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Toxic plastic

Sainan Sun, Yanan Chen, Yujin Lin, Dong An
The long-term low concentrations of trace "contaminants of emerging concern" (CECs) can have potential toxic effects on human health and serious risks to the ecological environment. This study investigated the occurrence, spatial distributions, and seasonal variations of 65 target CECs, including 35 pesticides, 17 antibiotics, 7 microcystins, 5 estrogens, and 1 plasticizers in Shanghai's source water. The detected pesticides and antibiotics of sulfonamides and macrolides were relatively ubiquitous in source water of Shanghai, with levels decreasing in the following order: pesticides (average (avg...
May 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Islam M Saadeldin, Mohamed A Hussein, Aida Hamid Suleiman, Mahmoud G Abohassan, Mona M Ahmed, Amr A Moustafa, Abdullah F Moumen, Ayman Abdel-Aziz Swelum
Phthalates (such as DEHP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are widely used chemicals in plastics manufacturing and exert public health concerns as endocrine disrupters. This study was designed to investigate the deleterious effect of DEHP and BPA on endocrine profile of pregnant female rats and the combined treatment with ginseng extract (Panax ginseng). Seventy-two pregnant rats were divided into six groups (control, ginseng, DEHP, BPA, Gin + DEHP, and Gin + BPA), 12 females per each group. The drugs were supplemented from pregnancy day 0 until day 20...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dana L Armstrong, Clifford P Rice, Mark Ramirez, Alba Torrents
The fate of four phthalate plasticizers during wastewater treatment processes at six different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was investigated. Concentrations of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), and diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP) were determined prior to either aerobic or anaerobic (conventional and advanced) treatment, after treatment, and in final, dewatered solids. Despite their elevated use worldwide, the fate of DiNP and DiDP during wastewater treatment have not been well characterized...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Siavash Atashgahi, Irene Sánchez-Andrea, Hermann J Heipieper, Jan R van der Meer, Alfons J M Stams, Hauke Smidt
Prokaryotes in natural environments respond rapidly to high concentrations of chemicals and physical stresses. Exposure to anthropogenic toxic substances-such as oil, chlorinated solvents, or antibiotics-favors the evolution of resistant phenotypes, some of which can use contaminants as an exclusive carbon source or as electron donors and acceptors. Microorganisms similarly adapt to extreme pH, metal, or osmotic stress. The metabolic plasticity of prokaryotes can thus be harnessed for bioremediation and can be exploited in a variety of ways, ranging from stimulated natural attenuation to bioaugmentation and from wastewater treatment to habitat restoration...
May 18, 2018: Science
Ahmed M Youssef, Samah M El-Sayed
Bionanocomposites materials open a chance for the usage of novel, high performance, lightweight, and ecofriendly composite materials making them take place the traditional non-biodegradable plastic packaging materials. Biopolymers like polysaccharides such as chitosan (CS), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), starch and cellophane could be used to resolve environmental hazards owing to their biodegradability and non-toxicity. In addition these advantages, polysaccharides have some disadvantages for example poor mechanical properties and low resistance to water...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Bhumika S, Arvind Kumar Singh
One of the most fundamental behaviors in all the organisms, in order to achieve a satiated state and internal energy homeostasis is feeding. The action of feeding in any being whether be it any vertebrate or an invertebrate involves the perception of the external environment along with the gamut of decision making processes to eat or to not eat. The feeding decision along with chemosensation through gustation and olfaction leads to intake of food with proper nutrient balance along with avoidance of bitter and toxic substances...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Hemlata Gupta, Shripad B Deshpande
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical used in the manufacture of plastics, has toxic effects on various systems of the human body including the reproductive system. BPA possesses estrogenic activity and is implicated in altering oogenesis, ovulation, and fertility. In addition to ovulatory changes, uterine contractility is an important factor for fertility. However, the effects of BPA on myometrial contractions are not known. Therefore, we examined the effect of BPA on rat uterine contractions...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Mohammad Obeidat, Kristen A McConnell, Xiaolei Li, Brian Bui, Sotiris Stathakis, Niko Papanikolaou, Karl Rasmussen, Chul Soo Ha, Sang Eun Lee, Eun Yong Shim, Neil Kirby
PURPOSE: Many types of dosimeters are used to measure radiation dose and calibrate radiotherapy equipment, but none directly measure the biological effect of this dose. The purpose here is to create a dosimeter that can measure the probability of double-strand breaks (DSB) for DNA, which is directly related to the biological effect of radiation. METHODS: A DNA dosimeter, consisting of magnetic streptavidin beads attached to 4 kilobase pair DNA strands labeled with biotin and fluorescein amidite (FAM) on opposing ends, was suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)...
May 10, 2018: Medical Physics
Dorina Diekjürgen, David W Grainger
Given currently poor toxicity translational predictions for drug candidates, improved mechanistic understanding underlying nephrotoxicity and drug renal clearance is needed to improve drug development and safety screening. Therefore, better relevant and well-characterized in vitro screening models are required to reliably predict human nephrotoxicity. Because kidney proximal tubules are central to active drug uptake and secretion processes and therefore to nephrotoxicity, this study acquired regio-specific expression data from recently reported primary proximal tubule three-dimensional (3D) hyaluronic acid gel culture and non-gel embedded cultured murine proximal tubule suspensions used in nephrotoxicity assays...
May 9, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Vijaya Sadashiv Waghmare, Pallavi Ravindra Wadke, Sathish Dyawanapelly, Aparna Deshpande, Ratnesh Jain, Prajakta Dandekar
Starch is an attractive polymer for wound healing applications because of its wide availability, low cost, biocompatibility, biodegradability and wound-healing property. Here, we have fabricated starch-based nanofibrous scaffolds by electrospinning for wound healing applications. The diameter of the optimized nanofibers was determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and was found to be in the range of 110-300 nm. The mechanical strength (0.5-0.8 MPa) of the nanofibrous scaffolds was attuned using polyvinyl alcohol (plasticizer) and glutaraldehyde (crosslinking agent), to impart them with sufficient durability for skin tissue engineering...
September 2018: Bioactive Materials
Willis Gwenzi, Nhamo Chaukura
Organic contaminants (OCs) are increasingly being reported in African aquatic systems, yet a critical evaluation of the literature is still lacking. The objectives of this review were to: (1) identify hotspot reservoirs, transfer pathways and ecological and human risks of OCs, (2) identify potential interventions to minimize the health risks, and (3) highlight knowledge gaps and research constraints. OCs widely reported in aquatic systems include pesticides, pharmaceuticals, plasticizers, solvents, endocrine disrupting compounds, and antimicrobial resistance genes, originating from applications in crop protection, veterinary and animal husbandry, human sanitation and hygiene, human vector and disease control...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xijuan Chen, Jie Zhuang, Kai Bester
Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent, which is widely used in personal care products including toothpaste, soaps, deodorants, plastics, and cosmetics. Widespread use of triclosan has resulted in its release into wastewater, surface water, and soils and has received considerable attention in the recent years. It has been reported that triclosan is detected in various environmental compartments. Toxicity studies have suggested its potential environmental impacts, especially to aquatic ecosystems. To date, removal of triclosan has attracted rising attention and biodegradation of triclosan in different systems, such as axenic cultures of microorganisms, full-scale WWTPs, activated sludge, sludge treatment systems, sludge-amended soils, and sediments has been described...
May 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Matthew Blahut, Stephen Dzul, Suning Wang, Ashoka Kandegedara, Nicholas E Grossoehme, Timothy Stemmler, F Wayne Outten
Transition metal homeostasis is necessary to sustain life. First row transition metals act as cofactors within the cell, performing vital functions ranging from DNA repair to respiration. However, intracellular metal concentrations exceeding physiological requirements may be toxic. In E. coli, the YqjH flavoprotein is thought to play a role in iron homeostasis. YqjH is transcriptionally regulated by the ferric uptake regulator and a newly discovered regulator encoded by yqjI. The apo-form of YqjI is a transcriptional repressor of both the yqjH and yqjI genes...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Frederic Gallo, Cristina Fossi, Roland Weber, David Santillo, Joao Sousa, Imogen Ingram, Angel Nadal, Dolores Romano
Persistent plastics, with an estimated lifetime for degradation of hundreds of years in marine conditions, can break up into micro- and nanoplastics over shorter timescales, thus facilitating their uptake by marine biota throughout the food chain. These polymers may contain chemical additives and contaminants, including some known endocrine disruptors that may be harmful at extremely low concentrations for marine biota, thus posing potential risks to marine ecosystems, biodiversity and food availability. Although there is still need to carry out focused scientific research to fill the knowledge gaps about the impacts of plastic litter in the marine environment (Wagner et al...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
Quanxi Li, Catherine R Lawrence, Romana A Nowak, Jodi A Flaws, Milan K Bagchi, Indrani C Bagchi
Ample evidence suggests that environmental and occupational exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalate, two chemicals widely used in the plastics industry, disturbs homeostasis of innate immunity and causes inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of these toxicants in the regulation of macrophage inflammatory functions remain poorly understood. In this study, we addressed the effect of chronic exposure to BPA or phthalate at levels relevant to human exposure, either in vitro or in vivo, on the inflammatory reprograming of peritoneal macrophages...
May 1, 2018: Endocrinology
Toshime Igarashi, Hideki Serizawa, Katsumi Kobayashi, Hiroshi Suzuki, Mariko Matsumoto, Takako Iso, Tomoko Kawamura, Kaoru Inoue, Atsushi Ono, Takashi Yamada, Akihiko Hirose
4-Benzylphenol (CAS No. 101-53-1), a structural analog of bisphenol F, has estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo, as is the case with bisphenol F. 4-Benzylphenol is used in plastics and during organic synthesis. Since its safety is largely unknown, we conducted toxicity tests as part of screening risk assessment in an existing chemical safety survey program. Based on results of the Ames test and the chromosomal aberration test using Chinese hamster lung cells (OECD TG 471 and 473), 4-benzylphenol was determined to be non-genotoxic in vitro...
April 26, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Yiyan Wang, Shengsong Huang, Zhao Wang, Fenfen Chen, Panpan Chen, Xingxing Zhao, Han Lin, Renshan Ge, Barry Zirkin, Haolin Chen
The inability of cultured primary Leydig cells to maintain luteinizing hormone (LH)-responsive testosterone formation in vitro for more than 3-5 days has presented a major challenge in testing trophic effects of regulatory factors or environmental toxicants. Our primary objective was to establish culture conditions sufficient to maintain LH-responsive testosterone formation by Leydig cells for at least a month. When isolated rat adult Leydig cells were cultured in DMEM/F12 and M199 culture medium containing insulin (10μg/ml), PDGFAA (10 ng/ml), lipoprotein (0...
April 24, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Patricia de Francisco, Ana Martín-González, Aaron P Turkewitz, Juan Carlos Gutiérrez
Extreme stress situations can induce genetic variations including genome reorganization. In ciliates like Tetrahymena thermophila, the ∼45-fold ploidy of the somatic macronucleus may enable adaptive responses that depend on genome plasticity. To identify potential genome-level adaptations related to metal toxicity, we isolated three Tetrahymena thermophila strains afteran extended adaptation period to extreme metal concentrations (Cd2+ , Cu2+ or Pb2+ ). In the Cd-adapted strain, we found a ∼5-fold copy number increase of three genes located in the same macronuclear chromosome, includingtwo metallothionein genes, MTT1 and MTT3...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Rana Aljaibachi, Amanda Callaghan
Microplastics (MPs) in the environment continue to be a growing area of concern in terms of acute and chronic impacts on aquatic life. Whilst increasing numbers of studies are providing important insights into microparticle behaviour and impacts in the marine environment, a paucity of information exists regarding the freshwater environment. This study focusses on the uptake, retention and the impact of 2 µm polystyrene MPs in the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna in relation to food intake (algae Chlorella vulgaris ), with MP size chosen to approximately match the cell size of the algae...
2018: PeerJ
Yang Xu, Myung Chan Gye
Citrate esters have been considered as alternatives to phthalate plasticizers. Being considered to have low toxicity in mammals, their toxicological information for aquatic animals remains poorly understood. We examined the developmental toxicity of citrate esters including tributyl O-acetylcitrate (ATBC), triethyl 2-acetylcitrate (ATEC), and trihexyl O-acetylcitrate (ATHC) together with dibutyl phthalate (DBP) based on the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). ATBC has the lowest 96 h LC50 and 96 h EC50 values...
April 15, 2018: Chemosphere
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