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Environmental toxin

Eric E Brown, Philip Gerretsen, Bruce Pollock, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
INTRODUCTION: Lithium is a medication used to treat bipolar disorder and may also prevent cognitive decline and suicide. Lithium is also found naturally, in levels well below clinical doses, in drinking water worldwide, and levels have been inversely associated with rates of psychiatric disorders. Lead (Pb) is another element in the environment but is a toxin of public health concern. Negative effects of chronic lead exposure and possible benefits of environmental lithium exposure appear complementary...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Ana Sanchis, J-Pablo Salvador, Katrina Campbell, Christopher T Elliott, Weilin L Shelver, Qing X Li, M-Pilar Marco
The development of a fluorescent multiplexed microarray platform able to detect and quantify a wide variety of pollutants in seawater is reported. The microarray platform has been manufactured by spotting 6 different bioconjugate competitors and it uses a cocktail of 6 monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies raised against important families of chemical pollutants such as triazine biocide (i.e. Irgarol 1051®), sulfonamide and chloramphenicol antibiotics, polybrominated diphenyl ether flame-retardant (PBDE, i.e...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
Yogesh Saini, Brandon W Lewis, Dongfang Yu, Hong Dang, Alessandra Livraghi-Butrico, Fabio Del Piero, Wanda K O'Neal, Richard C Boucher
Macrophages (MΦ) are key sentinels of respiratory exposure to inhaled environmental stimuli. In normal "healthy" tissues, MΦ are believed to be a dormant cell type that, upon exposure to stress-causing stimuli, may get activated to exhibit pro- or anti-inflammatory roles. To test whether stress present in chronic bronchitic (CB) airways triggers MΦ to manifest protective or detrimental responses, the DTA+ (LysM-regulated Diphtheria Toxin A expressing) strain with partial MΦ-deficiency was crossed with the Scnn1b-Tg mouse model of CB and the progenies were studied at 4-5 weeks of age...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
Roberto A Distel, Juan J Villalba
Unpalatable forage resources (low nutrient density, potentially toxic metabolites) are widespread and represent a challenge for ruminant nutrition, health, and welfare. Our objective was to synthesize the role of biophysical and social experience on the use of unpalatable forages by ruminants, and highlight derived behavioural solutions for the well-being of soils, plants, and animals. Environmental experiences early in life modulate gene expression and promote learning, which alters morpho-physiological and psychological mechanisms that modify behavioural responses and change food and habitat selection...
April 14, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
C Mullié, O Obin, G Outurquin, S Grognet, A Léké, C Adjidé
A total of 1099 breastmilk donations received by the milk bank at the Amiens University Hospital from January to June 2016 were assessed for bacteriological contamination according to French regulations. This consisted in enumerating the total aerobic flora before and after heat treatment as well as the specific enumeration of coagulase-positive staphylococci. Results above the mandatory limits for at least one of these parameters were found in 25.9% of the donations, resulting in the destruction of approximately one-quarter of the volume of the donations (∼195L)...
April 11, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Evanthia Mantzouki, Miquel Lürling, Jutta Fastner, Lisette de Senerpont Domis, Elzbieta Wilk-Wo Zniak
Insight into how environmental change determines the production and distribution of cyanobacterial toxins is necessary for risk assessment. Management guidelines currently focus on hepatotoxins (microcystins). Increasing attention is given to other classes, such as neurotoxins (e.g., anatoxin-a) and cytotoxins (e.g., cylindrospermopsin) due to their potency. Most studies examine the relationship between individual toxin variants and environmental factors, such as nutrients, temperature and light. In summer 2015, we collected samples across Europe to investigate the effect of nutrient and temperature gradients on the variability of toxin production at a continental scale...
April 13, 2018: Toxins
Ao Xie, Jie Sheng, Feng Zheng
Kidney diseases are common and the incidence rate is increasing. Gut microbiota is involved in metabolic and immune regulation of the host. Genetic, alimentary and environmental disease factors may change gut flora and increase opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria, contributing to immune or non-immune mediated kidney diseases including IgA nephropathy and diabetic nephropathy. Additionally, bacterial metabolites may be a source of uremic toxins. Thus, identififi cation of diversity, composition, and metabolic and immunologic features of gut bacteria in chronic kidney diseases may help understand pathogenetic mechanism and develop therapy for diseases...
April 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Hideomi Itoh, Kanako Tago, Masahito Hayatsu, Yoshitomo Kikuchi
Covering: up to 2018Insects live in a world full of toxic compounds such as plant toxins and manmade pesticides. To overcome the effects of these toxins, herbivorous insects have evolved diverse, elaborate mechanisms of resistance, such as toxin avoidance, target-site alteration, and detoxification. These resistance mechanisms are thought to be encoded by the insects' own genomes, and in many cases, this holds true. However, recent omics analyses, in conjunction with classic culture-dependent analyses, have revealed that a number of insects possess specific gut microorganisms, some of which significantly contribute to resistance against phytotoxins and pesticides by degrading such chemical compounds...
April 12, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Aditi Sriram, Wendi Roe, Matu Booth, Brett Gartrell
Anthropogenic lead use has resulted in widespread environmental lead contamination known to affect wildlife populations worldwide. Ecotoxicological investigations in wild birds have thus far prioritised waterfowl and raptor species and primarily addressed contamination in natural ecosystems. Urban areas are increasingly associated with high levels of heavy metal contamination, however the risk of lead exposure in urban wildlife is less well known. This study investigates lead exposure in an urban population of North Island Kaka (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis), an endemic New Zealand parrot...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hamid Y Dar, Yaqoob Lone, Raj Kumar Koiri, Pradyumna K Mishra, Rupesh K Srivastava
Osteoporosis or enhanced bone loss is one of the most commonly occurring bone conditions in the world, responsible for higher incidence of fractures leading to increased morbidity and mortality in adults. Bone loss is affected by various environmental factors including diet, age, drugs, toxins etc. Microcystins are toxins produced by cyanobacteria with microcystin-LR being the most abundantly found around the world effecting both human and animal health. The present study demonstrates that MC-LR treatment induces bone loss and impairs both trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture along with decreasing the mineral density and heterogeneity of bones in mice...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Małgorzata Grzesiuk, Damian Mielecki, Tomasz Pilżys, Damian Garbicz, Michał Marcinkowski, Elżbieta Grzesiuk
The waste of commonly used medicines is known to contaminate freshwater ecosystems. Pharmaceuticals can be toxic, mutagenic, or modifying to freshwater organisms even at low concentrations if consider their permanent presence in the environment. Chemotherapeutics used to treat cancer, and in particular alkylating agents, contribute significantly to this form of pollution, the latter introducing cytotoxic and/or mutagenic lesions to the DNA and RNA of organisms which can be disruptive to their cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the alkylating anticancer agent cyclophosphamide (CP) on Daphnia magna clones...
2018: PloS One
Jorge A Bezerra, Rebecca G Wells, Cara L Mack, Saul J Karpen, Jay H Hoofnagle, Edward Doo, Ronald J Sokol
Biliary atresia (BA) is a fibroinflammatory disease of the intra- and extrahepatic biliary tree. Without medical treatment, surgical hepatic portoenterosmy (HPE) may restore bile drainage, but progression of the intrahepatic disease results in complications of portal hypertension and advanced cirrhosis in most children. Recognizing that further progress in the field is unlikely without a better understanding of the underlying cause(s) and pathogenesis of the disease, the National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases sponsored a research workshop focused on innovative and promising approaches and on identifying future areas of research...
March 31, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Anusuya Willis, Jason N Woodhouse, Sarah E Ongley, Aaron R Jex, Michele A Burford, Brett A Neilan
Cyanobacteria form harmful algal blooms and are highly adapted to a range of habitats, in part due to their phenotype plasticity. This plasticity is partially the result of co-existence of multiple strains within a single population. The toxic cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii has remarkable phenotypic plasticity, strain variation and environmental adaptation resulting in an expansion of its global range. To understand the genetic basis of the high level of plasticity within a C. raciborskii population, the genomes of nine co-occurring strains were compared...
March 2018: Harmful Algae
Rui Hong Guo, Ju Young Lim, Duong Nu Tra My, Se Jin Jo, Jung Up Park, Joon Haeng Rhee, Young Ran Kim
The expression of virulence genes in bacteria is known to be regulated by various environmental and host factors. Vibrio vulnificus , an estuarine bacterium, experiences a dramatic environmental change during its infection process. We reported that V. vulnificus RtxA1 toxin caused acute cell death only when close contact to host cells was allowed. A sigma factor RpoS is a very important regulator for the maximal survival of pathogens under stress conditions. Here, we studied the role of RpoS in V. vulnificus cytotoxicity and mouse lethality...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Razzagh Mahmoudi, Bahareh Rahimi, Parviz Hassanzadeh, Peyman Ghajarbeygi, Babak Pakbin
Background: The topic of food safety has become a major public health issue worldwide. Over recent decades, the growing concern for food safety has brought about greater research regarding the risks associated with the consumption of produce that has been contaminated by pesticides, heavy metals and/or toxins. Objective: The study was conducted to determine the concentration of Pb in the muscle of buffalos slaughtered in the northwest regions of Iran (Ardabil, Urmia and Tabriz cities)...
January 2018: Electronic Physician
Dennis O Ndolo, Josephine M Songa, Gábor L Lövei
Environmental stress can affect trait size and cause an increase in the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of bilateral morphological traits in many animals. For insect parasitoids, feeding of hosts on transgenic maize, expressing a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin gene is a potential environmental stressor. We compared the size of antennae, forewings, and tibia, as well as their FA values, in two parasitoids developed on two East African host species feeding on non-transgenic vs. transgenic maize. The two lepidopteran stem-borer hosts were the native Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and a recent invader, Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)...
March 27, 2018: Insects
Jingyi Li, Huihui Liu, J Paul Chen
The continuous increase in synthetic plastic production and poor management in plastic waste have led to a tremendous increase in the dumping into our aqueous environment. Consequently, microplastics commonly defined as sizes less than 5 mm are produced and stay in both seawater and freshwater environment. The presence of microplastics as a new type of emerging contaminant has become a great issue of concerns from public and government authorities. The sources of microplastics to freshwater systems are many with the largest portion from wastewater treatment plants...
December 28, 2017: Water Research
Aswathi Soni, Indrawati Oey, Patrick Silcock, Phil J Bremer
B. cereus spores are a concern to the food industry, especially to the producers of heat sensitive food products like egg white or precooked and stored food such as fried rice. This study investigated the impact of nutrients, temperature (4, 8, 15 and 25 °C), pH (4, 5, 7 and 9), and cold storage on the germination, growth and resistance of B. cereus spores. In egg white held at 4 °C for 12 days spore germination was not apparent, however the addition of egg yolk (5%) resulted in a 2 Log colony forming units (CFU)/mL increase in vegetative cells (p < ...
April 2018: Food Research International
Irma E Cisneros, Mert Erdenizmenli, Kathryn A Cunningham, Slobodan Paessler, Kelly T Dineley
HIV-1 and Zika virus (ZIKV) represent RNA viruses with neurotropic characteristics. Infected individuals suffer neurocognitive disorders aggravated by environmental toxins, including drugs of abuse such as cocaine, exacerbating HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders through a combination of astrogliosis, oxidative stress and innate immune signaling; however, little is known about how cocaine impacts the progression of ZIKV neural perturbations. Impaired innate immune signaling is characterized by weakened antiviral activation of interferon signaling and alterations in inflammatory signaling, factors contributing to cognitive sequela associated with cocaine in HIV-1/ZIKV infection...
March 22, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Victor O Owino, Carolin Cornelius, Cornelia U Loechl
Multiple drivers of the double burden of malnutrition (DBM) include a rapid shift from predominantly plant-based diets to energy-dense foods based on meats, milk, animal fats and vegetable oils. The shift to overweight and obesity is driven by increased exposure to mass media, urbanization, technological advances in food processing, rising income and increased population density associated with increased access to cheap foods. At the same time, undernutrition persists mainly due to food insecurity and lack of access to safe water, sanitation and adequate health care...
March 23, 2018: Nutrients
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