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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235125/nasal-epithelial-barrier-disruption-by-particulate-matter-%C3%A2-2-5-%C3%AE-m-via-tight-junction-protein-degradation
#1
Renwu Zhao, Zhiqiang Guo, Ruxin Zhang, Congrui Deng, Jian Xu, Weiyang Dong, Zhicong Hong, Hongzhi Yu, Huiru Situ, Chunhui Liu, Guoshun Zhuang
Upper airway diseases including sinonasal disorders may be caused by exposure to fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm; PM2.5), as proven by epidemiological studies. PM2.5 is a complex entity whose chemical constituents and physicochemical properties are not confined to a single, independent "particle" but which in this study means a distinctive environmental "toxin." The mechanism whereby PM2.5 induces nasal epithelial barrier dysfunction leading to sinonasal pathology remains unknown. In the present study, human nasal epithelial cells were exposed to non-cytotoxic doses of PM2...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227523/childhood-ingestions-of-environmental-toxins-what-are-the-risks
#2
Marissa Hauptman, Alan D Woolf
Infants and children are at higher risk than adolescents and adults for exposure to environmental toxins via ingestion for a number of reasons: their smaller size (and proportionately larger dose of ingested toxins), their closer proximity to the ground, dirt, and indoor dust, their boundless curiosity and oral exploratory behaviors, pica habits that may persist into school-age for children with autism or other developmental delays, their proportionately larger daily water and milk intake, and food preferences that differ markedly from adolescents and adults...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225803/environmental-toxin-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#3
REVIEW
Benjamin A Vervaet, Patrick C D'Haese, Anja Verhulst
Human beings are exposed to various potentially toxic agents and conditions in their natural and occupational environments. The kidney, due to its concentrating ability and excretory function, is highly vulnerable to the effects of environmental toxins. Identifying the precise cause and mechanisms of environmentally induced renal injury remains a challenge for which various scientific disciplines need to be involved. Investigations in this field are confronted with the apparent infinite types of toxins, their mutual interaction, handling/metabolization by the body, ways of exposure, etc...
December 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224136/a-summary-of-the-biological-processes-disease-associated-changes-and-clinical-applications-of-dna-methylation
#4
Gitte Brinch Andersen, Jörg Tost
DNA methylation at cytosines followed by guanines, CpGs, forms one of the multiple layers of epigenetic mechanisms controlling and modulating gene expression through chromatin structure. It closely interacts with histone modifications and chromatin remodeling complexes to form the local genomic and higher-order chromatin landscape. DNA methylation is essential for proper mammalian development, crucial for imprinting and plays a role in maintaining genomic stability. DNA methylation patterns are susceptible to change in response to environmental stimuli such as diet or toxins, whereby the epigenome seems to be most vulnerable during early life...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220784/physiological-effects-caused-by-microcystin-producing-and-non-microcystin-producing-microcystis-aeruginosa-on-medaka-fish-a%C3%A2-proteomic-and-metabolomic-study-on-liver
#5
Séverine Le Manach, Benoit Sotton, Hélène Huet, Charlotte Duval, Alain Paris, Arul Marie, Claude Yépremian, Arnaud Catherine, Lucrèce Mathéron, Joelle Vinh, Marc Edery, Benjamin Marie
Cyanobacterial blooms have become a common phenomenon in eutrophic freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Microcystis is an important bloom-forming and toxin-producing genus in continental aquatic ecosystems, which poses a potential risk to Human populations as well as on aquatic organisms. Microcystis is known to produce along with various bioactive peptides, the microcystins (MCs) that have attracted more attention notably due to their high hepatotoxicity. To better understand the effects of cyanobacterial blooms on fish, medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) were sub-chronically exposed to either non-MC-producing or MC-producing living strains and, for this latter, to its subsequent MC-extract of Microcystis aeruginosa...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218035/characterization-of-two-cryptic-plasmids-isolated-in-haiti-from-clinical-vibrio-cholerae-non-o1-non-o139
#6
Daniela Ceccarelli, Geneviève Garriss, Seon Y Choi, Nur A Hasan, Ramunas Stepanauskas, Mihai Pop, Anwar Huq, Rita R Colwell
We report the complete sequence of two novel plasmids, pSDH-1 and pSDH-2, isolated from clinical Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 during the early phase of the 2010 Haitian cholera epidemic. Plasmids were revealed by employing single-cell genomics and their genome content suggests self-mobilization and, for pSDH-2, a toxin-antitoxin (TA) system for plasmid stabilization was identified. The putative origin of replication of pSDH-2 was mapped suggesting it replicates following the ColE1 model of plasmid replication...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215770/molecular-ecology-of-listeria-spp-salmonella-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-pristine-natural-environments-in-northern-colorado
#7
Christina A Ahlstrom, Clyde S Manuel, Henk C Den Bakker, Martin Wiedmann, Kendra K Nightingale
AIMS: Molecular subtyping is commonly used in foodborne disease surveillance and microbial source tracking. There is a knowledge gap regarding the molecular ecology of foodborne pathogens in non-food associated environments. The objective of this study was to isolate and subtype foodborne pathogens from pristine natural environments with minimal anthropogenic inputs. MATERIALS AND RESULTS: Five locations (wilderness areas) in Northern Colorado were sampled during the spring, summer, and fall over a two-year period...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214717/bisphenol-a-is-an-exogenous-toxin-that-promotes-mitochondrial-injury-and-death-in-tubular-cells
#8
Enrique Bosch-Panadero, Sebastian Mas, Esther Civantos, Pedro Abaigar, Vanesa Camarero, Alberto Ruiz-Priego, Alberto Ortiz, Jesus Egido, Emilio González-Parra
BACKGROUND: Uremic toxins that accumulate in chronic kidney disease (CKD) contribute to CKD complications, such as CKD progression. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous environmental toxin, structurally related with p-cresol, that accumulates in CKD. Our aim was to characterize the nephrotoxic potential of BPA. Specifically, we addressed BPA toxicity over energy-demanding proximal tubular cells. METHODS: Cell death and oxidative stress were evaluated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy in HK-2 human proximal tubular epithelial cells...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214326/increased-solubility-and-bioavailability-of-hydroxy-cr-iii-precipitates-in-the-presence-of-hydroxamate-siderophores
#9
William E Dubbin, Tee Boon Goh
Siderophores are a diverse group of low molecular weight biogenic metallophores with a particular affinity for Fe(III) but they also have potential to complex a number of other polyvalent metal cations, including Cr(III). Here we show that two hydroxamate siderophores, desferrioxamine B and rhodotorulic acid, at environmentally relevant concentrations, facilitate the dissolution of hydroxy-Cr(III) precipitates from a common layer silicate. Desferrioxamine B and rhodotorulic acid induced maximum initial Cr dissolution rates of 11...
December 6, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211353/evaluation-of-nmp22-in-bladder-cancer-patients-sensitive-to-environmental-toxins
#10
Beata Szymańska, Krzysztof J Pawlik, Ewa Sawicka, Janusz Dembowski, Paweł Kowal, Romuald Zdrojowy, Anna Długosz
BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer (BC) is recognized as environmentally related. The interaction of environmental exposure to chemicals and genetic susceptibility seem to play important roles in BC development. In order to improve diagnosis and the recognition of BC risk, a group of markers which combine genetic susceptibility with detoxification and nuclear matrix protein (NMP22) is proposed. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the utility of nuclear matrix protein (NMP22) as a diagnostic marker in BC in genetic susceptibility (NAT2 slow acetylators) combined with detoxification abilities (glutathione S-transferase GST and isoenzyme GST-π)...
October 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208361/bifurcations-and-global-dynamics-in-a-toxin-dependent-aquatic-population-model
#11
Qihua Huang, Gunog Seo, Chunhua Shan
The study of effects of environmental toxins on ecosystems is of great interest from both environmental and conservation points of view. In this paper, we present a global stability and bifurcation analysis of a toxin-dependent aquatic population model. Our analytical and numerical results show that both the environmental toxin level and the depuration capability of the population significantly affect the population persistence. The model exhibits a multifarious array of dynamics. While low levels of external toxin allow population persistence and high levels of toxin lead to an extirpation, intermediate toxin concentrations can produce very rich dynamics, such as transient oscillations, hysteresis, heteroclinic orbits, and a codimension-two bifurcation...
December 2, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206028/direct-electrical-detection-of-iodine-gas-by-a-novel-metal-organic-framework-based-sensor
#12
Leo J Small, Tina M Nenoff
High fidelity detection of iodine species is of utmost importance to the safety of the population in cases of nuclear accidents or advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing. Herein we describe the success at using impedance spectroscopy to directly detect the real time adsorption of I2 by a metal-organic framework (MOF) ZIF-8 based sensor. Methanolic suspensions of ZIF-8 were drop cast onto platinum interdigitated electrodes, dried, and exposed to gaseous I2 at 25, 40, or 70 C. Using an unoptimized sensor geometry, I2 was readily detected at 25 C in air within 720 s of exposure...
December 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197714/effect-of-cadmium-exposure-on-hepatopancreas-and-gills-of-the-estuary-mud-crab-scylla-paramamosain-histopathological-changes-and-expression-characterization-of-stress-response-genes
#13
Qi-Hui Zhu, Zhong-Kai Zhou, Dan-Dan Tu, Yi-Lian Zhou, Cong Wang, Ze-Peng Liu, Wen-Bin Gu, Yu-Yin Chen, Miao-An Shu
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that accumulates easily in organisms and causes several detrimental effects, including tissue damage. Cd contamination from anthropogenic terrestrial sources flows into rivers, and through estuaries to the ocean. To evaluate the toxic effects of Cd on estuary crustaceans, we exposed the mud crab Scylla paramamosain to various Cd concentrations (0, 10.0, 20.0, and 40.0mg/L) for 24h. We also exposed mud crabs to a fixed Cd concentration (20.0mg/L) for various periods of time (0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72h)...
November 30, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196442/nephron-progenitor-cell-death-elicits-a-limited-compensatory-response-associated-with-interstitial-expansion-in-the-neonatal-kidney
#14
Sree Deepthi Muthukrishnan, Sergey Ryzhov, Michele Karolak, Leif Oxburgh
The final nephron number in an adult kidney is regulated by nephron progenitor cell availability and collecting duct branching in the fetal period. Fetal environmental perturbations that cause reductions in cell numbers in these two compartments result in low nephron endowment. Previous work has shown that maternal dietary factors influence nephron progenitor cell availability, with both caloric restriction and protein deprivation leading to reduced cell numbers through apoptosis. In this study, we evaluate the consequences of inducing nephron progenitor cell death on progenitor niche dynamics and on nephron endowment...
December 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195944/fresh-produce-and-their-soils-accumulate-cyanotoxins-from-irrigation-water-implications-for-public-health-and-food-security
#15
Seungjun Lee, Xuewen Jiang, Manjunath Manubolu, Ken Riedl, Stuart A Ludsin, Jay F Martin, Jiyoung Lee
Microcystin (MC), a hepatotoxin that can adversely affect human health, has become more prevalent in freshwater ecosystems worldwide, owing to an increase in toxic cyanobacteria blooms. While consumption of water and fish are well-documented exposure pathways of MCs to humans, less is known about the potential transfer to humans through consumption of vegetables that have been irrigated with MC-contaminated water. Likewise, the impact of MC on the performance of food crops is understudied. To help fill these information gaps, we conducted a controlled laboratory experiment in which we exposed lettuce, carrots, and green beans to environmentally relevant concentrations of MC-LR (0, 1, 5, and 10μg/L) via two irrigation methods (drip and spray)...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190554/a-potential-microrna-regulation-of-immune-related-genes-in-invertebrate-haemocytes
#16
REVIEW
Mario Alberto Burgos-Aceves, Amit Cohen, Yoav Smith, Caterina Faggio
Bivalve mollusks have been employed as sentinel organisms in environmental health programs due to their sedentary lifestyle, filter-feeding behavior and their ability to accumulate pathogens or toxin molecules inside tissues. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can be up taken and bioaccumulated, and due to sensibility of mollusks to these EDCs, being able to cause immune alterations. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) were shown to be involved in modulation and buffering developmental processes against the effects of environmental alterations and pathogenic microorganisms...
November 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188851/physiological-responses-and-toxin-production-of-microcystis-aeruginosa-in-short-term-exposure-to-solar-uv-radiation
#17
Marcelo Hernando, Melina Celeste Crettaz Minaglia, Gabriela Malanga, Christian Houghton, Darío Andrinolo, Daniela Sedan, Lorena Rosso, Leda Giannuzzi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term (hours) exposure to solar UV radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) on the physiology of Microcystis aeruginosa. Three solar radiation treatments were implemented: (i) PAR (PAR, 400-700 nm), (ii) TUVA (PAR + UVAR, 315-700 nm) and (iii) TUVR (PAR + UVAR + UVBR, 280-700 nm). Differential responses of antioxidant enzymes and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production to UVR were observed. Antioxidant enzymes were more active at high UVR doses. However, different responses were observed depending on the exposure to UVAR or UVBR and the dose level...
November 30, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182651/evidence-of-increased-toxic-alexandrium-tamarense-dinoflagellate-blooms-in-the-eastern-bering-sea-in-the-summers-of-2004-and-2005
#18
Masafumi Natsuike, Rui Saito, Amane Fujiwara, Kohei Matsuno, Atsushi Yamaguchi, Naonobu Shiga, Toru Hirawake, Takashi Kikuchi, Shigeto Nishino, Ichiro Imai
The eastern Bering Sea has a vast continental shelf, which contains various endangered marine mammals and large fishery resources. Recently, high numbers of toxic A. tamarense resting cysts were found in the bottom sediment surface of the eastern Bering Sea shelf, suggesting that the blooms have recently occurred. However, little is known about the presence of A. tamarense vegetative cells in the eastern Bering Sea. This study's goals were to detect the occurrence of A. tamarense vegetative cells on the eastern Bering Sea shelf and to find a relationship between environmental factors and their presence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182536/are-we-underestimating-benthic-cyanotoxins-extensive-sampling-results-from-spain
#19
Enrique A Cantoral Uriza, Antonia D Asencio, Marina Aboal
Microcystins (MCs) are potent hepatotoxins, and their presence in water bodies poses a threat to wildlife and human populations. Most of the available information refers to plankton, and much less is known about microcystins in other habitats. To broaden our understanding of the presence and environmental distribution of this group of toxins, we conducted extensive sampling throughout Spain, under a range of conditions and in distinct aquatic and terrestrial habitats. More than half of the tested strains were toxic; concentrations of the hepatotoxin were low compared with planktic communities, and the number of toxic variants identified in each sample of the Spanish strains ranged from 1-3...
November 28, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172443/membrane-crossing-and-membranotropic-activity-of-cell-penetrating-peptides-dangerous-liaisons
#20
Astrid Walrant, Sébastien Cardon, Fabienne Burlina, Sandrine Sagan
Living organisms have to maintain a stable balance in molecules and ions in the changing environment in which they are living, a process known as homeostasis. At the level of cells, the plasma membrane has a major role in homeostasis, since this hydrophobic film prevents passive diffusion of large and hydrophilic molecules between the extracellular and intracellular milieu. Living organisms have evolved with highly sophisticated transport systems to control exchanges across this barrier: import of nutrients and fuel essential for their survival; recognition of chemical or physical messengers allowing information interchanges with surrounding cells...
November 27, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
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