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Cheng-Shiuan Lee, Nicholas S Fisher
Methylmercury (MeHg) is known to biomagnify in marine food chains, resulting in higher concentrations in upper trophic level animals than their prey. To better understand how marine copepods, an important intermediate between phytoplankton and forage fish at the bottom of the food chain, assimilate and release MeHg, we performed a series of laboratory experiments using the gamma-emitting radiotracer (203) Hg(2+) and Me(203) Hg with the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. Assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of Hg(2+) and MeHg ranged from 25 to 31% and 58 to 79%, respectively, depending on algal diets...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Jinmin Zhang, Jiankun Yu, Jingzheng Jiang, Xiao Chen, Yanping Sun, Zhen Yang, Tianzhi Yang, Cuifang Cai, Xiaoyun Zhao, Pingtian Ding
Polymers of guanidinylated disulfide containing poly(amido amine)s (Gua-SS-PAAs), have shown high transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Previously we synthesized two Gua-SS-PAA polymers, using guanidino containing monomers (i.e., arginine and agmatine, denoted as ARG and AGM, respectively) and N,N'-cystaminebisacrylamide (CBA). In this study, these two polymers, AGM-CBA and ARG-CBA were complexed with plasmid DNA, and their uptake pathway was investigated. Complexes distribution in MCF-7 cells, and changes on cell endosomes/lysosomes and membrane after the cells were exposed to complexes were tested...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Yuan Ren, Nan Ji, Xixiong Kang, Renzhi Wang, Wenbin Ma, Zhenjun Hu, Xingfeng Liu, Yajie Wang
Glioblastoma is a highly vascularized brain tumor that causes high mortality. Kininogen-1 (KNG1) has demonstrated both tumor suppressor and antiangiogenesis properties in gliobastoma cells. We analyzed the microarray and proteomic profiles of tumor tissues from glioblastoma patients (N = 180), and identified potential RNA regulators of the KNG1. Validation experiments in U87 glioblastoma cells showed that the regulation of KNG1 by CTU1, KIAA1274, and RAX was mediated by miR-138. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of CTU1, KIAA1274, or RAX in U87 cells and immortalized human endothelial cells (iHECs) significantly reduced KNG1 expression (P < 0...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
Yuan-Bo Wu, Li Zhang, Wen-Ting Li, Yi Yang, Jiang-Ming Zhao
BACKGROUND: Artesunate (ART) is an antimalarial drug with potential anti-inflammatory effect. This study aimed to explore the potential protective role of ART in hepatic encephalopathy (HE), involving its function against ammonia toxicity. METHODS: HE rats were induced by the administration of thioacetamide (TAA, 300mg/kg/day). Spatial learning ability was tested in both Morris water and eight-arm radial maze. Rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) were prepared for ammonia treatment in vitro, in line with SH-SY5Y and C6 cells...
October 17, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Zhe Yang, Chao Shan, Weiming Zhang, Zhao Jiang, Xiaohong Guan, Bingcai Pan
Enhanced removal of As(V) and Se(VI) by zero valent iron (ZVI) has been recently revealed by using H2O2 as the corrosion accelerator, however, the detailed performance of such enhanced removal in ZVI column as well as the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this study, the temporospatial evolution of As(V) and Se(VI) along a self-designed ZVI/H2O2 column in down-flow mode was systematically investigated. The variations of concerned aqueous parameters (pH, ORP, H2O2, Fe(2+), As, and Se) were monitored at different positions along the column throughout the experiments...
October 12, 2016: Water Research
Maria A Lilli, Evdokia Syranidou, Andriana Palliou, Nikolaos P Nikolaidis, George Karatzas, Nicolas Kalogerakis
A methodology was developed to assess the impact of geogenic origin hexavalent chromium uptake by carrots, and the risk of human consumption of carrots grown in Asopos River basin in Greece. A field scale experiment was conducted with carrots cultivated in treatment plots, with and without compost amendment, in order to assess the impact of carbon in the mobility and uptake of chromium by plants. The results suggested that there is a trend for chromium mobilization and uptake in the surface and the leaves of the carrots cultivated in the treatment plot with the higher carbon addition, but not in the core of the carrots...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Research
Jennifer H MacLachlan, Benjamin C Cowie
Background: The Department of Health and Human Services in Victoria provides funded hepatitis B vaccine to many priority groups at risk of acquiring infection. We aimed to determine the uptake of vaccine ordering for at-risk groups over time, to assess any trends and identify any gaps in prevention of hepatitis B for those at risk. Methods: Routinely collected administrative data regarding the indication for vaccine ordered by practitioners were analysed for the period June 2013 to December 2014. Number of doses and courses distributed was determined and compared with the estimated size of the priority populations...
October 21, 2016: Sexual Health
K Bilmin, T Kujawska, W Secomski, A Nowicki, P Grieb
Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is a promising technique based on the ability of certain substances, called sonosensitizers, to sensitize cancer cells to non-thermal effects of low-energy ultrasound waves, allowing their destruction. Sonosensitization is thought to induce cell death by direct physical effects such as cavitation and acoustical streaming as well as by complementary chemical reactions generating oxygen free radicals. One of the promising sonosensitizers is 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) which upon selective uptake by cancer cells is metabolized and accumulated as protoporphyrin IX...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
Sebastian Sippel, Holger Lange, Miguel D Mahecha, Michael Hauhs, Paul Bodesheim, Thomas Kaminski, Fabian Gans, Osvaldo A Rosso
Data analysis and model-data comparisons in the environmental sciences require diagnostic measures that quantify time series dynamics and structure, and are robust to noise in observational data. This paper investigates the temporal dynamics of environmental time series using measures quantifying their information content and complexity. The measures are used to classify natural processes on one hand, and to compare models with observations on the other. The present analysis focuses on the global carbon cycle as an area of research in which model-data integration and comparisons are key to improving our understanding of natural phenomena...
2016: PloS One
Jou-Ku Chung, Eilish Brown, Bob Crooker, Kathleen J Palmieri, Thomas G McCauley
Enzyme replacement therapy with intravenous idursulfase (recombinant iduronate-2-sulfatase) is approved for the treatment of Hunter syndrome. Intravenous administration does not, however, treat the neurological manifestations, due to its low central nervous system bioavailability. Using intrathecal-lumbar administration, iduronate-2-sulfatase is delivered directly to the central nervous system. This study investigates the central nervous system biodistribution of intrathecal-lumbar administered iduronate-2-sulfatase in cynomolgus monkeys...
2016: PloS One
Rui Gao, Guangjian Zhang, Xueqi Chen, Aimin Yang, Gwenn Smith, Dean F Wong, Yun Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, such as α-synuclein (α-syn), amyloid beta peptide 1-42 (Aβ1-42), phosphorylated tau (181P) (p-tau), and total tau (t-tau), have long been associated with the development of Parkinson disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. In this investigation, we reported the assessment of CSF biomarkers and their correlations with vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) bindings measured with 18F-9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine (18F-AV133) that is being developed as a biomarker for PD...
2016: PloS One
Belén Martínez-Alcántara, Mary-Rus Martínez-Cuenca, Almudena Bermejo, Francisco Legaz, Ana Quiñones
The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of two liquid organic fertilizers, an animal and a plant-based fertilizer, with mineral fertilization on citrus trees. The source of the fertilizer (mineral or organic) had significant effect in the nutritional status of the organic and conventionally managed mandarins. Nutrient uptake, vegetative growth, carbohydrate synthesis and soil characteristics were analyzed. Results showed that plants fertilized with animal based liquid fertilizers exhibited higher total biomass with a more profuse development of new developing organs (leaves and fibrous roots)...
2016: PloS One
Sirong Chen, Shing Kee Cheung, Ka-Nin Wong, Kwok Kee Wong, Chi-Lai Ho
A bedridden 90-year-old man with fever and elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (49 ng/mL) was referred for differentiation between infection and tumor. F-FDG PET/CT was negative for infection, but Ga-PSMA PET/CT showed multiple lesions in prostate gland with infiltration to bladder wall and seminal vesicle, consistent with locally advanced prostate cancer. The lesion with the highest Ga-PSMA uptake was strongly avid for Ga-DOTATOC, suggesting neuroendocrine tumor differentiation. After hormonal therapy, PSA normalized, but chromogranin-A increased (from 251 to 398 ng/mL), inferring progression of neuroendocrine tumor differentiation...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Mico Chan, Geoffrey Paul Schembri, Edward Hsiao
Ga prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT is increasingly used to evaluate extent of disease in prostate carcinoma. Several other benign and malignant pathologies have also been reported to demonstrate PSMA avidity. We present a case of serous cystadenoma of the pancreas showing focal uptake on PSMA PET/CT.
October 18, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Kostas Delaunay, Florence Le Jeune, Etienne Garin, Anne Devillers, Xavier Palard-Novello
A 75-year-old man with a history of prostate cancer was referred to our department to perform F-choline (FCH) PET/CT. FCH PET/CT showed a markedly increased uptake in the right temporoparietal junction brain. Three weeks earlier, acute ischemic stroke was diagnosed in the right temporoparietal junction brain on diffusion-weighted sequence and thrombosis in a distal branch of the right middle cerebral artery on MR angiography. Choline precursors promote repair and growth of cell membranes in neurologic diseases, so FCH PET/CT uptake could be explained by repair processes during early outcome of acute ischemic stroke...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Xin Cheng, Wenjia Zhu, Ruixue Cui
A 33-year-old woman presented with progressive visual loss. An MRI examination revealed a pituitary lesion which was suspicious of abscess. FDG and F-2-fluorodeoxysorbitol (F-FDS) PET were performed to differentiate malignancy from inflammation. FDS is a new tracer with potential in differentiating inflammatory tissues based on results from animal studies. However, intense tracer uptake was found in the pituitary in both PET studies. The lesion was proved to be spindle cell carcinoma following biopsy.
October 18, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Krishan Kant Agarwal, Anirban Mukherjee, ArunRaj St, Madhavi Tripathi, Chandrasekhar Bal
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incremental value of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-MDP) single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) over planar bone scintigraphy (BS) and SPECT for the diagnosis of active condylar hyperplasia (CH). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of 21 patients (mean age: 21.9±5.3 years, 10 males, 11 females) who underwent Tc-MDP BS along with regional SPECT/CT for the diagnosis of active CH were retrospectively evaluated...
October 19, 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Mark Spitzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
Kevin Forton, Yoshiki Motoji, Gael Deboeck, Vitalie Faoro, Robert Naeije
There has been revival of in interest in exercise testing of the pulmonary circulation for the diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease, but there still is uncertainty about body position and the most relevant measurements. Doppler echocardiography pulmonary hemodynamic measurements were performed at progressively increased workload in 26 healthy adult volunteers in supine, semi-recumbent and upright positions which were randomly assigned at 24 hours intervals. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was estimated from the maximum tricuspid regurgitation jet velocity...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Kubra Kaban, Emine Salva, Julide Akbuga
Changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression levels that play important roles in regulation lead to many pathological events such as cancer. The miR-200 family is an important target in cancer therapy. The aim of this study is to equilibrate endogenous levels between cancer and noncancerous cells to prevent serious side effects of miR-200c- and miR-141-like metastatic colonization. For the first time, the characterization of miR-200c and miR-141 cluster containing chitosan nanoplexes was shown, and the optimization of miRNA expression levels by conducting dose studies in breast cancer cell lines was made...
October 20, 2016: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
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