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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156571/studies-for-improving-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-icv-administration-of-well-characterized-%C3%AE-amyloid-1-42-oligomers-induce-dysfunction-in-spatial-memory
#1
Ágnes Kasza, Botond Penke, Zsuzsanna Frank, Zsolt Bozsó, Viktor Szegedi, Ákos Hunya, Klaudia Németh, Gábor Kozma, Lívia Fülöp
During the past 15 years, several genetically altered mouse models of human Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been developed. These costly models have greatly facilitated the evaluation of novel therapeutic approaches. Injecting synthetic β-amyloid (Aβ) 1-42 species into different parts of the brain of non-transgenic rodents frequently provided unreliable results, owing to a lack of a genuine characterization of the administered Aβ aggregates. Previously, we have published a new rat AD-model in which protofibrillar-fibrillar Aβ1-42 was administered into rat entorhinal cortex (Sipos 2007)...
November 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153475/toxicity-associated-changes-in-the-invasive-cyanobacterium-cylindrospermopsis-raciborskii-in-response-to-nitrogen-fluctuations
#2
Yiming Yang, Youxin Chen, Fangfang Cai, Xiang Liu, Yilang Wang, Renhui Li
The cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is of particular concern due to its ability to fix nitrogen (N), sporadic bloom, potential toxicity and apparent invasiveness. However, the toxicity associated behavior and response of toxic C. raciborskii under N fluctuations in water have been poorly investigated. The present study initiated based on the field survey in which Cylindrospermopsis species was found to have a high fitness under nitrate concentrations fluctuating from 0.02 mg L(-1) to 2.90 mg L(-1) in Chinese freshwater lakes...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152460/bisphenol-s-impairs-blood-functions-and-induces-cardiovascular-risks-in-rats
#3
Sanghamitra Pal, Kaushik Sarkar, Partha Pratim Nath, Mukti Mondal, Ashma Khatun, Goutam Paul
Bisphenol S (BPS) is an industrial chemical which is recently used to replace the potentially toxic Bisphenol A (BPA) in making polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins and thermal receipt papers. The probable toxic effects of BPS on the functions of haemopoietic and cardiovascular systems have not been reported till to date. We report here that BPS depresses haematological functions and induces cardiovascular risks in rat. Adult male albino rats of Sprague-Dawley strain were given BPS at a dose level of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg BW/day respectively for 30 days...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152190/sex-and-weaponry-the-distribution-of-toxin-storage-glands-on-the-bodies-of-male-and-female-cane-toads-rhinella-marina
#4
Wei Chen, Cameron M Hudson, Jayna L DeVore, Richard Shine
The parotoid macroglands of bufonid anurans store (and can expel) large volumes of toxic secretions and have attracted detailed research. However, toxins also are stored in smaller glands that are distributed on the limbs and dorsal surface of the body. Female and male cane toads (Rhinella marina) differ in the location of toxin-storage glands and the extent of glandular structures. Female toads store a larger proportion of their toxins in the parotoids than males as well as (to a lesser extent) in smaller glands on the forelimbs...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146235/macrophages-their-role-activation-and-polarization-in-pulmonary-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Shweta Arora, Kapil Dev, Beamon Agarwal, Pragnya Das, Mansoor Ali Syed
Macrophages, circulating in the blood or concatenated into different organs and tissues constitute the first barrier against any disease. They are foremost controllers of both innate and acquired immunity, healthy tissue homeostasis, vasculogenesis and congenital metabolism. Two hallmarks of macrophages are diversity and plasticity due to which they acquire a wobbling array of phenotypes. These phenotypes are appropriately synchronized responses to a variety of different stimuli from either the tissue microenvironment or - microbes or their products...
November 12, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131975/identification-of-urinary-biomarkers-of-exposure-to-di-2-propylheptyl-phthalate-using-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-and-two-data-screening-approaches
#6
Chia-Lung Shih, Pao-Mei Liao, Jen-Yi Hsu, Yi-Ning Chung, Victor G Zgoda, Pao-Chi Liao
Di-(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP) is a plasticizer used in polyvinyl chloride and vinyl chloride copolymer that has been suggested to be a toxicant in rats and may affect human health. Because the use of DPHP is increasing, the general German population is being exposed to DPHP. Toxicant metabolism is important for human toxicant exposure assessments. To date, the knowledge regarding DPHP metabolism has been limited, and only four metabolites have been identified in human urine. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography was coupled with Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and two data-screening approaches-the signal mining algorithm with isotope tracing (SMAIT) and the mass defect filter (MDF)-for DPHP metabolite candidate discovery...
October 30, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131715/microplastic-potentiates-triclosan-toxicity-to-the-marine-copepod-acartia-tonsa-dana
#7
Kristian Syberg, Anne Nielsen, Farhan R Khan, Gary T Banta, Annemette Palmqvist, Per M Jepsen
Microplastics (MP) are contaminants of environmental concern partly due to plastics ability to sorb and transport hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOC). The importance of this "vector effect" is currently being debated in the scientific community. This debate largely ignores that the co-exposures of MP and HOC are mixtures of hazardous agents, which can be addressed from a mixture toxicity perspective. In this study, mixture effects of polyethylene microbeads (MP) and triclosan (TCS) (a commonly used antibacterial agent in cosmetics) were assessed on the marine copepod Acartia tonsa...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129620/human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-adsc-and-human-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-pdlsc-as-cellular-substrates-of-a-toxicity-prediction-assay
#8
Natássia Caroline Resende Corrêa, Crisciele Kuligovski, Ariane Caroline Campos Paschoal, Ana Paula Ressetti Abud, Carmen Lucia Kuniyoshi Rebelatto, Lidiane Maria Boldrini Leite, Alexandra Cristina Senegaglia, Bruno Dallagiovanna, Alessandra Melo de Aguiar
With the increasing need to develop in vitro assays to replace animal use, human stem cell-derived methods are emerging and showing outstanding contributions to the toxicological screening of substances. Adult human stem cells such as adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) were used as cell substrates for a cytotoxicity assay and toxicity prediction using the neutral red uptake (NRU) assay. First, primary cell cultures from three independent donors, from each tissue source, were characterized as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) by plastic adherence and appropriate immunophenotype for MSC markers (positive for CD90, CD73, and CD105 and negative for CD11b, CD34, CD45, HLADR, and CD19)...
November 9, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124983/comparative-toxicological-evaluation-of-nonylphenol-and-nonylphenol-polyethoxylates-using-human-keratinocytes
#9
Hyungjoo Kim, Sunhwa Oh, Myung Chan Gye, Incheol Shin
Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) are a major group of nonionic surfactants widely used in various detergents, cleaners, plastics, papers, and agro-chemical products. Nonylphenol (NP), which is a final degraded metabolite derived from NPEOs, has been reported as an endocrine disrupter, known to mimic or disturb reproductive hormone functions. Concern about the hazards of NP and NPEOs has generated legal restrictions and action plans worldwide. Considering the fact that NP and NPEOs are majorly used in the production of products such as detergents, shampoos, and cosmetics which frequently come into contact with the skin, we investigated the effects of NP and NPEOs on a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT)...
November 10, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118206/social-origins-of-developmental-risk-for-mental-and-physical-illness
#10
Judy L Cameron, Kathie L Eagleson, Nathan A Fox, Takao K Hensch, Pat Levitt
Adversity in early childhood exerts an enduring impact on mental and physical health, academic achievement, lifetime productivity, and the probability of interfacing with the criminal justice system. More science is needed to understand how the brain is affected by early life stress (ELS), which produces excessive activation of stress response systems broadly throughout the child's body (toxic stress). Our research examines the importance of sex, timing and type of stress exposure, and critical periods for intervention in various brain systems across species...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112734/memantine-prevents-acute-radiation-induced-toxicities-at-hippocampal-excitatory-synapses
#11
Joseph G Duman, Jeffrey Dinh, Wei Zhou, Henry Cham, Vasilis C Mavratsas, Matea Paveškovic, Shalaka Mulherkar, Susan L McGovern, Kimberley F Tolias, David R Grosshans
Background: Memantine has shown clinical utility in preventing radiation-induced cognitive impairment, but the mechanisms underlying its protective effects remain unknown. We hypothesized that abnormal glutamate signaling causes radiation-induced abnormalities in neuronal structure and that memantine prevents synaptic toxicity. Methods: Hippocampal cultures expressing eGFP were irradiated or sham-treated and their dendritic spine morphology assessed at acute (minutes) and later (days) times using high-resolution confocal microscopy...
November 2, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108028/decreased-plasma-concentrations-of-bdnf-and-igf-1-in-abstinent-patients-with-alcohol-use-disorders
#12
Nuria García-Marchena, Daniel Silva-Peña, Ana Isabel Martín-Velasco, María Ángeles Villanúa, Pedro Araos, María Pedraz, Rosa Maza-Quiroga, Pablo Romero-Sanchiz, Gabriel Rubio, Estela Castilla-Ortega, Juan Suárez, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Antonia Serrano, Francisco Javier Pavón
The identification of growth factors as potential biomarkers in alcohol addiction may help to understand underlying mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Previous studies have linked growth factors to neural plasticity in neurocognitive impairment and mental disorders. In order to further clarify the impact of chronic alcohol consumption on circulating growth factors, a cross-sectional study was performed in abstinent AUD patients (alcohol group, N = 91) and healthy control subjects (control group, N = 55) to examine plasma concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-1 binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104731/edible-bird-s-nest-prevents-menopause-related-memory-and-cognitive-decline-in-rats-via-increased-hippocampal-sirtuin-1-expression
#13
Zhiping Hou, Peiyuan He, Mustapha Umar Imam, Jiemen Qi, Shiying Tang, Chengjun Song, Maznah Ismail
Menopause causes cognitive and memory dysfunction due to impaired neuronal plasticity in the hippocampus. Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) downregulation in the hippocampus is implicated in the underlying molecular mechanism. Edible bird's nest (EBN) is traditionally used to improve general wellbeing, and in this study, we evaluated its effects on SIRT1 expression in the hippocampus and implications on ovariectomy-induced memory and cognitive decline in rats. Ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with normal pellet alone or normal pellet + EBN (6, 3, or 1...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104236/the-emerging-role-of-the-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-i-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#14
REVIEW
Gabriela Bortolança Chiarotto, Giovanni Nardo, Maria Chiara Trolese, Marcondes Cavalcante França, Caterina Bendotti, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting upper and lower motoneurons (MNs). The etiology of the disease is still unknown for most patients with sporadic ALS, while in 5-10% of the familial cases, several gene mutations have been linked to the disease. Mutations in the gene encoding Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), reproducing in animal models a pathological scenario similar to that found in ALS patients, have allowed for the identification of mechanisms relevant to the ALS pathogenesis...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095348/di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-and-its-role-in-developing-cholestasis-an-in-vitro-study-on-different-liver-cell-types
#15
Haristi Gaitantzi, Priska Hakenberg, Jannick Theobald, Hagen Heinlein, Chen Cai, Steffan Loff, Stefan Wölfl, Matthias P Ebert, Katja Breitkopf-Heinlein, Ulrike Subotic
OBJECTIVES: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer used in many polyvinylchloride medical devices and is washed out easily. Thereby critically ill infants can become exposed to DEHP concentrations significantly exceeding the recommended threshold. We suspect DEHP to play an important role in the development of intestinal failure associated liver disease. The aim of this study was therefore, to determine the direct influence of DEHP on different liver cell types. METHODS: HepG2, human upcyte hepatocytes, primary murine hepatocytes, LX-2, human upcyte hepatic stellate cells and liver organoids were cultured with DEHP (0...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082812/impact-of-selenium-status-on-aroclor-1254-induced-dna-damage-in-sperm-and-different-tissues-of-rats
#16
Sevtap Aydin, Pinar Erkekoglu, Nurşen Başaran, Belma Kocer-Gumusel
Aroclor 1254 is a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are widespread environmental pollutants. It is used as non-flammable heat transfer agent and plasticizer. Animal studies have reported that Aroclor 1254 exerted toxic effects in different organs and systems. Although the evidences are limited, it seems reasonable that Aroclor 1254 may have a potential for similar adverse effects in humans. Selenium (Se) is a trace element and an important component of cellular antioxidant defense...
October 30, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079294/direct-pharmacological-akt-activation-rescues-alzheimer-s-disease-like-memory-impairments-and-aberrant-synaptic-plasticity
#17
Jee Hyun Yi, Soo Ji Baek, Sunghoo Heo, Hye Jin Park, Huiyoung Kwon, Seungheon Lee, Jiwook Jung, Se Jin Park, Byung C Kim, Young Choon Lee, Jong Hoon Ryu, Dong Hyun Kim
Amyloid β (Aβ) is a key mediator for synaptic dysfunction and cognitive impairment implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the precise mechanism of the toxic effect of Aβ is still not completely understood. Moreover, there is currently no treatment for AD. Protein kinase B (PKB, also termed Akt) is known to be aberrantly regulated in the AD brain. However, its potential function as a therapeutic target for AD-associated memory impairment has not been studied. Here, we examined the role of a direct Akt activator, SC79, in hippocampus-dependent memory impairments using Aβ-injected as well as 5XFAD AD model mice...
October 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079293/functional-partnership-between-mglu3-and-mglu5-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-the-central-nervous-system
#18
Luisa Di Menna, Max E Joffe, Luisa Iacovelli, Rosamaria Orlando, Craig W Lindsley, Jèrome Mairesse, Pierre Gressèns, Milena Cannella, Filippo Caraci, Agata Copani, Valeria Bruno, Giuseppe Battaglia, P Jeffrey Conn, Ferdinando Nicoletti
mGlu5 receptors are involved in mechanisms of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, and are targeted by drugs developed for the treatment of CNS disorders. We report that mGlu3 receptors, which are traditionally linked to the control of neurotransmitter release, support mGlu5 receptor signaling in neurons and largely contribute to the robust mGlu5 receptor-mediated polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis in the early postnatal life. In cortical pyramidal neurons, mGlu3 receptor activation potentiated mGlu5 receptor-mediated somatic Ca(2+) mobilization, and mGlu3 receptor-mediated long-term depression in the prefrontal cortex required the endogenous activation of mGlu5 receptors...
October 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054661/coordinated-role-of-soluble-and-cell-wall-bound-phenols-is-a-key-feature-of-the-metabolic-adjustment-in-a-mining-woody-fleabane-dittrichia-viscosa-l-population-under-semi-arid-conditions
#19
Antonio López-Orenes, María C Bueso, Isabel M Párraga-Aguado, Antonio A Calderón, María A Ferrer
Environmental contamination by hazardous heavy metals/metalloids (metal(loid)s) is growing worldwide. To restrict the migration of toxic contaminants, the establishment of a self-sustainable plant cover is required. Plant growth in multi-polluted soils is a challenging issue not only by metal(loid) toxicities, but also by the co-occurrence of other stressors. Dittrichia viscosa is a pioneer Mediterranean species able to thrive in metal(loid)-enriched tailings in semi-arid areas. The aim of the present work was to examine the metabolic adjustments involved in the acclimation responses of this plant to conditions prevailing in mine-tailings during Mediterranean spring and summer...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051438/edcs-mixtures-a-stealthy-hazard-for-human-health
#20
REVIEW
Edna Ribeiro, Carina Ladeira, Susana Viegas
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous chemicals that may occur naturally (e.g., phytoestrogens), while others are industrial substances and plasticizers commonly utilized worldwide to which human exposure, particularly at low-doses, is omnipresent, persistent and occurs in complex mixtures. EDCs can interfere with/or mimic estrogenic hormones and, consequently, can simultaneously trigger diverse signaling pathways which result in diverse and divergent biological responses. Additionally, EDCs can also bioaccumulate in lipid compartments of the organism forming a mixed "body burden" of contaminants...
February 7, 2017: Toxics
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