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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712711/specificity-and-putative-mode-of-action-of-a-mosquito-larvicidal-toxin-from-the-bacterium-xenorhabdus-innexi
#1
Il-Hwan Kim, Jerald Ensign, Do-Young Kim, Hoe-Yune Jung, Na-Ri Kim, Bo-Hwa Choi, Sun-Min Park, Que Lan, Walter G Goodman
Reduction of mosquito-borne diseases relies, in part, on the use of synthetic pesticides to control pest mosquitoes. This reliance has led to genetic resistance, environmental contamination and the nondiscriminatory elimination of both pest and non-pest species. To expand our options for control, we screened entomopathogenic bacteria for potential larvicidal activity. A lipopeptide from the bacterium, Xenorhabdus innexi, was discovered that displayed potent larvicidal activity. The LC50s of the lipopeptide towards Aedes aegypti, Culex pipiens and Anopheles gambiae larvae were 1...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710658/global-disparities-and-their-implications-in-the-occurrence-and-outcome-of-autoimmune-hepatitis
#2
REVIEW
Albert J Czaja
Autoimmune hepatitis has a variable occurrence, clinical phenotype, and outcome, and the factors contributing to this variability are uncertain. The goals of this review are to examine the global disparities in the occurrence and outcome of autoimmune hepatitis, suggest bases for these disparities, and encourage investigations that extend beyond single-center experiences. Disparities in the incidence and prevalence of autoimmune hepatitis in different age groups, genders, ethnicities, and geographical regions suggest that factors other than genetic predisposition are involved...
July 14, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708374/chemical-modification-and-detoxification-of-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-toxin-2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-n-oxide-by-environmental-and-pathogenic-bacteria
#3
Sven Thierbach, Franziska S Birmes, Matthias C Letzel, Ulrich Hennecke, Susanne Fetzner
2-Heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO), a major secondary metabolite and virulence factor produced by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, acts as potent inhibitor of respiratory electron transfer and thereby affects host cells as well as microorganisms. In this study, we demonstrate the previously unknown capability of environmental and pathogenic bacteria to transform and detoxify this compound. Strains of Arthrobacter and Rhodococcus spp. as well as Staphylococcus aureus introduced a hydroxyl group at C-3 of HQNO, whereas Mycobacterium abscessus, M...
July 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704671/long-term-cultivation-of-bt-rice-expressing-the-cry1ab-1ac-gene-reduced-phytoparasitic-nematode-abundance-but-did-not-affect-other-nematode-parameters-in-paddy-fields
#4
Qunying Chen, Bing Yang, Xianghui Liu, Fajun Chen, Feng Ge
The uncertainty of ecological risks and the effects of growing transgenic Bt rice on the environment hamper its commercial production. Here, soil nematode communities were used as an indicator of soil health and soil food web structure to evaluate the potential effects of growing Bt rice without chemical insecticides for 3years in the paddy field. The nematodes and soil physicochemical properties of Bt rice fields were compared to the near-isogenic control, non-Bt rice fields. A total of 108,363 specimens belonging to 28 different genera were enumerated...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704538/intestinal-calcium-and-bile-salts-facilitate-germination-of-clostridium-difficile-spores
#5
Travis J Kochan, Madeline J Somers, Alyssa M Kaiser, Michelle S Shoshiev, Ada K Hagan, Jessica L Hastie, Nicole P Giordano, Ashley D Smith, Alyxandria M Schubert, Paul E Carlson, Philip C Hanna
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is an anaerobic gram-positive pathogen that is the leading cause of nosocomial bacterial infection globally. C. difficile infection (CDI) typically occurs after ingestion of infectious spores by a patient that has been treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. While CDI is a toxin-mediated disease, transmission and pathogenesis are dependent on the ability to produce viable spores. These spores must become metabolically active (germinate) in order to cause disease. C. difficile spore germination occurs when spores encounter bile salts and other co-germinants within the small intestine, however, the germination signaling cascade is unclear...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702736/changes-in-the-axon-terminals-of-primary-afferents-from-a-single-vibrissa-in-the-rat-trigeminal-nuclei-after-active-touch-deprivation-or-exposure-to-an-enriched-environment
#6
Julia Fernández-Montoya, Yasmina B Martin, Pilar Negredo, Carlos Avendaño
Lasting modifications of sensory input induce structural and functional changes in the brain, but the involvement of primary sensory neurons in this plasticity has been practically ignored. Here, we examine qualitatively and quantitatively the central axonal terminations of a population of trigeminal ganglion neurons, whose peripheral axons innervate a single mystacial vibrissa. Vibrissa follicles are heavily innervated by myelinated and unmyelinated fibers that exit the follicle mainly through a single deep vibrissal nerve...
July 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698032/beyond-infection-maternal-immune-activation-by-environmental-factors-microglial-development-and-relevance-for-autism-spectrum-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Staci D Bilbo, Carina L Block, Jessica L Bolton, Richa Hanamsagar, Phuong K Tran
Immune molecules such as cytokines and chemokines and the cells that produce them within the brain, notably microglia, are critical for normal brain development. This recognition has in recent years led to the working hypothesis that inflammatory events during pregnancy, e.g. in response to infection, may disrupt the normal expression of immune molecules during critical stages of neural development and thereby contribute to the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This hypothesis has in large part been shepherded by the work of Dr...
July 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691813/microbiome-mediated-biotransformation-of-cane-toad-bufagenins
#8
Venkatanambi Kamalakkannan, Angela A Salim, Robert J Capon
Cane toads are an invasive pest species in which all life stages employ cardiotoxic bufagenins as a chemical defense against predators. Curiously, the bufagenin profiles of eggs and tadpoles are more complex than those of parotoid secretion, the principle mechanism of toxin delivery in adult toads. In an effort to understand this complexity, we determined that selected strains of adult toad parotoid-gland-associated Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus spp., were capable of biotransforming secreted bufagenins, marinobufagenin (1), telocinobufagenin (2), bufalin (3), and resibufagenin (4), to hydroxylated scaffolds commonly encountered in cane toad eggs and tadpoles...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690594/toxin-%C3%AE-triggers-a-survival-response-to-cope-with-stress-and-persistence
#9
María Moreno-Del Álamo, Mariangela Tabone, Virginia S Lioy, Juan C Alonso
Bacteria have evolved complex regulatory controls in response to various environmental stresses. Protein toxins of the ζ superfamily, found in prominent human pathogens, are broadly distributed in nature. We show that ζ is a uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UNAG)-dependent ATPase whose activity is inhibited in vitro by stoichiometric concentrations of ε2 antitoxin. In vivo, transient ζ expression promotes a reversible multi-level response by altering the pool of signaling purine nucleotides, which leads to growth arrest (dormancy), although a small cell subpopulation persists rather than tolerating toxin action...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687651/characterization-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-of-o91-serogroup-isolated-from-food-and-environmental-samples
#10
Peter C H Feng, Sabine Delannoy, David W Lacher, Joseph M Bosilevac, Patrick Fach, Lothar Beutin
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of the O91:H21 serotype has caused severe infections including hemolytic uremic syndrome. Strains of the O91 serogroup have been isolated from food, animals and the environment worldwide, but are not well characterized. We used a microarray and other molecular assays to examine 49 O91 strains (environmental, food and clinical) for virulence potential and phylogenetic relationships. Most of the isolates were identified to be strains of O91:H21 and O91:H14 serotype, with a few O91:H10 strains and one O91:H9 strain...
July 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687259/why-does-finland-have-the-highest-dementia-mortality-rate-environmental-factors-may-be-generalizable
#11
REVIEW
Arnold R Eiser
Finland has the highest death rate from dementia in the world and its environmental features can be instructive in understanding hidden causes of dementia. Environmental factors there include: 1) a climate that is both very cold and humid resulting in housing frequently harboring molds that are capable of producing a neurotoxic mycotoxin 2) the Gulf of Finland as well as Finnish lakes harbor cyanobacteria that produce the neurotoxin, beta-N-methyl amino-L-alanine, known to cause dementia and related disorders 3) the aforementioned toxins can be potentiated by the presence of mercury and methyl mercury which can be found in Finnish waters 4) soil in Finland is naturally low in selenium and selenium deficiency may reduce the quantity and effectiveness of glutathione's ability to protect against neurotoxins...
July 4, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681705/a-model-of-auto-immune-response
#12
James K Peterson, Alison M Kesson, Nicholas J C King
BACKGROUND: In this work, we develop a theoretical model of an auto immune response. This is based on modifications of standard second messenger trigger models using both signalling pathways and diffusion and a macro level dynamic systems approximation to the response of a triggering agent such as a virus, bacteria or environmental toxin. RESULTS: We show that there, in general, will be self damage effects whenever the triggering agent's effect on the host can be separated into two distinct classes of cell populations...
June 21, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680508/further-evidence-for-the-association-of-cyp2d6-4-gene-polymorphism-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-case-control-study
#13
Anwarullah, Muhammad Aslam, Mazhar Badshah, Rashda Abbasi, Aneesa Sultan, Kafaitullah Khan, Nafees Ahmad, Jakob von Engelhardt
BACKGROUND: Genetic and environmental risk factors play an important role for the susceptibility to sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). It was hypothesized that a splice variant of the CYP2D6 gene (CYP2D6*4 allele) is associated with PD because it alters the ability to metabolize toxins and in particular neurotoxins. CYP2D6 codes for the drug metabolizing enzyme debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase. The CYP2D6*4 variant results in an undetectable enzyme activity and consequently in a reduction in metabolism of some toxins...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676794/bacteriophages-contribute-to-the-spread-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-among-foodborne-pathogens-of-the-enterobacteriaceae-family-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Anna Colavecchio, Brigitte Cadieux, Amanda Lo, Lawrence D Goodridge
Foodborne illnesses continue to have an economic impact on global health care systems. There is a growing concern regarding the increasing frequency of antibiotic resistance in foodborne bacterial pathogens and how such resistance may affect treatment outcomes. In an effort to better understand how to reduce the spread of resistance, many research studies have been conducted regarding the methods by which antibiotic resistance genes are mobilized and spread between bacteria. Transduction by bacteriophages (phages) is one of many horizontal gene transfer mechanisms, and recent findings have shown phage-mediated transduction to be a significant contributor to dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676719/srna-and-cis-antisense-srna-identification-in-staphylococcus-aureus-highlights-an-unusual-srna-gene-cluster-with-one-encoding-a-secreted-peptide
#15
Julie Bronsard, Gaetan Pascreau, Mohamed Sassi, Tony Mauro, Yoann Augagneur, Brice Felden
The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus expresses a set of transcriptional factors and small RNAs (sRNAs) to adapt to environmental variations. Recent harmonization of staphylococcal sRNA data allowed us to search for novel sRNAs using DETR'PROK, a computational pipeline for identifying sRNA in prokaryotes. We performed RNA-Seq on Newman strain and identified a set of 48 sRNA candidates. To avoid bioinformatic artefacts, we applied a series of cut-offs and tested experimentally each selected intergenic region...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675659/characterization-of-a-deinococcus-radiodurans-mazf-a-uaca-specific-rna-endoribonuclease
#16
Tatsuki Miyamoto, Yuri Ota, Akiko Yokota, Tetsushi Suyama, Satoshi Tsuneda, Naohiro Noda
Microbes are known to withstand environmental stresses by using chromosomal toxin-antitoxin systems. MazEF is one of the most extensively studied toxin-antitoxin systems. In stressful environments, MazF toxins modulate translation by cleaving single-stranded RNAs in a sequence-specific fashion. Previously, a chromosomal gene located at DR0417 in Deinococcus radiodurans was predicted to code for a MazF endoribonuclease (MazFDR0417 ); however, its function remains unclear. In the present study, we characterized the molecular function of MazFDR0417 ...
July 3, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674684/effect-of-fetal-sex-on-maternal-and-obstetric-outcomes
#17
REVIEW
Mohammed Al-Qaraghouli, Yu Ming Victor Fang
Fetal sex plays an important role in modifying the course and complications related to pregnancy and may also have an impact on maternal health and well-being both during and after pregnancy. The goal of this article is to review and summarize the findings from published research on physiologic and pathologic changes that may be affected by fetal sex and the effect of these changes on the maternal and obstetrical outcomes. This will help create awareness that fetal sex is not just a random chance event but an interactive process between the mother, the placenta, and the fetus...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674069/cyclic-di-gmp-and-vpsr-induce-the-expression-of-type-ii-secretion-in-vibrio-cholerae
#18
Rudolph E Sloup, Ashley E Konal, Geoffrey B Severin, Michelle L Korir, Mira M Bagdasarian, Michael Bagdasarian, Christopher M Waters
Vibrio cholerae is a human pathogen which alternates between growth in environmental reservoirs and infection of human hosts causing severe diarrhea. The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) mediates this transition by controlling a wide range of functions such as biofilms, virulence, and motility. Here we report that c-di-GMP induces expression of the extracellular protein secretion (eps) gene cluster, which encodes the Type II Secretion System (T2SS) in V. cholerae Analysis of the eps genes confirmed the presence of two promoters located upstream of epsC, the first gene in the operon, one of which is induced by c-di-GMP...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672859/astrocytic-expression-of-gsta4-is-associated-to-dopaminergic-neuroprotection-in-a-rat-6-ohda-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Michael Jewett, Itzia Jimenez-Ferrer, Maria Swanberg
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex disease caused by multiple, mainly unknown, genetic and environmental factors. The Ventral root avulsion 1 (Vra1) locus on rat chromosome 8 includes the Glutathione S-transferase alpha 4 (Gsta4) gene and has been identified in crosses between Dark Agouti (DA) and Piebald Virol Glaxo (PVG) rat strains as being associated to neurodegeneration after nerve and brain injury. The Gsta4 protein clears lipid peroxidation by-products, a process suggested to being implicated in PD...
June 26, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669031/experimental-design-and-reporting-standards-for-metabolomics-studies-of-mammalian-cell-lines
#20
REVIEW
Sarah Hayton, Garth L Maker, Ian Mullaney, Robert D Trengove
Metabolomics is an analytical technique that investigates the small biochemical molecules present within a biological sample isolated from a plant, animal, or cultured cells. It can be an extremely powerful tool in elucidating the specific metabolic changes within a biological system in response to an environmental challenge such as disease, infection, drugs, or toxins. A historically difficult step in the metabolomics pipeline is in data interpretation to a meaningful biological context, for such high-variability biological samples and in untargeted metabolomics studies that are hypothesis-generating by design...
July 1, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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