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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324857/homoagglomeration-and-heteroagglomeration-of-tio2-in-nanoparticle-and-bulk-form-onto-freshwater-and-marine-microalgae
#1
M Sendra, M P Yeste, J M Gatica, I Moreno-Garrido, J Blasco
TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are employed in many products (paints, personal care products, especially sunscreens, plastics, paper, water potabilization and food products) and are then released into the environment from these products. These nanoparticles present potential risk to freshwater and marine microalgae. The primary toxicity mechanism is adsorption between NPs and microalgae (heteroagglomeration); however, studies of interactions of this kind are scarce. We investigated the heteroagglomeration process that occurs between two forms of TiO2 material, nanoparticles and bulk, and three different microalgae species, and under different environmental conditions (freshwater and marine water), in order to assess the influence of pH and ionic strength (IS)...
March 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299558/body-pushing-prescription-drugs-and-hospital-admission
#2
Roger W Byard, Michaela Kenneally
A 39-year-old man died of multi-organ failure complicating mixed drug toxicity that included methadone, oxazepam, oxycodone and nitrazepam. His past medical history involved alcohol and poly-substance abuse with chronic self-harm and suicidal ideation. There had been multiple hospital admissions for drug overdoses. At autopsy the most unusual finding was of two packages of 10 tablets each, wrapped in thin plastic film within the rectum. The insertion of drugs into body orifices and cavities has been termed body pushing to distinguish it from body packing where illicit drugs are wrapped and swallowed for transport and smuggling, and body stuffing where small amounts of loosely wrapped or unwrapped drugs are swallowed to conceal evidence from police...
March 15, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295950/sulforaphane-attenuates-di-n-butylphthalate-induced-reproductive-damage-in-pubertal-mice-involvement-of-the-nrf2-antioxidant-system
#3
Xu-Ping Jiang, Jing-Yuan Tang, Zhen Xu, Peng Han, Zhi-Qiang Qin, Cheng-di Yang, Shang-Qian Wang, Min Tang, Wei Wang, Chao Qin, Yang Xu, Bai-Xin Shen, Wei-Min Zhou, Wei Zhang
di-N-butylphthalate (DBP) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant used for plastic coating and in the cosmetics industry. It has toxic effects on body health, especially the male reproductive system. Here, we investigated the effects of DBP on the male reproductive system of pubertal mice and explored the protective role of sulforaphane (SFN). The results showed that DBP significantly reduced the anogenital distance, testicular weight, sperm count and motility, and plasma and testicular testosterone levels and significantly increased the oxidative stress, sperm abnormalities, and testicular cell apoptosis...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293332/systemic-therapy-for-early-stage-breast-cancer-what-the-plastic-surgeon-should-know
#4
Chad M Teven, Daniel B Schmid, Mark Sisco, James Ward, Michael A Howard
Objective: We review the types, indications, and common regimens of systemic forms of therapy offered in early-stage breast cancer. We further detail the mechanism of action, approved uses, major toxicities, and relevance to breast reconstruction of specific agents. Methods: A review of the literature on PubMed and Cochrane databases was undertaken to define the indications and common regimens of systemic therapy in early-stage breast cancer. In addition, literature describing relevant information regarding specific systemic agents was reviewed...
2017: Eplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288402/nitrogen-use-strategies-of-seedlings-from-neotropical-tree-species-of-distinct-successional-groups
#5
Halley Caixeta Oliveira, Ligia Maria Inocêncio da Silva, Letícia Dias de Freitas, Tatiane Viegas Debiasi, Nidia Mara Marchiori, Marcos Pereira Marinho Aidar, Edmilson Bianchini, José Antonio Pimenta, Renata Stolf-Moreira
Few studies have analyzed the strategies of neotropical tree seedlings for absorbing, translocating and assimilating the nitrogen. Here, we compared the nitrogen use strategies of seedlings from six tree species that are native to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and that belong to different successional groups: Trema micrantha, Heliocarpus popayanensis and Cecropia pachystachya (pioneers), Cariniana estrellensis, Eugenia brasiliensis and Guarea kunthiana (non-pioneers). The effects of cultivating seedlings with nitrate or ammonium on the growth, physiology and nitrogen metabolism were analyzed...
March 6, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286225/immunological-alteration-toxic-molecular-inductions-leading-to-cognitive-impairment-neurotoxicity-in-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Manuj Ahuja, Manal Buabeid, Engy Abdel-Rehman, Mohammed Majrashi, Kodeeswaran Parameshwaran, Rajesh Amin, Sindhu Ramesh, Kariharan Thiruchelvan, Satyanarayana Pondugula, Vishnu Suppiramaniam, Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran
AIMS: Inflammation is considered to be one of the crucial pathological factors associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease, although supportive experimental evidence remains undiscovered. Therefore, the current study was carried out to better understand and establish the pathophysiological involvement of chronic inflammation in a double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. MAIN METHODS: We analyzed amyloid-beta deposition, oxidative stress, biochemical, neurochemical and immunological markers in a 10month old (APΔE9) mouse model...
March 9, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286118/maternal-exposure-to-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-dehp-promotes-the-transgenerational-inheritance-of-adult-onset-reproductive-dysfunctions-through-the-female-germline-in-mice
#7
Paola Pocar, Nadia Fiandanese, Anna Berrini, Camillo Secchi, Vitaliano Borromeo
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are compounds known to promote transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in subsequent generations after maternal exposure during fetal gonadal development. This study was designed to establish whether gestational and lactational exposure to the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) at environmental doses promotes transgenerational effects on reproductive health in female offspring, as adults, over three generations in the mouse. Gestating F0 mouse dams were exposed to 0, 0...
March 9, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283321/minimized-natural-versions-of-fungal-ribotoxins-show-improved-active-site-plasticity
#8
Moisés Maestro-López, Miriam Olombrada, Lucía García-Ortega, Daniel Serrano-González, Javier Lacadena, Mercedes Oñaderra, José G Gavilanes, Álvaro Martínez-Del-Pozo
Fungal ribotoxins are highly specific extracellular RNases which cleave a single phosphodiester bond at the ribosomal sarcin-ricin loop, inhibiting protein biosynthesis by interfering with elongation factors. Most ribotoxins show high degree of conservation, with similar sizes and amino acid sequence identities above 85%. Only two exceptions are known: hirsutellin A and anisoplin, produced by the entomopathogenic fungi Hirsutella thompsonii and Metarhizium anisopliae, respectively. Both proteins are similar but smaller than the other known ribotoxins (130 vs 150 amino acids), displaying only about 25% sequence identity with them...
March 7, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244221/genomic-rearrangements-induced-by-unscheduled-dna-double-strand-breaks-in-somatic-mammalian-cells
#9
REVIEW
Ayeong So, Tangui Le Guen, Bernard S Lopez, Josée Guirouilh-Barbat
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly toxic lesions that can lead to profound genome rearrangements and/or cell death. DSBs routinely occur in genomes due to endogenous or exogenous stresses. Efficient repair systems, canonical non-homologous end-joining and homologous recombination, exist in the cell and not only ensure the maintenance of genome integrity but also, via specific programmed DNA double-strand breaks, permit its diversity and plasticity. However, these repair systems need to be tightly controlled because they can also generate genomic rearrangements...
February 28, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224456/zinc-toxicosis-in-a-boxer-dog-secondary-to-ingestion-of-holiday-garland
#10
Karyn Bischoff, Anne Chiapella, Jaime Weisman, Lisa M Crofton, Joseph Hillebrandt
INTRODUCTION: Increased admissions occur in small animal veterinary emergency clinics during some holidays, and some of the increased caseload is due to ingestion of toxic substances. This report documents zinc toxicosis contributing to the death of a dog after ingestion of holiday tinsel garland. CASE STUDY: A mature boxer dog presented with a 4-day history of vomiting and diarrhea. Radiodense foreign material was detected in the stomach and removed via gastrotomy...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222980/acute-water-quality-criteria-for-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pesticides-plastic-additives-and-4-nonylphenol-in-seawater
#11
I Durán, R Beiras
Probabilistic environmental quality criteria for Naphthalene (Nap), Phenanthrene (Phe), Fluoranthene (Flu), Pyrene (Pyr), Triclosan (TCS), Tributyltin (TBT), Chlorpyrifos (CPY), Diuron (DUR), γ-Hexaclorocyclohexane (γ-HCH), Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) were derived from acute toxicity data using saltwater species representative of marine ecosystems, including algae, mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms and chordates. Preferably, data concerns sublethal endpoints and early life stages from bioassays conducted in our laboratory, but the data set was completed with a broad literature survey...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219526/antifungal-activity-of-ionic-liquids-based-on-menthol-a-mechanism-study
#12
Jakub Suchodolski, Joanna Feder-Kubis, Anna Krasowska
The mechanism of toxicity of chiral ionic liquids with (1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthol [Cn-Am-Men][Cl] (n=10, 11 or 12) in the fungus Candida albicans is reported here. Ionic liquids were more toxic towards Candida strain lacking all identified multidrug resistance efflux pumps. Moreover, the compounds tested inhibited C. albicans filamentation at the concentration at which detached fungal cells also adhered to the plastic surface. Our results showed the high activity of all the tested chiral ionic liquids in the permeabilization of C...
April 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217829/vitamin-d-and-autism-what-s-new
#13
REVIEW
John Jacob Cannell
An increasing amount of evidence points to the possibility that gestational and early childhood vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 40 ng/ml] cause some cases of autism. Vitamin D is metabolized into a seco-steroid hormone that regulates about 3% of the 26,000 genes in the coding human genome. It is also a neurosteroid that is active in brain development, having effects on cellular proliferation, differentiation, calcium signaling, neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions; it also appears to have an effect on neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity...
February 20, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185727/quantitative-investigation-of-the-mechanisms-of-microplastics-and-nanoplastics-toward-zebrafish-larvae-locomotor-activity
#14
Qiqing Chen, Michael Gundlach, Shouye Yang, Jing Jiang, Mirna Velki, Daqiang Yin, Henner Hollert
This study investigated the direct and indirect toxic effects of microplastics and nanoplastics toward zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae locomotor activity. Results showed that microplastics alone exhibited no significant effects except for the upregulated zfrho visual gene expression; whereas nanoplastics inhibited the larval locomotion by 22% during the last darkness period, and significantly reduced larvae body length by 6%, inhibited the acetylcholinesterase activity by 40%, and upregulated gfap, α1-tubulin, zfrho and zfblue gene expression significantly...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169032/microplastics-in-freshwater-and-terrestrial-environments-evaluating-the-current-understanding-to-identify-the-knowledge-gaps-and-future-research-priorities
#15
REVIEW
Alice A Horton, Alexander Walton, David J Spurgeon, Elma Lahive, Claus Svendsen
Plastic debris is an environmentally persistent and complex contaminant of increasing concern. Understanding the sources, abundance and composition of microplastics present in the environment is a huge challenge due to the fact that hundreds of millions of tonnes of plastic material is manufactured for societal use annually, some of which is released to the environment. The majority of microplastics research to date has focussed on the marine environment. Although freshwater and terrestrial environments are recognised as origins and transport pathways of plastics to the oceans, there is still a comparative lack of knowledge about these environmental compartments...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168560/larvicidal-activity-of-blumea-eriantha-essential-oil-and-its-components-against-six-mosquito-species-including-zika-virus-vectors-the-promising-potential-of-4e-6z-allo-ocimene-carvotanacetone-and-dodecyl-acetate
#16
Giovanni Benelli, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Mohan Rajeswary, Sengamalai Senthilmurugan, Periasamy Vijayan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled
The effective and environmentally sustainable control of mosquitoes is a challenge of essential importance. This is due to the fact that some invasive mosquitoes, with special reference to the Aedes genus, are particularly difficult to control, due to their high ecological plasticity. Moreover, the indiscriminate overuse of synthetic insecticides resulted in undesirable effects on human health and non-target organisms, as well as resistance development in targeted vectors. Here, the leaf essential oil (EO) extracted from a scarcely studied plant of ethno-medicinal interest, Blumea eriantha (Asteraceae), was tested on the larvae of six mosquitoes, including Zika virus vectors...
February 6, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168008/protective-effect-of-antioxidants-on-neuronal-dysfunction-and-plasticity-in-huntington-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Thirunavukkarasu Velusamy, Archana S Panneerselvam, Meera Purushottam, Muthuswamy Anusuyadevi, Pramod Kumar Pal, Sanjeev Jain, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Gilles J Guillemin, Mahesh Kandasamy
Huntington's disease (HD) is characterised by movement disorders, cognitive impairments, and psychiatric problems. The abnormal generation of reactive oxygen species and the resulting oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial damage in neurons upon CAG mutations in the HTT gene have been hypothesized as the contributing factors of neurodegeneration in HD. The potential use of antioxidants against free radical toxicity has been an emerging field in the management of ageing and many neurodegenerative disorders. Neural stem cells derived adult neurogenesis represents the regenerative capacity of the adult brain...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167133/nmda-receptor-adjusted-co-administration-of-ecstasy-and-cannabinoid-receptor-1-agonist-in-the-amygdala-via-stimulation-of-bdnf-trk-b-creb-pathway-in-adult-male-rats
#18
Ghorbangol Ashabi, Mitra-Sadat Sadat-Shirazi, Solmaz Khalifeh, Laleh Elhampour, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Consumption of cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB-1) agonist such as cannabis is widely taken in 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy users; it has been hypothesized that co-consumption of CB-1 agonist might protect neurons against MDMA toxicity. N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors regulate neuronal plasticity and firing rate in the brain through Tyrosine-kinase B (Trk-B) activation. The molecular and electrophysiological association among NMDA and MDMA/Arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA, a selective CB-1 receptor agonist) co-consumption was not well-known...
February 3, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166271/transcriptional-deregulation-of-genetic-biomarkers-in-chironomus-riparius-larvae-exposed-to-ecologically-relevant-concentrations-of-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-dehp
#19
Óscar Herrero, Gloria Morcillo, Rosario Planelló
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant used worldwide as a plasticizer and solvent in many formulations. Based on available toxicological data, it has been classified as toxic for reproduction and as an endocrine disruptor. Despite this, ecotoxicological studies in aquatic wildlife organisms are still scarce. In the present work, the toxic molecular alterations caused by DEHP in aquatic larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius have been studied, by analyzing the transcriptional activity of genes related to some vital cellular pathways, such as the ribosomal machinery (rpL4, rpL13), the cell stress response (hsc70, hsp70, hsp40, hsp27), the ecdysone hormone pathway (EcR), the energy metabolism (GAPDH), and detoxication processes (CYP4G)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163246/triphenyl-phosphate-enhances-adipogenic-differentiation-glucose-uptake-and-lipolysis-via-endocrine-and-noradrenergic-mechanisms
#20
German Cano-Sancho, Anna Smith, Michele A La Merrill
The use of triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) as a flame retardant or plasticizer has increased during the last decade, resulting in widespread human exposure without commensurate toxicity assessment. The main objectives of this study were to assess the in vitro effect of TPhP and its metabolite diphenyl phosphate (DPhP) on the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, as well as glucose uptake and lipolysis in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. TPhP increased pre-adipocyte proliferation and subsequent adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, coinciding with increased transcription in the CEBP and PPARG pathway...
February 3, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
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