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Toxic plastic

Sarva Mangala Praveena, Seoh Wei Teh, Ranjith Kumar Rajendran, Narayanan Kannan, Chu-Ching Lin, Rozaini Abdullah, Suresh Kumar
Phthalates have been blended in various compositions as plasticizers worldwide for a variety of purposes. Consequently, humans are exposed to a wide spectrum of phthalates that needs to be researched and understood correctly. The goal of this review is to focus on phthalate's internal exposure pathways and possible role of human digestion on liver toxicity. In addition, special focus was made on stem cell therapy in reverting liver toxicity. The known entry of higher molecular weight phthalates is through ingestion while inhalation and dermal pathways are for lower molecular weight phthalates...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Stefano Magni, François Gagné, Chantale André, Camilla Della Torre, Joëlle Auclair, Houda Hanana, Camilla Carla Parenti, Francesco Bonasoro, Andrea Binelli
Microplastics (MPs), plastic debris smaller than 5mm, are widely found in both marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, few studies regarding their hazardous effects on inland water organisms, have been conducted. For this reason, the aim of our research was the evaluation of uptake and chronic toxicity of two mixtures (MIXs) of virgin polystyrene microbeads (PMs) of 10μm and 1μm in size (MIX 1, with 5×105 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 5×105 of 10μmsizePMs/L, and MIX 2 with 2×106 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 2×106 of 10μmsizePMs/L) on freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia) during 6 exposure days...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
J H C de Roo, T M Bosch, A van Rhijn, R Del Canho
BACKGROUND: Medication is not always delivered in a safe dosing format. Up to 33% of medication errors can be attributed to confusing packaging or labelling. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 6-year-old boy with ADHD, for which he was being treated with methylphenidate and pipamperone drops, was brought to the A&E department with signs of severe encephalopathy. He had apparently been given pipamperone in streams rather than in drops in the previous months. The pipamperone level in his blood was raised to toxic levels...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Barbara Davis, Monique Williams, Prue Talbot
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate performance of the I quit original smoking (iQOS) heat-not-burn system as a function of cleaning and puffing topography, investigate the validity of manufacturer's claims that this device does not burn tobacco and determine if the polymer-film filter is potentially harmful. METHODS: iQOS performance was evaluated using five running conditions incorporating two different cleaning protocols. Heatsticks were visually and stereomicroscopically inspected preuse and postuse to determine the extent of tobacco plug charring (from pyrolysis) and polymer-film filter melting, and to elucidate the effects of cleaning on charring...
March 13, 2018: Tobacco Control
Britta Eklund, Burkard Watermann
A handheld XRF-analyzer specially calibrated for measurements of metals on plastic boat hulls has been used on leisure boats in Denmark (DK), Finland (FI), and Germany (DE). The results on tin and copper are presented as μg metal/cm2 . Tin is a proxy for the occurrence of organotin compounds on the boat. Two or three sites were visited in each country and between 25 and 90 boats were measured at each site. Every boat was measured at six to eight places, and the results are presented both as mean and median values...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Charles Staples, Nelly van der Hoeven, Kathryn Clark, Ellen Mihaich, Jan Woelz, Steven Hentges
Concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) in North American and European fresh and marine surface waters and sediments were analyzed to quantify environmental levels and evaluate trends over the years 1996-2014. In North American surface water and sediment, 68% of 1030 weighted observations were below a detection limit (varied widely between studies). In Europe, 33% of 5057 weighted observations were below a detection limit. In North America and Europe, 50th percentile concentrations were 0.005 μg L-1 and 0.029 μg L-1 in freshwater and 0...
March 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Ji-Liang Zhang, Min Liu, Chun-Nuan Zhang, Er-Chao Li, Ming-Zhen Fan, Mao-Xian Huang
The brain of fish displays sexual dimorphisms and exhibits remarkable sexual plasticity throughout their life span. Although reproductive toxicity of tributyltin (TBT) in fish is well documented in fish, it remains unknown whether TBT interrupts sexual dimorphisms of fish brains. In this work, brain transcriptomic profiles of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was characterized and sex-biased genes were identified using RNA sequencing. Functional annotation and enrichment analysis were performed to reveal differences of gene products and pathways between the brains of male and female fish...
March 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Volker F Wendisch, Melanie Mindt, Fernando Pérez-García
Common plastics such as polyamides are derived typically from petroleum or natural gas. Fossil-based polyamide production often involves toxic precursors or intermediates. By contrast, bio-based polyamides offer a realistic alternative. Bio-based routes to monomeric precursors of polyamides such as diamines, dicarboxylic acids, and omega-amino acids have been developed. Recent advances in the metabolic engineering of the biotechnologically relevant Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum for the production of monoalkylamines such as omega-amino acids as well as diamines are presented...
March 8, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Barbara Lukasiewicz, Pooja Basnett, Rinat Nigmatullin, Rupy Matharu, Jonathan C Knowles, Ipsita Roy
Progress in tissue engineering is dependent on the availability of suitable biomaterials. In an effort to overcome the brittleness of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), P(3HB), a natural biodegradable polyester, and widen its biomedical applications, plasticising of P(3HB) with oligomeric substances of related structure has been studied. A biosynthesised medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) copolymer, the plasticizer precursor, was obtained using vegetable waste frying oil as a sole carbon source. The mcl-PHA was transformed into an oligomeric derivative by acid hydrolysis...
March 1, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Salvatore Petralia, Emanuele Luigi Sciuto, Maria Francesca Santangelo, Sebania Libertino, Maria Anna Messina, Sabrina Conoci
The monitoring of water-soluble pollutants is receiving a growing interest from the scientific community. In this context, sulfide anion species S2- and HS- are particularly relevant since they can cause acute and chronic toxicity including neurological effects and at high concentrations, even death. In this study, a new strategy for fast and sensitive optical detection of sulfide species in water samples is described. The method uses an integrated silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) device coupled with the appropriate analytical strategy applied in a plastic microchip with dried reagents on board...
February 28, 2018: Sensors
Paula Valenzuela-Leon, Ina Dobrinski
Phthalate esters are plasticizers that impart flexibility to polvinylchloride plastics. As they are not covalently bound, they can leach from a wide range of products, including food containers, medical devices, clothing, and toys, leading to widespread environmental exposure. Phthalate toxicity has been linked to male infertility by disrupting testosterone production and testis development. Phthalates also impair proliferation and viability of spermatogonial stem cells (SSC), the role of which is to support lifelong spermatogenesis...
July 2017: Environmental Epigenetics
Bok Ki Jung, In Sik Yun, Young Seok Kim, Tai Suk Roh
INTRODUCTION: Augmentation mammoplasty is one of the most popular aesthetic operations in the world. In Korea, one of the fillers used for breast augmentation is AQUAfilling® gel (Biomedica. spol, s,r,o, Czech Republic). AQUAfilling® gel is a hydrophilic gel composed of 98% sodium chloride solution (0.9%) and 2% cation copolyamide. METHODS: This is a case report describing a patient that suffered complications after AQUAfilling® gel injection for breast augmentation...
February 27, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Francesca L'Episcopo, Cataldo Tirolo, Maria F Serapide, Salvatore Caniglia, Nunzio Testa, Loredana Leggio, Silvia Vivarelli, Nunzio Iraci, Stefano Pluchino, Bianca Marchetti
Neuroinflammatory processes are recognized key contributory factors in Parkinson's disease (PD) physiopathology. While the causes responsible for the progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neuronal cell bodies in the subtantia nigra pars compacta are poorly understood, aging, genetics, environmental toxicity, and particularly inflammation, represent prominent etiological factors in PD development. Especially, reactive astrocytes, microglial cells, and infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages play dual beneficial/harmful effects, via a panel of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, neurotrophic and neurogenic transcription factors...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Lise Bernard, Teuta Eljezi, Hélène Clauson, Céline Lambert, Yassine Bouattour, Philip Chennell, Bruno Pereira, Valérie Sautou
Infusion medical devices (MDs) used in hospitals are often made of plasticized polyvinylchloride (PVC). These plasticizers may leach out into infused solutions during clinical practice, especially during risk-situations, e.g multiple infusions in Intensive Care Units and thus may enter into contact with the patients. The migrability of the plasticizers is dependent of several clinical parameters such as temperature, contact time, nature of the simulant, etc… However, no data is available about the influence of the flow rate at which drug solutions are administrated...
2018: PloS One
Qing Wen, Elizabeth I Tang, Nan Li, Dolores D Mruk, Will M Lee, Bruno Silvestrini, C Yan Cheng
The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis that supports meiosis and postmeiotic spermatid development since a delay in the establishment of a functional Sertoli cell barrier during postnatal development in rats or mice by 17-20 day postpartum (dpp) would lead to a delay of the first wave of meiosis. Furthermore, irreversible disruption of the BTB by toxicants also induces infertility in rodents. Herein, we summarize recent findings that BTB dynamics (i.e., disassembly, reassembly, and stabilization) are supported by the concerted efforts of the actin- and microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeletons...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Urvashi Kaundal, Upma Bagai, Aruna Rakha
Organ transplantation remains to be a treatment of choice for patients suffering from irreversible organ failure. Immunosuppressive (IS) drugs employed to maintain the allograft have shown excellent short-term graft survival, but, their long-term use could contribute to immunological and non-immunological risk factors, resulting in graft dysfunctionalities. Upcoming IS regimes have highlighted the use of cell-based therapies, which can eliminate the risk of drug-borne toxicities while maintaining efficacy of the treatment...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Raffaelina Mercogliano, Serena Santonicola
Bisphenol A (BPA), widely used as additive in food packaging, is an environmental and food contaminant that shows a weak estrogenic activity in general population and toxicity in the infant population. A temporary tolerable daily intake (t-TDI) of 4 μg/kg bw/day and a migration limit of 0.6 mg/kg in food from plastic materials, intended to come in contact with food, were fixed. Dietary milk is important in the human diet. The review investigated the contamination levels in human milk and along the dairy supply chain...
February 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Qudsia Kanwal, Abdul Qadir, Amina, Asmatullah, Hafiza Hira Iqbal, Bushra Munir
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used environmental pollutant in the production of plastics but causes hepatotoxicity in mammals. In the present study, we studied the BPA-induced oxidative stress in rats and ameliorative potential of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. plant. It was concluded that the BPA can reduce the body and liver weight, increase in biochemical levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, and disturb the normal hepatic physiology, histology, and metabolism...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
B Munier, L I Bendell
Nine urban intertidal regions in Burrard Inlet, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, were sampled for plastic debris. Debris included macro and micro plastics and originated from a wide diversity of uses ranging from personal hygiene to solar cells. Debris was characterized for its polymer through standard physiochemical characteristics, then subject to a weak acid extraction to remove the metals, zinc, copper, cadmium and lead from the polymer. Recently manufactured low density polyethylene (LDPE), nylon, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were subject to the same extraction...
2018: PloS One
Malgorzata Węgiel, Ryszard Chrząszcz, Anna Maślanka, Adam Grochowalski
The transfer of dioxin from the environment to the food is a problem in a consumers' health protection. The study aimed to determine the concentration of dioxins in free-range chicken eggs, air and soil samples, collected during 12 months on an individual small farm, located in Małopolska region, Poland. In the majority of analyzed eggs, the concentrations of dioxin exceeded several times the legal limit of 2.5 pg WHO-TEQ g-1fat. Seasonal changes in the PCDD/Fs congeners in egg, air and soil samples were studied...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
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