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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054868/conditional-function-of-autoaggregative-protein-cah-and-common-cah-mutations-in-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli
#1
Michelle Qiu Carter, Maria T Brandl, Indira T Kudva, Robab Katani, Matthew R Moreau, Vivek Kapur
Cah is a calcium-binding autotransporter protein involved in autoaggregation and biofilm formation. Although cah is widespread in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), we detected mutations in cah at a frequency of 31.3% in this pathogen. In STEC O157:H7 super-shedder strain SS17, a large deletion results in a smaller coding sequence, lacking the C-terminal 71 amino acids compared with Cah in STEC O157:H7 strain EDL933. We examined the function of Cah in biofilm formation and host colonization to better understand selective pressures for cah mutations...
October 20, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054145/simple-high-efficiency-detection-of-microcystins-and-nodularin-r-in-water-by-fluorescence-polarization-immunoassay
#2
Huiyan Zhang, Shupeng Yang, Ross C Beier, Natalia V Beloglazova, Hongtao Lei, Xiulan Sun, Yuebin Ke, Suxia Zhang, Zhanhui Wang
This manuscript describes the development of a sensitive, fast and easily-performed fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) for detection of microcystins (MCs) and nodularin-R (NOD) in water. MCs and NOD, the most widespread cyanobacterial toxin are hepatotoxins and tumor promoters, and their acute exposure may result in severe health problems in animals and humans. The fluorescein-based tracers were synthesized, and for the first time preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed for their purification...
November 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053996/toxicological-and-chemical-insights-into-representative-source-and-drinking-water-in-eastern-china
#3
Peng Shi, Sicong Zhou, Hongxia Xiao, Jingfan Qiu, Aimin Li, Qing Zhou, Yang Pan, Henner Hollert
Drinking water safety is continuously threatened by the emergence of numerous toxic organic pollutants (TOPs) in environmental waters. In this study, an approach integrating in vitro bioassays and chemical analyses was performed to explore toxicological profiles of representative source and drinking water from waterworks of the Yangtze River (Yz), Taihu Lake (Th), and the Huaihe River (Hh) basins in eastern China. Overall, 34 of 96 TOPs were detected in all water samples, with higher concentrations in both source and drinking water samples of Hh, and pollutant profiles also differed across different river basins...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043603/epigenetic-modifications-of-gene-expression-by-lifestyle-and-environment
#4
REVIEW
Qudeer Ahmed Abdul, Byung Pal Yu, Hae Young Chung, Hyun Ah Jung, Jae Sue Choi
Epigenetics oftenly described as the heritable changes in gene expression independent of changes in DNA sequence. Various environmental factors such as nutrition-dietary components, lifestyle, exercise, physical activity, toxins, and other contributing factors remodel the genome either in a constructive or detrimental way. Since epigenetic changes are reversible and nutrition is one of the many epigenetic regulators that modify gene expression without changing the DNA sequence, dietary nutrients and bioactive food components contribute to epigenetic phenomena either by directly suppressing DNA methylation or histone catalyzing enzymes or by changing the availability of substrates required for enzymatic reactions...
October 17, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042209/chondrocytes-damage-induced-by-t-2-toxin-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-is-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-an-endemic-osteochondropathy-kashin-beck-disease
#5
Xi Wang, Yujie Ning, Pan Zhang, Lei Yang, Yingting Wang, Xiong Guo
Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), an endemic osteochondropathy, is characterized by cartilage degeneration which is caused by abnormal catabolism in the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we investigated the expression of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in KBD pathogenesis. Among the proteins involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, WNT-3A, FZD1, SOX9, and β-catenin were up-regulated, while FRZB was down-regulated in KBD cartilage. C28/I2 cells were evaluated for cell viability using the MTT assay after exposure to T-2 toxin, a suspicious environmental pathogenic factors of KBD...
October 14, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039668/targets-for-drug-therapy-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-challenges-and-future-directions
#6
Enza Lacivita, Roberto Perrone, Lucia Margari, Marcello Leopoldo
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests and activities. Various factors are involved in the etiopathogenesis of ASD, including genetic factors, environmental toxins and stressors, impaired immune responses, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation. The heterogeneity in the phenotype among ASD patients and the complex etiology of the condition have long impeded the advancement of the development of pharmacological therapies...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039099/assessing-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-by-nanoparticles
#7
Bhawna Sharma, Christopher B McLeland, Timothy M Potter, Stephan T Stern, Pavan P Adiseshaiah
NLRP3 inflammasome activation is one of the initial steps in an inflammatory cascade against pathogen/danger-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/DAMPs), such as those arising from environmental toxins or nanoparticles, and is essential for innate immune response. NLRP3 inflammasome activation in cells can lead to the release of IL-1β cytokine via caspase-1, which is required for inflammatory-induced programmed cell death (pyroptosis). Nanoparticles are commonly used as vaccine adjuvants and drug delivery vehicles to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030288/in-vitro-characterization-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio-organic-anion-transporters-oat2a-e
#8
Jelena Dragojević, Ivan Mihaljević, Marta Popović, Roko Zaja, Tvrtko Smital
OATS/Oats are transmembrane proteins that transport a variety of drugs, environmental toxins and endogenous metabolites into the cell. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has seven OAT orthologs: Oat1, Oat2a-e and Oat3. In this study we specifically address Oat2 (Slc22a7) family. Conserved synteny analysis showed localization of zebrafish oat2 genes on two chromosomes, 11 and 17. All five zebrafish Oats were localized by live cell imaging in membranes of transiently transfected HEK293-T cells, and Oat2a, b, d, and e were confirmed using western blot analysis...
October 10, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024169/how-are-multifactorial-beliefs-about-the-role-of-genetics-and-behavior-in-cancer-causation-associated-with-cancer-risk-cognitions-and-emotions-in-the-u-s-population
#9
Jada G Hamilton, Erika A Waters
OBJECTIVE: People who believe that cancer has both genetic and behavioral risk factors have more accurate mental models of cancer causation and may be more likely to engage in cancer screening behaviors than people who do not hold such multifactorial causal beliefs. This research explored possible health cognitions and emotions that might produce such differences. METHODS: Using nationally representative cross-sectional data from the U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (N=2,719), we examined whether endorsing a multifactorial model of cancer causation was associated with perceptions of risk and other cancer-related cognitions and affect...
October 10, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019656/adsorption-of-insecticidal-crystal-protein-cry11aa-onto-nano-mg-oh-2-effects-on-bioactivity-and-anti-ultraviolet-ability
#10
Xiaohong Pan, Zhangyan Xu, Lan Li, Enshi Shao, Saili Chen, Tengzhou Huang, Zhi Chen, Wenhua Rao, Tianpei Huang, Lingling Zhang, Songqing Wu, Xiong Guan
The traditional Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) formulation for field applications are not resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Hence, the active ingredients of the Bt bioinsecticides could degrade quickly and has low anti-ultraviolet ability in the field, which significantly limits its practical application. In the present study, we developed an efficient and stable delivery system for Bt Cry11Aa toxins. We coated Cry11Aa proteins with Mg(OH)2 nanoparticles (MHNPs), and then assessed the effects of MHNPs on bioactivity and anti-ultraviolet ability of the Cry11Aa proteins...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989969/structural-characterization-of-clostridium-sordellii-spores-of-diverse-human-animal-and-environmental-origin-and-comparison-to-clostridium-difficile-spores
#11
Rebecca Rabi, Lynne Turnbull, Cynthia B Whitchurch, Milena Awad, Dena Lyras
Clostridium sordellii is an often-lethal bacterium causing human and animal disease. Crucial to the infectious cycle of C. sordellii is its ability to produce spores, which can germinate into toxin-producing vegetative bacteria under favorable conditions. However, structural details of the C. sordellii spore are lacking. Here, we used a range of electron microscopy techniques together with superresolution optical microscopy to characterize the C. sordellii spore morphology with an emphasis on the exosporium...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987189/diseases-of-the-peripheral-nerves
#12
Istvan Katona, Joachim Weis
This chapter reviews the diseases of the peripheral nerves from a neuropathologic point of view, with a special focus on specific morphologic changes, and includes a summary of the histopathologic methods available for their diagnosis. As the rate of obesity and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes increase, diabetic neuropathy is the most common cause of peripheral neuropathy. Many systemic disorders with metabolic origin, like amyloidosis, hepatic failure, vitamin deficiencies, uremia, lipid metabolism disorders, and others, can also cause axonal or myelin alterations in the peripheral nervous system...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983469/population-genomic-insights-into-variation-in-prevotella-intermedia-and-prevotella-nigrescens-isolates-and-its-association-with-periodontal-disease
#13
Yifei Zhang, Min Zhen, Yalin Zhan, Yeqing Song, Qian Zhang, Jinfeng Wang
High-throughput sequencing has helped to reveal the close relationship between Prevotella and periodontal disease, but the roles of subspecies diversity and genomic variation within this genus in periodontal diseases still need to be investigated. We performed a comparative genome analysis of 48 Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens isolates that from the same cohort of subjects to identify the main drivers of their pathogenicity and adaptation to different environments. The comparisons were done between two species and between disease and health based on pooled sequences...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971540/integrated-activities-of-two-alternative-sigma-factors-coordinate-iron-acquisition-and-uptake-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#14
Rebecca J Edgar, Georgina E Hampton, G Patricia Casas Garcia, Megan J Maher, Matthew A Perugini, David F Ackerley, Iain L Lamont
Alternative sigma (σ) factors govern expression of bacterial genes in response to diverse environmental signals. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa σ (PvdS) directs expression of genes for production of a siderophore, pyoverdine, as well as a toxin and a protease. σ (FpvI) directs expression of a receptor for ferripyoverdine import. Expression of the genes encoding σ (PvdS) and σ (FpvI) is iron-regulated and an antisigma protein, FpvR20 , post-translationally controls the activities of the sigma factors in response to the amount of ferripyoverdine present...
October 3, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967497/pulmonary-artery-hypertension-in-childhood-the-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-superfamily-related-genes
#15
REVIEW
Shi-Min Yuan
Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is very rare in childhood, and it can be divided into heritable, idiopathic drug- and toxin-induced and other disease (connective tissue disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, portal hypertension, congenital heart disease, or schistosomiasis)-associated types. PAH could not be interpreted solely by pathophysiological theories. The impact of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily-related genes on the development of PAH in children remains to be clarified. Pertinent literature on the transforming growth factor-β superfamily-related genes in relation to PAH in children published after the year 2000 was reviewed and analyzed...
August 12, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962984/effect-of-co2-on-growth-and-toxicity-of-alexandrium-tamarense-from-the-east-china-sea-a-major-producer-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins
#16
Min Pang, Jintao Xu, Pei Qu, Xuewei Mao, Zhenxing Wu, Ming Xin, Ping Sun, Zongxing Wang, Xuelei Zhang, Hongju Chen
In recent decades, the frequency and intensity of harmful algal blooms (HABs), as well as a profusion of toxic phytoplankton species, have significantly increased in coastal regions of China. Researchers attribute this to environmental changes such as rising atmospheric CO2 levels. Such addition of carbon into the ocean ecosystem can lead to increased growth, enhanced metabolism, and altered toxicity of toxic phytoplankton communities resulting in serious human health concerns. In this study, the effects of elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) on the growth and toxicity of a strain of Alexandrium tamarense (ATDH) widespread in the East and South China Seas were investigated...
September 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962975/an-evaluation-of-the-genus-amphidinium-dinophyceae-combining-evidence-from-morphology-phylogenetics-and-toxin-production-with-the-introduction-of-six-novel-species
#17
Sarah Karafas, Sing Tung Teng, Chui Pin Leaw, Catharina Alves-de-Souza
The genus Amphidinium is an important group of athecated dinoflagellates because of its high abundance in marine habitats, its member's ability to live in a variety of environmental conditions and ability to produce toxins. Furthermore, the genus is of particular interest in the biotechnology field for its potential in the pharmaceutical arena. Taxonomically the there is a history of complication and confusion over the proper identities and placements of Amphidinium species due to high genetic variability coupled with high morphological conservation...
September 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957511/inferring-past-environments-from-ancient-epigenomes
#18
David Gokhman, Anat Malul, Liran Carmel
Analyzing the conditions in which past individuals lived is key to understanding the environments and cultural transitions to which humans had to adapt. Here, we suggest a methodology to probe into past environments, using reconstructed premortem DNA methylation maps of ancient individuals. We review a large body of research showing that differential DNA methylation is associated with changes in various external and internal factors, and propose that loci whose DNA methylation level is environmentally responsive could serve as markers to infer about ancient daily life, diseases, nutrition, exposure to toxins, and more...
October 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948108/mazf-activation-promotes-translational-heterogeneity-of-the-grca-mrna-in-escherichia-coli-populations
#19
Nela Nikolic, Zrinka Didara, Isabella Moll
Bacteria adapt to adverse environmental conditions by altering gene expression patterns. Recently, a novel stress adaptation mechanism has been described that allows Escherichia coli to alter gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The key player in this regulatory pathway is the endoribonuclease MazF, the toxin component of the toxin-antitoxin module mazEF that is triggered by various stressful conditions. In general, MazF degrades the majority of transcripts by cleaving at ACA sites, which results in the retardation of bacterial growth...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947277/a-timeline-of-hydrogen-sulfide-h2s-research-from-environmental-toxin-to-biological-mediator
#20
REVIEW
Csaba Szabo
The history of H2S - as an environmental toxin - dates back to 1700, to the observations of the Italian physician Bernardino Ramazzini, whose book "De Morbis Artificum Diatriba" described the painful eye irritation and inflammation of "sewer gas" in sewer workers. The gas has subsequently been identified as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and opened three centuries of research into the biological roles of H2S. The current article highlights the key discoveries in the field of H2S research, including (a) the toxicological studies, which characterized H2S as an environmental toxin, and identified some of its modes of action, including the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration; (b) work in the field of bacteriology, which, starting in the early 1900s, identified H2S as a bacterial product - with subsequently defined roles in the regulation of periodontal disease (oral bacterial flora), intestinal epithelial cell function (enteral bacterial flora) as well as in the regulation of bacterial resistance to antibiotics; and (c), work in diverse fields of mammalian biology, which, starting in the 1940s, identified H2S as an endogenous mammalian enzymatic product, the functions of which - among others, in the cardiovascular and nervous system - have become subjects of intensive investigation for the last decade...
September 22, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
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