air-pollution-alters-cortical-volume-microglial-morphology-and-microglia-neuron-interactions-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#9
Jessica L Bolton, Steven Marinero, Tania Hassanzadeh, Divya Natesan, Dominic Le, Christine Belliveau, S N Mason, Richard L Auten, Staci D Bilbo
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain, important for normal neural development in addition to host defense in response to inflammatory stimuli. Air pollution is one of the most pervasive and harmful environmental toxicants in the modern world, and several large scale epidemiological studies have recently linked prenatal air pollution exposure with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a primary toxic component of air pollution, and markedly activate microglia in vitro and in vivo in adult rodents...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615734/the-role-of-organic-acids-on-microbial-deterioration-in-the-radix-pseudostellariae-rhizosphere-under-continuous-monoculture-regimes
#10
Hongmiao Wu, Linkun Wu, Quan Zhu, Juanying Wang, Xianjin Qin, Jiahui Xu, Lufei Kong, Jun Chen, Sheng Lin, Muhammad Umar Khan, Hira Amjad, Wenxiong Lin
A three-year field monoculture trial of Radix pseudostellariae and complementary laboratory studies were conducted to further elucidate the underlying mechanism responsible for significant decreases in the biomass yield and quality of R. pseudostellariae under continuous monoculture regimes. HPLC analysis indicated that continuous monoculture soil was rich in organic acids, which had cumulative effects over time. Further analysis suggested that the application of a mixture of organic acids significantly promoted growth of pathogenic fungi, and increased the expression of chemotaxis-related gene (cheA) and biofilm formation of the specific pathogenic Kosakonia sacchari...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614796/%C3%AE-synuclein-in-gut-endocrine-cells-and-its-implications-for-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Rashmi Chandra, Annie Hiniker, Yien-Ming Kuo, Robert L Nussbaum, Rodger A Liddle
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with devastating clinical manifestations. In PD, neuronal death is associated with intracellular aggregates of the neuronal protein α-synuclein known as Lewy bodies. Although the cause of sporadic PD is not well understood, abundant clinical and pathological evidence show that misfolded α-synuclein is found in enteric nerves before it appears in the brain. This suggests a model in which PD pathology originates in the gut and spreads to the central nervous system via cell-to-cell prion-like propagation, such that transfer of misfolded α-synuclein initiates misfolding of native α-synuclein in recipient cells...
June 15, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612952/a-nanoparticle-decorated-biomolecule-responsive-polymer-enables-robust-signaling-cascade-for-biosensing
#12
Zuan-Tao Lin, Jianhua Gu, Chien-Hung Li, T Randall Lee, Lixin Xie, Shuo Chen, Piao-Yang Cao, Shan Jiang, Yulin Yuan, Xia Hong, Hongting Wang, Dezhi Wang, Xifan Wang, Gang-Biao Jiang, Mikala Heon, Tianfu Wu
To meet the increasing demands for ultrasensitivity in monitoring trace amounts of low-abundance early biomarkers or environmental toxins, the development of a robust sensing system is urgently needed. Here, a novel signal cascade strategy is reported via an ultrasensitive polymeric sensing system (UPSS) composed of gold nanoparticle (gNP)-decorated polymer, which enables gNP aggregation in polymeric network and electrical conductance change upon specific aptamer-based biomolecular recognition. Ultralow concentrations of thrombin (10(-18) m) as well as a low molecular weight anatoxin (165 Da, 10(-14) m) are detected selectively and reproducibly...
June 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611954/super-resolution-imaging-of-protein-secretion-systems-and-the-cell-surface-of-gram-negative-bacteria
#13
REVIEW
Sachith D Gunasinghe, Chaille T Webb, Kirstin D Elgass, Iain D Hay, Trevor Lithgow
Gram-negative bacteria have a highly evolved cell wall with two membranes composed of complex arrays of integral and peripheral proteins, as well as phospholipids and glycolipids. In order to sense changes in, respond to, and exploit their environmental niches, bacteria rely on structures assembled into or onto the outer membrane. Protein secretion across the cell wall is a key process in virulence and other fundamental aspects of bacterial cell biology. The final stage of protein secretion in Gram-negative bacteria, translocation across the outer membrane, is energetically challenging so sophisticated nanomachines have evolved to meet this challenge...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610604/age-and-environment-dependent-changes-in-chemical-defences-of-larval-and-post-metamorphic-toads
#14
Bálint Üveges, Gábor Fera, Ágnes M Móricz, Dániel Krüzselyi, Veronika Bókony, Attila Hettyey
BACKGROUND: Chemical defences are widespread in animals, but how their production is adjusted to ecological conditions is poorly known. Optimal defence theory predicts that inducible defences are favoured over constitutive defences when toxin production is costly and the need for it varies across environments. However, if some environmental changes occur predictably (e.g. coupled to transitions during ontogeny), whereas others are unpredictable (e.g. predation, food availability), changes in defences may have constitutive as well as plastic elements...
June 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606423/unraveling-the-presence-of-multi-class-toxins-from-trichodesmium-bloom-in-the-gulf-of-mannar-region-of-the-bay-of-bengal
#15
Sumathy Shunmugam, Manickam Gayathri, Nainangu Prasannabalaji, Nooruddin Thajuddin, Gangatharan Muralitharan
Trichodesmium is an enigmatic bloom forming, non-heterocystous cyanobacterium reported most frequently in the coastal waters of India. However, the toxigenic potential of this globally significant N2 fixing cyanobacterium has not been characterized. In this study, we report for the first time the presence of potent multi-class neurotoxins such as Anatoxin-a, Saxitoxins, Gonyautoxin and hepatotoxins like MC-LR, MC-YA from a bloom material of Trichodesmium sp. MBDU 524 collected at the Gulf of Mannar region. Toxins were determined using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis of HPLC purified aqueous and solvent fractions...
June 9, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605645/novel-in-vivo-experimental-viability-assays-with-high-sensitivity-and-throughput-capacity-using-a-bdelloid-rotifer
#16
Zita Olah, Ashley I Bush, David Aleksza, Bence Galik, Eszter Ivitz, Lilla Macsai, Zoltan Janka, Zoltan Karman, Janos Kalman, Zsolt Datki
Rotifers have been used in biological research as well-characterized models of aging. Their multi-organ characters and their sensitivity for chemicals and environmental changes make them useful as in vivo toxicological and lifespan models. Our aim was to create a bdelloid rotifer model to use in high-throughput viability and non-invasive assays. In order to identify our species Philodina acuticornis odiosa (PA), 18S rDNA-based phylogenetic analysis was carried out and their species-specific morphological markers identified...
June 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604736/how-nutrition-and-the-maternal-microbiota-shape-the-neonatal-immune-system
#17
REVIEW
Andrew J Macpherson, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg
The mucosal surfaces of mammals are densely colonized with microorganisms that are commonly referred to as the commensal microbiota. It is believed that the fetus in utero is sterile and that colonization with microorganisms starts only after birth. Nevertheless, the unborn fetus is exposed to a multitude of metabolites that originate from the commensal microbiota of the mother that reach systemic sites of the maternal body. The intestinal microbiota is strongly personalized and influenced by environmental factors, including nutrition...
June 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601895/site-saturation-mutagenesis-library-construction-and-screening-for-specific-broad-spectrum-single-domain-antibodies-against-multiple-cry1-toxins
#18
Lingxia Jiao, Yuan Liu, Xiao Zhang, Beibei Liu, Cunzheng Zhang, Xianjin Liu
Potential ecological environmental and food safety risks of various Cry toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in transgenic food have received gradually increasing attention, which urged to establish an efficient and broad-spectrum detection technology for Cry toxins. Based on the single-domain antibody (sdAb) A8 against Bt Cry1Ab toxin screened from the humanized domain antibody library, the key amino acids of sdAb (A8) binding five kinds of Cry1 toxins were predicted using homology modeling and molecular docking technology, and the results showed that 105th asparagine, 106th arginine, 107th valine, and 114th arginine, respectively, located in heavy-chain complementarity-determining region 3 were common key amino acid sites...
June 11, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600312/colonization-of-vibrio-cholerae-on-the-soft-shelled-turtle
#19
Jiazheng Wang, Meiying Yan, He Gao, Xin Lu, Biao Kan
Vibrio cholerae is an important human pathogen and environmental microflora species that can both propagate in the human intestine and proliferate in zooplankton and aquatic organisms. Cholera is transmitted through food and water. In recent years, outbreaks caused by V. cholerae-contaminated soft-shelled turtles, mainly of toxigenic serogroup O139, have been frequently reported, posing a new foodborne disease public health problem. In this study, the colonization of toxigenic V. cholerae on the body surface and intestine of the soft-shelled turtle was explored...
June 9, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598977/coagulant-plus-ballast-technique-provides-a-rapid-mitigation-of-cyanobacterial-nuisance
#20
Natalia P Noyma, Leonardo de Magalhães, Marcela Miranda, Maíra Mucci, Frank van Oosterhout, Vera L M Huszar, Marcelo M Marinho, Eduardo R A Lima, Miquel Lürling
Cyanobacteria blooms are a risk to environmental health and public safety due to the potent toxins certain cyanobacteria can produce. These nuisance organisms can be removed from water bodies by biomass flocculation and sedimentation. Here, we studied the efficacy of combinations of a low dose coagulant (poly-aluminium chloride-PAC-or chitosan) with different ballast compounds (red soil, bauxite, gravel, aluminium modified zeolite and lanthanum modified bentonite) to remove cyanobacterial biomass from water collected in Funil Reservoir (Brazil)...
2017: PloS One
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