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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938452/dose-specific-effects-of-di-isononyl-phthalate-on-the-endocannabinoid-system-and-on-liver-of-female-zebrafish
#1
Isabel Forner-Piquer, Francesca Maradonna, Giorgia Gioacchini, Stefania Santangeli, Marco Allarà, Fabiana Piscitelli, Hamid R Habibi, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Oliana Carnevali
Phthalates, used as plasticizers, have become a ubiquitous contaminant and have been reported for their potential to induce toxicity in living organisms. Among them, the Di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) has been recently used to replace the bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Nowadays, there is evidence that DiNP is an Endocrine Disrupting Chemical (EDC), however little is known about its effects on the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) and lipid metabolism. Hence, the aim of our study was to investigate the effects of DiNP on the ECS in zebrafish liver and brain and on hepatic lipid storage...
August 14, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934690/butyl-benzyl-phthalate-bbp-induces-caudal-defects-during-embryonic-development
#2
Nicole M Roy, Ewelina Zambrzycka, Jenna Santangelo
Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) is commonly added during the manufacturing of plastics to increase flexibility and elasticity. However, BBP leaches off of plastic and environment presence has been detected in soil, groundwater and sediment potentially effecting organisms in the environment. Given the widespread uses of BBP in household, consumer goods and the presence of BBP in the environment, studies on developmental toxicity are needed. Here, we use a zebrafish model to investigate the early developmental toxicity of BBP...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933159/hemoglobin-adducts-and-urinary-metabolites-of-arylamines-and-nitroarenes
#3
Gabriele Sabbioni
Arylamines and nitroarenes are intermediates in the production of pharmaceuticals, dyes, pesticides, and plastics and are important environmental and occupational pollutants. N-Hydroxyarylamines are the toxic common intermediates of arylamines and nitroarenes. N-Hydroxyarylamines and their derivatives can form adducts with hemoglobin (Hb-adducts), albumin, DNA, and tissue proteins in a dose-dependent manner. Most of the arylamine Hb-adducts are labile and undergo hydrolysis in vitro, by mild acid or base, to form the arylamines...
September 21, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931737/changes-in-predator-exposure-but-not-in-diet-induce-phenotypic-plasticity-in-scorpion-venom
#4
Alex N Gangur, Michael Smout, Michael J Liddell, Jamie E Seymour, David Wilson, Tobin D Northfield
Animals embedded between trophic levels must simultaneously balance pressures to deter predators and acquire resources. Venomous animals may use venom toxins to mediate both pressures, and thus changes in this balance may alter the composition of venoms. Basic theory suggests that greater exposure to a predator should induce a larger proportion of defensive venom components relative to offensive venom components, while increases in arms races with prey will elicit the reverse. Alternatively, reducing the need for venom expenditure for food acquisition, for example because of an increase in scavenging, may reduce the production of offensive venom components...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929137/bioinspired-bright-noniridescent-photonic-melanin-supraballs
#5
Ming Xiao, Ziying Hu, Zhao Wang, Yiwen Li, Alejandro Diaz Tormo, Nicolas Le Thomas, Boxiang Wang, Nathan C Gianneschi, Matthew D Shawkey, Ali Dhinojwala
Structural colors enable the creation of a spectrum of nonfading colors without pigments, potentially replacing toxic metal oxides and conjugated organic pigments. However, significant challenges remain to achieve the contrast needed for a complete gamut of colors and a scalable process for industrial application. We demonstrate a feasible solution for producing structural colors inspired by bird feathers. We have designed core-shell nanoparticles using high-refractive index (RI) (~1.74) melanin cores and low-RI (~1...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926156/the-roles-of-plasticity-and-evolutionary-change-in-shaping-gene-expression-variation-in-natural-populations-of-extremophile-fish
#6
Courtney N Passow, Chathurika Henpita, Jennifer H Shaw, Corey R Quackenbush, Wesley C Warren, Manfred Schartl, Lenin Arias-Rodriguez, Joanna L Kelley, Michael Tobler
The notorious plasticity of gene expression responses and the complexity of environmental gradients complicate the identification of adaptive differences in gene regulation among populations. We combined transcriptome analyses in nature with common garden and exposure experiments to establish cause and effect relationships between the presence of a physiochemical stressor and expression differences, as well as to test how evolutionary change and plasticity interact to shape gene expression variation in natural systems...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913550/oxidative-damage-and-genetic-toxicity-induced-by-dbp-in-earthworms-eisenia-fetida
#7
Guanying Wang, Jun Wang, Lusheng Zhu, Jinhua Wang, Hengzhou Li, Yizhang Zhang, Wenjun Liu, Jianpeng Gao
Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is one of the most ubiquitous plasticizers used worldwide. However, it has negatives effects on the soil, water, atmosphere, and other environmental media and can cause serious pollution. According to the artificial soil test and previous studies, this study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity of earthworms induced by DBP at different concentrations (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 50 mg kg(-1)) on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days of exposure. The variations in the antioxidant activities of enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), in the amounts of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and in the amount of DNA damage were measured to evaluate the toxic impact of DBP in earthworms...
September 14, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912059/piracetam-inhibits-ethanol-etoh-induced-memory-deficit-by-mediating-multiple-pathways
#8
Yifan Yang, Jian Feng, Fangyuan Xu, Jianglin Wang
Excessive ethanol (EtOH) intake, especially to prenatal exposure, can significantly affect cognitive function and cause permanent learning and memory injures in children. As a result, how to protect children from EtOH neurotoxicity has gained increasing attention in recent years. Piracetam (Pir) is a nootropic drug derived from c-aminobutyric acid and can manage cognition impairments in multiple neurological disorders. Studies have shown that Pir can exert therapeutic effects on EtOH-induced memory impairments, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown...
September 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904409/biomedical-applications-of-polyhydroxyalkanoates
#9
REVIEW
Subhasree Ray, Vipin Chandra Kalia
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are produced by a large number of microbes under stress conditions such as high carbon (C) availability and limitations of nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and oxygen. Here, microbes store C as granules of PHAs-energy reservoir. PHAs have properties, which are quite similar to those of synthetic plastics. The unique properties, which make them desirable materials for biomedical applications is their biodegradability, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890130/effects-of-perinatal-bisphenol-a-exposure-on-the-volume-of-sexually-dimorphic-nuclei-of-juvenile-rats-a-clarity-bpa-consortium-study
#10
Sheryl E Arambula, Joelle Fuchs, Jinyan Cao, Heather B Patisaul
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume endocrine disrupting chemical found in a wide variety of products including plastics and epoxy resins. Human exposure is nearly ubiquitous, and higher in children than adults. Because BPA has been reported to interfere with sex steroid hormone signaling, there is concern that developmental exposure, even at levels below the current FDA No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 5mg/kg body weight (bw)/day, can disrupt brain sexual differentiation. The current studies were conducted as part of the CLARITY-BPA (Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity) program and tested the hypothesis that perinatal BPA exposure would induce morphological changes in hormone sensitive, sexually dimorphic brain regions...
September 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886877/functional-sustainability-of-periphytic-biofilms-in-organic-matter-and-cu-2-removal-during-prolonged-exposure-to-tio2-nanoparticles
#11
Junzhuo Liu, Jun Tang, Juanjuan Wan, Chenxi Wu, Bruce Graham, Philip G Kerr, Yonghong Wu
Responses of microbial communities to nanotoxicity in aquatic ecosystems are largely unknown, particularly with respect to relationship between community dynamics and functions. Here, periphytic biofilms were selected as a model of species-rich microbial communities to elucidate their responses when exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs). Especially, the relationships between the functions (e.g. organic matter and Cu(2+) removal) and community dynamics after long-term exposure to TiO2-NPs were assessed systematically...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869517/eco-friendly-and-biodegradable-biopolymer-chitosan-y%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-composite-materials-in-flexible-organic-thin-film-transistors
#12
Bo-Wei Du, Shao-Ying Hu, Ranjodh Singh, Tsung-Tso Tsai, Ching-Chang Lin, Fu-Hsiang Ko
The waste from semiconductor manufacturing processes causes serious pollution to the environment. In this work, a non-toxic material was developed under room temperature conditions for the fabrication of green electronics. Flexible organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) on plastic substrates are increasingly in demand due to their high visible transmission and small size for use as displays and wearable devices. This work investigates and analyzes the structured formation of aqueous solutions of the non-toxic and biodegradable biopolymer, chitosan, blended with high-k-value, non-toxic, and biocompatible Y₂O₃ nanoparticles...
September 3, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862111/how-can-we-improve-education-of-breast-surgeons-across-europe
#13
Agnieszka Kolacinska
The proposed global curriculum developed by the American Society of Surgical Oncology (SSO) and the European Society of Surgical Oncology (ESSO) and the textbook: provides a state-of- the- art of breast cancer surgery, complements the syllabus and curriculum of the Union Europeenne des Medecins Specialistes (UEMS) examination in breast surgery/ European Board of Surgery Qualification in Breast Surgery (EBSQinBS) administered by ESSO (1) Knowledge and understanding of the principles of breast cancer incidence, aetiology, risk factors, genetics, premalignant and high-risk lesions, pathology, prognostic and predictive factors, risk prediction models, screening, diagnosis and imaging, breast cancer, oncoplastic, reconstructive breast surgery, axillary surgery and future perspective for this, radiation therapy, neoadjuvant and adjuvant systemic treatment- endocrine-, immuno- and chemotherapy, side effects and toxicities of treatment, locoregional recurrence, follow-up, locally advanced breast cancer, metastatic breast cancer, breast cancer in young and elderly patients, survivor issues, lymphedema, palliative care, chroni pain, body image and sexuality, fertility issues, cognitive functions, etc...
July 2017: Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858240/toxicity-effects-of-functionalized-quantum-dots-gold-and-polystyrene-nanoparticles-on-target-aquatic-biological-models-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Giovanni Libralato, Emilia Galdiero, Annarita Falanga, Rosa Carotenuto, Elisabetta de Alteriis, Marco Guida
Nano-based products are widespread in several sectors, including textiles, medical-products, cosmetics, paints and plastics. Nanosafety and safe-by-design are driving nanoparticle (NP) production and applications through NP functionalization (@NPs). Indeed, @NPs frequently present biological effects that differ from the parent material. This paper reviews the impact of quantum dots (QDs), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and polystyrene-cored NPs (PSNPs), evidencing the role of NP functionalization in toxicity definition...
August 31, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853308/insulin-suppresses-mpp-induced-neurotoxicity-by-targeting-integrins-and-syndecans-in-c6-astrocytes
#15
Mahesh Ramalingam, Mi Hyun Cheng, Sung-Jin Kim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the elderly. In central nervous system, astrocytes regulates neuronal function via the modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity, secretion of growth factors, uptake of neurotransmitters and regulation of extracellular ion concentrations and metabolic support of neurons. Therefore, C6 astroglial cells have been used to study the in vitro PD model induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP(+)). In this study, pre-treatment of insulin inhibited MPP(+)-induced cell membrane damages on LDH and NO releases, which also inhibited the iNOS and Cox-2 levels...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845027/dibutyl-phthalate-rather-than-monobutyl-phthalate-facilitates-contact-hypersensitivity-to-fluorescein-isothiocyanate-in-a-mouse-model
#16
Kohta Kurohane, Kota Sekiguchi, Erina Ogawa, Masato Tsutsumi, Yasuyuki Imai
Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a plasticizer used for many consumer products including cosmetics. Potential health concerns regarding DBP include reproductive and developmental toxicity, endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity. DBP is a high priority chemical as to reduction of exposure of children to it. Through reproductive toxicity studies, monobutyl phthalate (MBP) has been proposed to be the active metabolite derived from DBP. We previously demonstrated that DBP activates transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels expressed on sensory neurons...
August 26, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842547/the-arsenic-resistance-listeria-genomic-island-lgi2-exhibits-sequence-and-integration-site-diversity-and-propensity-for-three-listeria-monocytogenes-clones-with-enhanced-virulence
#17
Sangmi Lee, Todd J Ward, Dereje D Jima, Cameron Parsons, Sophia Kathariou
In the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, arsenic resistance is primarily encountered in serotype 4b clones considered to have enhanced virulence, and is associated with an arsenic resistance gene cluster within a 35 kb chromosomal region, Listeria genomic island 2 (LGI2). LGI2 was first identified in strain Scott A and includes genes putatively involved in arsenic and cadmium resistance, DNA integration, conjugation and pathogenicity. However, genomic localization and sequence content of LGI2 remain poorly characterized...
August 25, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839207/relationships-between-serum-induced-ahr-bioactivity-or-mitochondrial-inhibition-and-circulating-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs
#18
Wook Ha Park, Sora Kang, Hong Kyu Lee, Samira Salihovic, Bert van Bavel, P Monica Lind, Youngmi Kim Pak, Lars Lind
Metabolic syndrome and mitochondrial dysfunction have been linked to elevated serum levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, it is not clear which specific POPs contribute to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent bioactivity or inhibit mitochondrial function in human subjects. Here, we measured the cumulative bioactivity of AhR ligand mixture (AhR bioactivity) and the effects on mitochondrial function (ATP concentration) in recombinant Hepa1c1c7 cells incubated with raw serum samples obtained from 911 elderly subjects in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834561/life-cycle-studies-with-two-marine-species-and-bisphenol-a-the-mysid-shrimp-americamysis-bahia-and-sheepshead-minnow-cyprinodon-variegatus
#19
Ellen Mihaich, Charles Staples, Lisa Ortego, Gary Klečka, Jan Woelz, Steve Dimond, Steven Hentges
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume compound primarily used to produce epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastic. Exposure to low concentrations of BPA occurs in freshwater and marine systems, primarily from wastewater treatment plant discharges. The dataset for chronic toxicity of BPA to freshwater organisms includes studies on fish, amphibians, invertebrates, algae and aquatic plants. To broaden the dataset, a 1.5-generation test with sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) and a full life-cycle test with mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia) were conducted...
August 23, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829085/plantics-gx-a-biodegradable-and-cost-effective-thermoset-plastic-that-is-100-plant-based
#20
Albert H Alberts, Gadi Rothenberg
We recount here the story of the discovery and invention of a family of thermoset resins that are fully biodegradable and plant-based. The resin is prepared by polymerising glycerol, the simplest trialcohol, with citric acid, the simplest abundantly available triacid. Mixing these two chemicals at moderate temperatures begins a multi-step esterification that results in a network-like resin foam. The hardness, brittleness, and toughness of this resin can be controlled by changing the alcohol : acid ratio, the temperature, and the presence of additives...
September 21, 2017: Faraday Discussions
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