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Toxic plastic

Vincenzo Mattei, Stefano Martellucci, Francesca Santilli, Valeria Manganelli, Tina Garofalo, Niccolò Candelise, Alessandra Caruso, Maurizio Sorice, Sergio Scaccianoce, Roberta Misasi
The hippocampus is a vulnerable brain structure susceptible to damage during aging and chronic stress. Repeated exposure to opioids may alter the brain so that it functions normally when the drugs are present, thus, a prolonged withdrawal might lead to homeostatic changes headed for the restoration of the physiological state. Abuse of morphine may lead to Reacting Oxygen Species-induced neurodegeneration and apoptosis. It has been proposed that during morphine withdrawal, stress responses might be responsible, at least in part, for long-term changes of hippocampal plasticity...
2017: PloS One
Youngjun Park, Jang-Sik Lee
The growing interests for bioinspired and sustainable electronics have induced research for biocompatible and biodegradable materials. However, conventional electronic devices have been restricted due to its non-biodegradable and sometimes harmful and toxic material, which even cause environmental issues. Here, we report resistive switching memory (ReRAM) device based on lignin, which is a biodegradable waste product of the paper industry. The active layer of the device can be easily formed using a simple solution process on a plastic substrate...
January 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shantanu Shrikant Kadlaskar, Jun Hyeon Yoo, Abhijeet, Jeong Bong Lee, Wonjae Choi
In this paper we investigate the feasibility of using a cost-effective fabrication method based on sandblasting, chemical etching and spray coating processes, to render common surfaces to be non-wettable by Galinstan®. Although Galinstan® is a non-toxic liquid metal alternative to mercury, the viscoelastic and extremely wetting characteristics of Galinstan® have been the major bottleneck limiting the wide applicability of the gallium-based liquid metal. This paper tries to accomplish non-wettability to Galinstan® by combining surface texture and chemistry with the unique property of Galinstan®, that is, its high surface tension and yield strength that prevent the penetration of the liquid metal into surface asperities...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Boya Zhang, Bu Zhao, Chun Xu, Jianbo Zhang
Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are used as flame retardants, plasticizers, and metalworking fluids, which have varying contents of toxic short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs). Based on the study of several relevant production and consumption sectors, this paper classifies the consumption of CPs among sectors and provides an emission inventory and the provincial emission distribution of SCCPs in China in 2010-2014 based on the consumption patterns and emission factors of each sector. The total emissions of SCCPs in China in 2014 were 3083...
January 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ting Yang, Shaomin Li, Huixin Xu, Dominic M Walsh, Dennis J Selkoe
: Soluble oligomers of amyloid β-protein (oAβ) isolated from the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have been shown experimentally (in the absence of amyloid plaques) to impair hippocampal synaptic plasticity, decrease synapses, induce tau hyperphosphorylation and neuritic dystrophy, activate microglial inflammation, and impair memory in normal adult rodents. Nevertheless, there has been controversy about what types of oligomers actually confer these AD-like phenotypes. Here, we show that the vast majority of soluble Aβ species obtained from brains of humans who died with confirmed AD elute at high molecular weight (HMW) on nondenaturing size-exclusion chromatography...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Nupur Ojha, Neha Pradhan, Surjit Singh, Anil Barla, Anamika Shrivastava, Pradip Khatua, Vivek Rai, Sutapa Bose
Plastic in any form is a nuisance to the well-being of the environment. The 'pestilence' caused by it is mainly due to its non-degradable nature. With the industrial boom and the population explosion, the usage of plastic products has increased. A steady increase has been observed in the use of plastic products, and this has accelerated the pollution. Several attempts have been made to curb the problem at large by resorting to both chemical and biological methods. Chemical methods have only resulted in furthering the pollution by releasing toxic gases into the atmosphere; whereas; biological methods have been found to be eco-friendly however they are not cost effective...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kazimierz Gąsiorowski, Barbara Brokos, Jerzy Leszek, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Gjumrakch Aliev
Glucose homeostasis is crucial for neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and is indispensable for learning and memory. Reduced sensitivity of cells to insulin and impaired insulin signaling in brain neurons participate in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). The tumor suppressor protein p53 coordinates with multiple cellular pathways in response to DNA damage and cellular stresses. However, prolonged stress conditions unveil deleterious effects of p53-evoked insulin resistance in neurons; enhancement of transcription of pro-oxidant factors, accumulation of toxic metabolites (e...
January 3, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
F Mostafaei, L Nie
PURPOSE: Improvement in an in vivo K x-ray fluorescence system, based on 109Cd source, for the detection of gadolinium (Gd) in bone has been investigated. Series of improvements to the method is described. Gd is of interest because of the extensive use of Gd-based contrast agents in MR imaging and the potential toxicity of Gd exposure. METHODS: A set of seven bone equivalent phantoms with different amount of Gd concentrations (from 0-100 ppm) has been developed...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Forouzan Absalan, Sadegh Saremy, Esrafil Mansori, Mahin Taheri Moghadam, Ali Reza Eftekhari Moghadam, Razie Ghanavati
OBJECTIVE: Phthalates, which are commonly used to render plastics into soft and flexible materials, have also been determined as developmental and reproductive toxicants in human and animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mono-(2- ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) oral administrations on maturation of mouse oocytes, apoptosis and gene transcription levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, immature oocytes recovered from Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mouse strain (6-8 weeks), were divided into seven different experimental and control groups...
2017: Cell Journal
J M Andrade López, S M Lanno, J M Auerbach, E C Moskowitz, L A Sligar, P J Wittkopp, J D Coolon
Drosophila sechellia is a species of fruit fly endemic to the Seychelles islands. Unlike its generalist sister species, D. sechellia has evolved to be a specialist on the host plant Morinda citrifolia. This specialization is interesting because the plant's fruit contains secondary defense compounds, primarily octanoic acid (OA), that are lethal to most other Drosophilids. Although ecological and behavioral adaptations to this toxic fruit are known, the genetic basis for evolutionary changes in OA resistance are not...
December 30, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Hermann Fromme, Jan Schwarzbauer, Thomas Lahrz, Martin Kraft, Ludwig Fembacher
For decades, plasticizers have been produced in high quantities to improve the flexibility and durability of products. One possible replacement product is alkylsulfonic acid phenylesters (ASEs), marketed as Mesamoll(®). This study aimed to quantify the ASE dust contamination of residences and daycare centers to obtain insight into the recent exposure situation. ASEs were quantified in dust samples collected from 25 residences and 25 daycare centers using GC/MS measurements. Median (95th percentile) values of the sum of tetra- to heptadecylphenylesters are higher in daycare centers, with a value of 19...
December 23, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Miriany A Moreira Fernandez, Leiliane Coelho André, Zenilda de Lourdes Cardeal
Phthalates and bisphenol A are important environmental pollutants due to their toxicity for humans and animals, including actions in the endocrine system. Their metabolites in urine can be used as biomarkers to assess human exposure. This paper describes the development of a new method to determine bisphenol A and eight phthalate metabolites in urine samples using hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This method showed linearity, precision, limits of detection, and quantification suitable to analyze these compounds at low concentration levels in urine...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Yan Li, Jian Yan, Wei Ding, Ying Chen, Lindsay M Pack, Tao Chen
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are used in paints, plastics, papers, inks, foods, toothpaste, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. However, TiO2 NPs cause inflammation, pulmonary damage, fibrosis and lung tumours in animals and are possibly carcinogenic to humans. Although there are a large number of studies on the toxicities of TiO2 NPs, the data are inconclusive and the mechanisms underlying the toxicity are not clear. In this study, we used the Comet assay to evaluate genotoxicity and whole-genome microarray technology to analyse gene expression pattern in vivo to explore the possible mechanisms for toxicity and genotoxicity of TiO2 NPs...
January 2017: Mutagenesis
Benjamin V Ineichen, Oliver Weinmann, Nicolas Good, Patricia Plattner, Carla Wicki, Elisabeth J Rushing, Michael Linnebank, Martin E Schwab
AIMS: The search for novel drugs that enhance myelin repair in entities such as multiple sclerosis has top priority in neurological research, not least because remyelination can hinder further neurodegeneration in neuro-inflammatory conditions. Recently, several new compounds with the potential to boost remyelination have been identified using high-throughput in vitro screening methods. However, assessing their potential to enhance remyelination in vivo using plastic embedded semi-thin sections or electron microscopy, even though being the gold standard for assessing remyelination, is toxic, extremely time-consuming, and expensive...
December 23, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Petra Varró, Melinda Kovács, Ildikó Világi
Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides showing significant selective toxicity on insects over mammals, but effects on mammalian nervous system are not negligible. These substances act on the voltage-gated sodium channel, prolonging the duration of the open state. The present study focused on the effect of the pyrethroid esfenvalerate on the excitability of neuronal networks in vitro. From isolated rat brain slices, neocortical and hippocampal evoked field potentials were recorded; four concentrations (5-40μM) of esfenvalerate were tested using in vitro administration of the commercial product Sumi-Alpha 5 EC(®)...
December 19, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Keke Ding, Liping Lu, Jiaying Wang, Jingpeng Wang, Minqiang Zhou, Cunwu Zheng, Jinsong Liu, Chunlong Zhang, Shulin Zhuang
Phthalate esters (PAEs) are widely used as plasticizers and have become one of the emerging contaminants with an increasing public concern. The residues of PAEs frequently co-exist with heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) in waters; however, their joint ecotoxicity remains largely unknown. We herein investigated the single and joint toxicity of commonly used PAEs and Cd using freshwater luminescent bacteria Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67. The median effective concentration (EC50) of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diisooctyl phthalate (DIOP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) were determined to be in the range from 134...
December 16, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Chieh-Ting Chen, Kuan-I Chen, Hsin-Han Chiang, Yu-Kuo Chen, Kuan-Chen Cheng
Pullulan based films possess several advantages, including high transparency, low toxicity, good biodegradability, good mechanical properties, and low oxygen permeability, are preferable for food packaging. The application of pullulan films on food packaging, however, has inherent disadvantage of high water solubility. In this study, glutaraldehyde and glycerol were used as the cross-linking reagent and the plasticizer respectively to improve water resistance and physical properties of the pullulan films. Effects of cross-linking degree on physical properties, including water absorptions, swelling behaviors, water vapor permeability and tensile strengths of films were evaluated...
January 2017: Journal of Food Science
Jun Ling, Zenaida P Lopez-Dee, Colby Cottell, Laura Wolfe, Derek Nye
Phthalates are a group of plasticizers that are widely used in many consumer products and medical devices, thus generating a huge burden to human health. Phthalates have been known to cause a number of developmental and reproductive disorders functioning as endocrine modulators. They are also involved in carcinogenesis with mechanisms less understood. To further understand the molecular mechanisms of phthalate toxicity, in this study we reported a new effect of phthalates on mRNA translation/protein synthesis, a key regulatory step of gene expression...
2016: PloS One
Magdalena Gąssowska, Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka, Joanna Moczydłowska, Małgorzata Frontczak-Baniewicz, Magdalena Gewartowska, Lidia Strużyńska, Izabela Gutowska, Dariusz Chlubek, Agata Adamczyk
Lead (Pb), environmentally abundant heavy-metal pollutant, is a strong toxicant for the developing central nervous system. Pb intoxication in children, even at low doses, is found to affect learning and memorizing, with devastating effects on cognitive function and intellectual development. However, the precise mechanism by which Pb impairs synaptic plasticity is not fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pre- and neonatal exposure to low dose of Pb (with Pb concentrations in whole blood below 10μg/dL) on the synaptic structure and the pre- and postsynaptic proteins expression in the developing rat brain...
October 29, 2016: Toxicology
Nataša Mitrović, Marina Zarić, Dunja Drakulić, Jelena Martinović, Jean Sévigny, Miloš Stanojlović, Nadežda Nedeljković, Ivana Grković
17β-Estradiol (E2) rapidly, by binding to membrane estrogen receptors, activates cell signaling cascades which induce formation of new dendritic spines in the hippocampus of males as in females, but the interaction with other metabolic processes, such as extracellular adenine nucleotides metabolism, are currently unknown. Extracellular adenine nucleotides play significant roles, controlling excitatory glutamatergic synapses and development of neural circuits and synaptic plasticity. Their precise regulation in the synaptic cleft is tightly controlled by ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase)/ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN) enzyme chain...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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