Read by QxMD icon Read

Environmental toxin

Lisa Chedik, Arnaud Bruyere, Olivier Fardel
1. Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are known to interact with human ATP-binding cassette drug efflux pumps. The present study was designed to determine whether they can also target activities of human solute carrier (SLC) drug transporters. 2. The interactions of thirteen OPs with SLC transporters involved in drug disposition, such as organic cation transporters (OCTs), multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs), organic anion transporters (OATs) and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), were mainly investigated using transporter-overexpressing cell clones and fluorescent or radiolabeled reference substrates...
February 16, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Elisa Andresen, Edgar Peiter, Hendrik Küpper
Many trace metals are essential micronutrients, but also potent toxins. Due to natural and anthropogenic causes, vastly different trace metal concentrations occur in various habitats, ranging from deficient to toxic levels. Therefore, one focus of plant research is on the response to trace metals in terms of uptake, transport, sequestration, speciation, physiological use, deficiency, toxicity, and detoxification. In this review, we cover most of these aspects for the essential micronutrients copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, and zinc to provide a broader overview than found in other recent reviews, to cross-link aspects of knowledge in this very active research field that are often seen in a separated way...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Lisa M Smith, Louise C Parr-Brownlie
Parkinson's disease is caused by complex interactions between environmental factors and a genetic predisposition. Environmental factors include exposure to pesticides and toxins, heavy metals and accumulation of iron and/or manganese in the brain. However, accumulating evidence indicates that gut-brain health and function is impaired in Parkinson's disease, often a decade before motor symptoms are diagnosed. We present the gut-brain theory of Parkinson's disease and summarise the peripheral and central nervous system pathology, gastrointestinal symptoms experienced by many Parkinson's patients, the route by which gut-brain dysfunction may occur, and changes in gut microbiota that are associated with disease expression...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Lorelei L Clarke, Kevin D Niedringhaus, K Paige Carmichael, M Kevin Keel, Heather Fenton
Congenital ocular abnormalities in cervids have been previously reported as individual cases from various regions of the United States and include microphthalmia, anophthalmia, congenital cataracts, dermoids, and colobomata. A common underlying cause for these abnormalities, such as nutritional deficiencies, environmental toxin exposures, or genetic mutations, has not been established. This retrospective study summarized and compared cases of suspected congenital ocular abnormalities in free-ranging white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCWDS) in Athens, Georgia, to the preexisting literature...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Sheila Okoth, Marthe De Boevre, Arnau Vidal, José Diana Di Mavungu, Sofie Landschoot, Martina Kyallo, Joyce Njuguna, Jagger Harvey, Sarah De Saeger
Aspergillus flavus is the main producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins in agricultural commodities such as maize. This fungus occurs naturally on crops, and produces aflatoxins when environmental conditions are favorable. The aim of this study is to analyse the genetic variability among 109 A. flavus isolates previously recovered from maize sampled from a known aflatoxin-hotspot (Eastern region, Kenya) and the major maize-growing area in the Rift Valley (Kenya), and to determine their toxigenic potential. DNA analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA, partial β-tubulin gene (benA) and calmodulin gene (CaM) sequences were used...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alessandro Tozzi, Michela Tantucci, Saverio Marchi, Petra Mazzocchetti, Michele Morari, Paolo Pinton, Andrea Mancini, Paolo Calabresi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which genetic and environmental factors synergistically lead to loss of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Mutation of leucine-rich repeated kinase2 (Lrrk2) genes is responsible for the majority of inherited familial cases of PD and can also be found in sporadic cases. The pathophysiological role of this kinase has to be fully understood yet. Hyperactivation of Lrrk2 kinase domain might represent a predisposing factor for both enhanced striatal glutamatergic release and mitochondrial vulnerability to environmental factors that are observed in PD...
February 12, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Lucette Flandroy, Theofilos Poutahidis, Gabriele Berg, Gerard Clarke, Maria-Carlota Dao, Ellen Decaestecker, Eeva Furman, Tari Haahtela, Sébastien Massart, Hubert Plovier, Yolanda Sanz, Graham Rook
Plants, animals and humans, are colonized by microorganisms (microbiota) and transiently exposed to countless others. The microbiota affects the development and function of essentially all organ systems, and contributes to adaptation and evolution, while protecting against pathogenic microorganisms and toxins. Genetics and lifestyle factors, including diet, antibiotics and other drugs, and exposure to the natural environment, affect the composition of the microbiota, which influences host health through modulation of interrelated physiological systems...
February 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Matthew Mold, Dorcas Umar, Andrew King, Christopher Exley
Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown aetiology. It is suggested to involve both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors including in the latter environmental toxins. Human exposure to the environmental toxin aluminium has been linked, if tentatively, to autism spectrum disorder. Herein we have used transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to measure, for the first time, the aluminium content of brain tissue from donors with a diagnosis of autism...
March 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Li Zhaolei, Bu Naishun, Chen Xueping, Cui Jun, Xiao Manqiu, Song Zhiping, Nie Ming, Fang Changming
Bt crops that are transgenic crops engineered to produce Bt toxins which occur naturally with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely planted and its environmental risk assessment has been heavily debated. The effects of Bt crops on soil microbial communities are possible through changing the quantity and quality of C inputs and potential toxic activity of Bt protein on soil organisms. To date, the direct effects of Bt protein on soil microorganisms is unclear. Here we added Cry1Ac, one of the most commonly used Bt protein in Bt crops, to the soil and monitored changes in soil bacterial, fungal and archaeal diversities and community structures using ribosomal DNA-fingerprinting method, as well as their population sizes by real-time PCR over a 100-day period...
February 1, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Donatella Ottaviani, Laura Medici, Giulia Talevi, Maira Napoleoni, Patrizia Serratore, Emanuele Zavatta, Giorgia Bignami, Laura Masini, Serena Chierichetti, Stefano Fisichella, Francesca Leoni
Toxigenic and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and genetic relatedness of 42 non-O1/O139 V. cholerae strains, the majority of them isolated from seafood and marine water of the Adriatic sea, Italy, and 9 clinical strains, two of which with seawater of the Adriatic as the source of infection, were studied. All strains had hlyA El Tor gene but lacked ctxA gene. Four and two isolates, respectively, also had stn/sto and tcpA Class genes. More than 90% of strains showed susceptibility to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, cloramphenicol, tetracycline, trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole and intermediate or full resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin...
June 2018: Food Microbiology
Manviri Rani, Uma Shanker
The low-cost and highly efficient pesticides are largely used in residential, agricultural, and commercial applications. Their prevalent occurrence, bioaccumulation, and chronic toxicity to living beings have raised environmental concern and call for their whole eradication, especially from water. By virtue of semiconducting nature and high surface area, nanomaterials have become efficient adsorbent and photocatalyst in removal of toxins. To confirm this, the potential of highly crystalline metal hexacyanoferrates (MHCFs) of Zn, Cu, Co, and Ni was evaluated in deprivation of selected hazardous pesticides, viz...
February 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zvi Roth
Stress can affect reproductive performance of lactating cows by targeting the ovarian pool of follicles and their enclosed oocytes. Among the documented stressors are heat stress (i.e., high temperature-humidity index) as well as environmental and food toxins. Oocytes collected during the hot season are of lower quality than those collected in the winter, expressed by reduced oocyte maturation and developmental competence. A similar pattern has been reported for oocytes exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Luiz H Marques, Antonio C Santos, Boris A Castro, Nicholas P Storer, Jonathan M Babcock, Miles D Lepping, Verissimo Sa, Valéria F Moscardini, Dwain M Rule, Odair A Fernandes
Field-scale studies that examine the potential for adverse effects of Bt crop technology on non-target arthropods may supplement data from laboratory studies to support an environmental risk assessment. A three year field study was conducted in Brazil to evaluate potential for adverse effects of cultivating soybean event DAS-81419-2 that produces the Cry1Ac and Cry1F proteins. To do so, we examined the diversity and abundance of non-target arthropods (NTAs) in Bt soybean in comparison with its non-Bt near isoline, with and without conventional insecticide applications, in three Brazilian soybean producing regions...
2018: PloS One
Xiaocui Chen, Yinghua Xu, Zuowang Cheng, Hong Su, Xiu Liu, Dongmei Xu, Carolyn Kapron, Ju Liu
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxin. Our previous study demonstrated that low‑dose Cd damages the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB); however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Podocytes are a major component of the GFB, which regulate the passage of proteins. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of low‑dose Cd on human renal podocytes (HRPs). HRPs were treated with Cd and activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway was examined by western blot analysis...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
K Wanigasuriya
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) has emerged as a significant public health problem in Sri Lanka. The role of environmental exposure to cadmium and arsenic in the aetiology of CKDu is still unclear. Identification of a panel of novel urinary biomarkers would be invaluable in the study of toxin mediated damage postulated to be the aetiology of CKDu. Objectives: The aims of this study were to evaluate the profile of novel urinary biomarkers in CKDu patients and identify any association with environmental exposure to heavy metals...
December 26, 2017: Ceylon Medical Journal
Shankar J Chinta, Georgia Woods, Marco Demaria, Anand Rane, Ying Zou, Amanda McQuade, Subramanian Rajagopalan, Chandani Limbad, David T Madden, Judith Campisi, Julie K Andersen
Exposure to the herbicide paraquat (PQ) is associated with an increased risk of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Therapies based on PQ's presumed mechanisms of action have not, however, yielded effective disease therapies. Cellular senescence is an anticancer mechanism that arrests proliferation of replication-competent cells and results in a pro-inflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) capable of damaging neighboring tissues. Here, we demonstrate that senescent cell markers are preferentially present within astrocytes in PD brain tissues...
January 23, 2018: Cell Reports
Bernhard Hennig, Michael C Petriello, Mary V Gamble, Young-Joon Surh, Laura A Kresty, Norbert Frank, Nuchanart Rangkadilok, Mathuros Ruchirawat, William A Suk
Human exposure to environmental contaminants such as persistent chlorinated organics, heavy metals, pesticides, phthalates, flame retardants, electronic waste and airborne pollutants around the world, and especially in Southeast Asian regions, are significant and require urgent attention. Given this widespread contamination and abundance of such toxins as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the ecosystem, it is unlikely that remediation alone will be sufficient to address the health impacts associated with this exposure...
January 30, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Amy L Winship, Jessica M Stringer, Seng H Liew, Karla J Hutt
BACKGROUND: Within the ovary, oocytes are stored in long-lived structures called primordial follicles, each comprising a meiotically arrested oocyte, surrounded by somatic granulosa cells. It is essential that their genetic integrity is maintained throughout life to ensure that high quality oocytes are available for ovulation. Of all the possible types of DNA damage, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are considered to be the most severe. Recent studies have shown that DNA DSBs can accumulate in oocytes in primordial follicles during reproductive ageing, and are readily induced by exogenous factors such as γ-irradiation, chemotherapy and environmental toxicants...
January 25, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Shuai Liu, Zhaoyang Tong, Xihui Mu, Bing Liu, Bin Du, Zhiwei Liu, Chuan Gao
For the convenience of fast measurement in the outdoor environment, a portable electrochemiluminescence biosensor with the screen-printed electrode as the reaction center was developed, which possesses the characteristics of high sensitivity, small scale, simplified operation and so on, and has been used for in situ detection of abrin. First, combining with magnetic separation technique, the "biotin-avidin" method was used to immobilize the polyclonal antibody (pcAb) on the magnetic microspheres surface as the capture probe...
January 26, 2018: Sensors
Ryan Rampersaud, Emma L Lewis, Timothy J LaRocca, Adam J Ratner
The cholesterol dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are a family of pore-forming toxins produced by a wide range of bacteria. Some CDCs are important virulence factors for their cognate organisms, but their activity must be tightly regulated to ensure they operate at appropriate times and within the appropriate subcellular compartments. pH-dependent activity has been described for several CDCs, but the mechanism of such regulation has been studied in depth only for listeriolysin O (LLO), which senses environmental pH through a triad of acidic residues that mediate protein unfolding...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"