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Depression and work impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812266/oxytocin-and-social-relationships-from-attachment-to-bond-disruption
#1
Oliver J Bosch, Larry J Young
Social relationships throughout life are vital for well-being and physical and mental health. A significant amount of research in animal models as well as in humans suggests that oxytocin (OT) plays an important role in the development of the capacity to form social bonds, the mediation of the positive aspects of early-life nurturing on adult bonding capacity, and the maintenance of social bonding. Here, we focus on the extensive research on a socially monogamous rodent model organism, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806341/impact-of-cochlear-implantation-on-cognitive-functions-of-older-adults-pilot-test-results
#2
Dona M P Jayakody, Peter L Friedland, Esmeralda Nel, Ralph N Martins, Marcus D Atlas, Hamid R Sohrabi
BACKGROUND: A significant relationship between hearing loss and cognitive impairment has been previously reported. Overall, improvement in speech perception in quiet and quality of life has been observed after cochlear implantation. However, the impact of hearing loss treatment using cochlear implantation on cognitive functions is yet to be fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of cochlear implantation on cognitive and psychological functions of older adults...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799413/an-initial-open-trial-of-a-brief-behavioral-activation-treatment-for-depression-and-medication-adherence-in-hiv-infected-patients
#3
Matthew T Tull, Christopher R Berghoff, Joseph R Bardeen, Michelle Schoenleber, Deborah J Konkle-Parker
Advances in HIV treatment through highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have led to a steady decline in HIV-related mortality rates. However, HAART requires adherence to strict and often complicated medication regimens, and nonadherence to HAART can significantly decrease its effectiveness. Depression has consistently shown a robust association with medication nonadherence; consequently, numerous psychological interventions have been developed to target depression and increase medication adherence among HIV-infected individuals...
August 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795857/unmet-needs-of-adult-survivors-of-childhood-cancers-associations-with-developmental-stage-at-diagnosis-cognitive-impairment-and-time-from-diagnosis
#4
Joanne L Park, Yvonne Brandelli, K Brooke Russell, Kathleen Reynolds, Yong Li, Dean Ruether, Janine Giese-Davis
PURPOSE: Adult survivors of childhood cancers (ASCCs) are a unique and growing population. Because these individuals were diagnosed in childhood, their developmental stage at diagnosis may influence medical sequelae and perception of their cancer diagnosis and potentially result in long-term complications and challenges. Our aim was to determine how developmental stage, time since diagnosis, and cognitive impairment relate to Canadian ASCC distress and unmet needs. METHODS: Canadian ASCCs aged 19-77 years (N = 115) diagnosed between ages 0 and 5 (n = 25), 6 and 12 (n = 22), or 13 and 18 (n = 68) completed demographic, neurocognitive self-report, depression, and anxiety and unmet needs questionnaires...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793983/how-do-ehealth-programs-for-adolescents-with-depression-work-a-realist-review-of-persuasive-system-design-components-in-internet-based-psychological-therapies
#5
Lori Wozney, Anna Huguet, Kathryn Bennett, Ashley D Radomski, Lisa Hartling, Michele Dyson, Patrick J McGrath, Amanda S Newton
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorders are common among adolescents and can impact all aspects of their daily life. Traditional therapies, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) have been delivered face-to-face. However, Internet-based (online) delivery of these therapies is emerging as an option for adolescents. Internet-based CBT and IPT involve therapeutic content, interaction between the user and the system, and different technological features embedded into the online program (eg, multimedia)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780278/season-independent-cognitive-deficits-in-seasonal-affective-disorder-and-their-relation-to-depressive-symptoms
#6
Liv Vadskjær Hjordt, Dea Siggaard Stenbæk, Brice Ozenne, Brenda Mc Mahon, Ida Hageman, Steen Gregers Hasselbalch, Gitte Moos Knudsen
Although cognitive impairments are common in depressed individuals, it is unclear which aspects of cognition are affected and whether they represent state or trait features of depression. We here exploited a naturalistic model, namely the seasonal fluctuations in depressed status in individuals with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), to study depression-related cognition, longitudinally. Twenty-nine medication-free individuals diagnosed with winter-SAD and 30 demographically matched healthy controls with no seasonality symptoms completed the Letter-number Sequencing task (LNS), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and the Simple Reaction Time (SRT) twice; in summer and in winter...
July 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777828/depression-anxiety-and-smartphone-addiction-in-university-students-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Jocelyne Matar Boumosleh, Doris Jaalouk
OBJECTIVES: The study aims to assess prevalence of smartphone addiction symptoms, and to ascertain whether depression or anxiety, independently, contributes to smartphone addiction level among a sample of Lebanese university students, while adjusting simultaneously for important sociodemographic, academic, lifestyle, personality trait, and smartphone-related variables. METHODS: A random sample of 688 undergraduate university students (mean age = 20.64 ±1.88 years; 53% men) completed a survey composed of a) questions about socio-demographics, academics, lifestyle behaviors, personality type, and smartphone use-related variables; b) 26-item Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI) Scale; and c) brief screeners of depression and anxiety (PHQ-2 and GAD-2), which constitute the two core DSM-IV items for major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770572/mental-health-of-health-professionals
#8
Kenneth Nunn
Helping medical colleagues with depression and suicidal thoughts and feelings can be more difficult than helping those who are not in the caring professions. The current systems of notification of impairment and supporting troubled doctors, especially in the public sector, are not working well and can make help seeking and help accepting harder. Accessing effective psychiatric help confidentially and in a timely way is difficult unless it is anticipated, facilitated, tenacious and resistant to initial rebuff...
August 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770559/beyond-ryff-s-scale-comprehensive-measures-of-eudaimonic-well-being-in-clinical-populations-a-systematic-review
#9
Martina Brandel, Francesca Vescovelli, Chiara Ruini
Eudaimonic well-being that protects mental and physical health has received increasing attention. This investigation aimed to review which comprehensive instruments for measuring eudaimonic well-being were applied with clinical populations (reporting mental or physical illnesses), beyond Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scale. Articles citing at least 1 of the measures of eudaimonic well-being identified by previous theoretical work were extracted from medical and psychological electronic databases and screened...
August 2, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768325/estimating-risk-of-postsurgical-general-and-geriatric-complications-using-the-vespa-preoperative-tool
#10
Lillian Min, Karen Hall, Emily Finlayson, Michael Englesbe, William Palazzolo, Chiao-Li Chan, Hechuan Hou, Ashley Miller, Kathleen M Diehl
Importance: As greater numbers of older patients seek elective surgery, one approach to preventing postoperative complications is enhanced assessment of risks during preoperative evaluation. Objective: To determine whether a geriatric assessment tool can be implemented in a preoperative clinic and can estimate risk of postoperative complications. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this prospective cohort study, patients 70 years of age or older were assessed in a preoperative clinic for elective surgery from July 9, 2008, to January 5, 2011...
August 2, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767647/differential-spontaneous-recovery-across-cognitive-abilities-during-detoxification-period-in-alcohol-dependence
#11
Géraldine Petit, Olivier Luminet, Mariana Cordovil de Sousa Uva, Alexis Zorbas, Pierre Maurage, Philippe de Timary
OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of consensus regarding the extent to which cognitive dysfunctions may recover upon cessation of alcohol intake by alcohol-dependents (AD), and the divergent findings are most likely due to methodological differences between the various studies. The present study was aimed at conducting a very strict longitudinal study of cognitive recovery in terms of assessment points, the duration of abstinence, control of age and duration of the addiction, and by use of individual analyses in addition to mean group comparisons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763344/the-impact-of-fatigue-and-energy-on-work-functioning-and-impairment-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-treated-with-desvenlafaxine
#12
David Sarfati, Vanessa C Evans, Edwin M Tam, Cindy Woo, Grant L Iverson, Lakshmi N Yatham, Raymond W Lam
Fatigue and low energy are cardinal symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) that have an impact on work functioning. Antidepressants with noradrenergic activity have been hypothesized to improve symptoms of fatigue and low energy. We examined the impact of these symptoms on work functioning in patients with MDD treated with the serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, desvenlafaxine. A secondary analysis was carried out from a study of employed adult outpatients (n=35) with MDD and subjective cognitive complaints treated with desvenlafaxine 50-100 mg/day for 8 weeks...
July 31, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760538/schizotypy-is-associated-with-reduced-mnemonic-precision-in-visual-working-memory
#13
Weizhen Xie, Marcus Cappiello, Hyung-Bum Park, Patricia Deldin, Raymond C K Chan, Weiwei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) maintains a limited amount of information over a short period of time at the service of other ongoing mental activities. Deficits in this function are often observed in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The present study examined whether self-report schizotypy was associated with the qualitative, quantitative, or both aspects of visual WM and whether these impairments could be accounted for by sensory memory deficits and/or depressed mood in a group of non-clinical, medication-naïve participants...
July 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759778/the-perils-of-aiming-too-high-discrepancy-between-goals-and-performance-in-individuals-with-depressive-symptoms
#14
E A Arens, P Zeier, C Schwieren, H Huisgen, S Barnow
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Negative evaluation processes play a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of depressive symptoms. However, it remains to be understood, whether evaluation processes in depression are impaired by maladaptive goal setting. METHOD: In a non-clinical sample (N = 50) of individuals with high (BDI-II-Score: 13-29) and low (BDI-II-Score: 0-3) levels of depressive symptoms goal setting prior to working on a cognitive task was measured...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756078/patient-reported-outcomes-in-takayasu-s-arteritis
#15
Fatma Alibaz-Oner, Antoine G Sreih, Peter A Merkel, Haner Direskeneli
Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are assessment tools coming directly from patients about their feelings, perceptions, health-related functions, and treatment effects without interpretation by health-care providers. There is a global interest for more "patient-centered care" and PROs in rheumatology. Assessment of disease impact through patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures is a key element for clinical care and clinical research in Takayasu's arteritis (TAK). Currently there are no disease-specific PRO measures to assess quality of life for patients with TAK...
July 26, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749455/primary-biliary-cholangitis-alters-functional-connections-of-the-brain-s-deep-gray-matter
#16
Victoria A L Mosher, Mark G Swain, Jack X Q Pang, Gilaad G Kaplan, Keith A Sharkey, Glenda M MacQueen, Bradley G Goodyear
OBJECTIVES: Fatigue, itch, depressed mood, and cognitive impairment significantly impact the quality of life of many patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Previous neuroimaging studies of non-hepatic diseases suggest that these symptoms are often associated with dysfunction of deep gray matter brain regions. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to determine whether PBC patients exhibit altered functional connections of deep gray matter. METHODS: Twenty female non-cirrhotic PBC patients and 21 age/gender-matched controls underwent rsfMRI...
July 27, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749089/cognitive-deficits-in-patients-with-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-a-comparative-study-between-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-and-primary-psychiatric-disorders
#17
Everard G B Vijverberg, Sigfried Schouws, Paul David Meesters, Esmée Verwijk, Hannie Comijs, Ted Koene, Charlotte Schreuder, Aartjan Beekman, Philip Scheltens, Max Stek, Yolande Pijnenburg, Annemieke Dols
OBJECTIVE: To compare neuropsychological profiles in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) with its most common primary psychiatric differential diagnoses, major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia, in older patients with active symptoms. METHODS: We included patients from different cohorts with MDD (DSM-IV-TR: 296.20-296.23, 296.30-296.33; n = 42; mean ± SD age, 72.0 ± 8.0 years; female = 57.1%) included from 2002 to 2007, noneuthymic BD (DSM-IV-TR: 296...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735060/individual-roles-of-brain-and-serum-alcohol-dehydrogenase-isoforms-in-regulation-of-alcohol-consumption-in-spf-wistar-rats
#18
Vsevolod V Pavshintsev, Nikita A Mitkin, Olga Y Frolova, Ekaterina A Kushnir, Olga A Averina, Maxim L Lovat
Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are key enzymes of ethanol metabolism that mediate its oxidation to acetaldehyde. ADHs are also able to oxidize some types of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine. Increased level of ADHs activity, induced by chronic alcohol consumption, is presumably associated with disturbed neurotransmitters metabolism that leads to stable alcohol craving. As earlier reported, intraperitoneal administration of 4-methilpirasole (non-specific inhibitor of ADHs) has shown to provide a short-term anti-alcoholic effect, but individual roles of ADH isoforms in this process were still unclear...
July 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731445/colivelin-ameliorates-impairments-in-cognitive-behaviors-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#19
Meina Wu, Hui Shi, Yexin He, Li Yuan, Xuesong Qu, Jun Zhang, Zhaojun Wang, Hongyan Cai, Jinshun Qi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, and effective therapeutics are lacking. Colivelin (CLN), a novel, strong humanin derivative, is effective in vitro in preventing cell death induced by AD-causative genes and amyloid-β protein (Aβ) even at a low concentration. We recently demonstrated that intrahippocampal injection of CLN prevents Aβ25-35-induced deficits in spatial memory and synaptic plasticity in normal rats. Here, we further observed the effects of chronically intranasally (i...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727115/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-as-a-key-regulator-of-neural-function-and-the-stress-response-implications-for-human-and-animal-health
#20
N C Wiley, T G Dinan, R P Ross, C Stanton, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis comprises an extensive communication network between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota residing there. Development of a diverse gut microbiota is vital for multiple features of behavior and physiology, as well as many fundamental aspects of brain structure and function. Appropriate early-life assembly of the gut microbiota is also believed to play a role in subsequent emotional and cognitive development. If the composition, diversity, or assembly of the gut microbiota is impaired, this impairment can have a negative impact on host health and lead to disorders such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and even potentially neuropsychiatric illnesses, including anxiety and depression...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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