Read by QxMD icon Read

Dung beetle

Zhijun Zhang, Honglei Jia, Jiyu Sun, Jin Tong
ABSTACT With the rapid development of bionic science, especially the progress that has been made in the fields of biomaterials and biomimetics, there is now great interest in the surface and internal mechanical properties of biological materials at the micro- and nanoscale. The study of micro- and nanoscale biomaterial mechanical properties could enable interdisciplinary applications in materials science, biological science and bionic science. Dung beetle (Copris ochus Motschulsky) cuticle is a viscoelastic material that is both viscous and flexible via elastic deformation under external forces; where stress σ, strain ϵ and elastic modulus E are related in the following way: σ = Eϵ...
September 2, 2016: Bioengineered
Suzan Mansourian, Jacob Corcoran, Anders Enjin, Christer Löfstedt, Marie Dacke, Marcus C Stensmyr
Feces is an abundant, rich source of energy, utilized by a myriad of organisms, not least by members of the order Diptera, i.e., flies. How Drosophila melanogaster reacts to fecal matter remains unclear. Here, we examined oviposition behavior toward a range of fecal samples from mammals native to the putative Southeast African homeland of the fly. We show that D. melanogaster display a strong oviposition aversion toward feces from carnivorous mammals but indifference or even attraction toward herbivore dung...
September 9, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Samuel M A Novais, Lucas A Evangelista, Ronaldo Reis-Júnior, Frederico S Neves
Dung beetle community dynamics are determined by regional rainfall patterns. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these communities in tropical dry forests (TDFs). This study was designed to test the following predictions: 1) Peak diversity of dung beetle species occurs early in the wet season, with a decrease in diversity (α and β) and abundance throughout the season; 2) Nestedness is the primary process determining β-diversity, with species sampled in the middle and the end of the wet season representing subsets of the early wet season community...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
Viacheslav A Trach
A new species of the family Halolaelapidae (Acari: Mesostigmata), Halolaelaps euxinus sp. nov. is described from Black Sea coast. Adult mites were found in seaweed, while deutonymphs were collected from the amphipod Talorchestia deshayesii and from seaweed. The adult female of Halolaelaps saproincisus Hirschmann & Götz, 1968 is recorded in new localities of Ukraine for the first time, in soil and bird faeces in chicken coops, and new morphological information is provided. The adult male (collected from chicken coops) and the deutonymph (collected from chicken coops and on dung-beetles) of H...
2016: Zootaxa
L C Pérez-Cogollo, R I Rodríguez-Vivas, E Reyes-Novelo, H Delfín-González, D Muñoz-Rodríguez
Two bioassays were conducted in parallel to assess the effects of cattle treated with either 1% ivermectin (IVM) or 3.15% IVM (dosed at 0.2 and 0.63 mg kg-1, respectively) on reproduction and survival of Onthophagus landolti Harold. Adult beetles were exposed 10 days to faeces of treated cattle starting at: one day before treatment (controls), 3, 6, 14, 28 and 35 days post-treatment. Adult survival of O. landolti was not affected by either of the two treatments. Faecal residues of 1% IVM almost completely suppressed fecundity of beetles at 3, 6 and 14 days post-treatment (dPT), and reduced fecundity of O...
September 9, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Thijmen Breeschoten, Camiel Doorenweerd, Sergei Tarasov, Alfried P Vogler
Phylogenetic relationships of dung beetles in the tribe Onthophagini, including the species-rich, cosmopolitan genus Onthophagus, were inferred using whole mitochondrial genomes. Data were generated by shotgun sequencing of mixed genomic DNA from >100 individuals on 50% of an Illumina MiSeq flow cell. Genome assembly of the mixed reads produced contigs of 74 (nearly) complete mitogenomes. The final dataset included representatives of Onthophagus from all biogeographic regions, closely related genera of Onthophagini, and the related tribes Onitini and Oniticellini...
December 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Sergei Tarasov, Fernando Z Vaz-de-Mello, Frank-Thorsten Krell, Dimitar Dimitrov
Despite the increasing rate of systematic research on scarabaeine dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), their fossil record has remained largely unrevised. In this paper, we review all 33 named scarabaeine fossils and describe two new species from Dominican amber (Canthochilum alleni sp.n., Canthochilum philipsivieorum sp.n.). We provide a catalogue of all fossil Scarabaeinae and evaluate their assignment to this subfamily, based primarily on the original descriptions but also, where possible, by examining the type specimens...
2016: PeerJ
Elizabeth Nichols, Carlos A Peres, Joseph E Hawes, Shahid Naeem
Predicting the functional consequences of biodiversity loss in realistic, multitrophic communities remains a challenge. No existing biodiversity-ecosystem function study to date has simultaneously incorporated information on species traits, network topology, and extinction across multiple trophic levels, while all three factors are independently understood as critical drivers of post-extinction network structure and function. We fill this gap by comparing the functional consequences of simulated species loss both within (monotrophic) and across (bitrophic) trophic levels, in an ecological interaction network estimated from spatially explicit field data on tropical fecal detritus producer and consumers (mammals and dung beetles)...
July 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Anderson Matos Medina
Does climatic niche change during invasion? We used Digitonthophagus gazella (F.) as a model to test the niche conservatism hypothesis and found out that climatic niche was stable between native and invasive ranges of this exotic dung beetle. Distribution maps based either on native or invasive occurrences exhibited the same picture of a widespread dung beetle restricted by areas with low precipitation and cold temperatures. We believe that this species opportunistic behavior is one of the main reasons behind this pattern...
October 2016: Environmental Entomology
Philippa Z N Franzini, Jean-Baptiste Ramond, Clarke H Scholtz, Catherine L Sole, Sandra Ronca, Don A Cowan
Micro-organisms inhabiting animal guts benefit from a protected and nutrient-rich environment while assisting the host with digestion and nutrition. In this study we compare, for the first time, the bacterial and fungal gut communities of two species of the small desert dung beetle genus Pachysoma feeding on different diets: the detritivorous P. endroedyi and the dry-dung-feeding P. striatum. Whole-gut microbial communities from 5 individuals of each species were assessed using 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS gene regions...
2016: PloS One
Gimo M Daniel, Adrian Lv Davis, Clarke H Scholtz
Descriptions are provided for three new shade-associated species in the dung beetle genus, Sisyphus Latreille, 1807: Sisyphus umbraphilus sp. nov., Sisyphus oralensis sp. nov., and Sisyphus neobornemisszanus sp. nov. All three species are illustrated by photographs of habitus, diagnostic features, and male aedeagi. A map is provided showing their geographical distributions.
2016: Zootaxa
O Peleg, L Mahadevan
Animals use a combination of egocentric navigation driven by the internal integration of environmental cues, interspersed with geocentric course correction and reorientation. These processes are accompanied by uncertainty in sensory acquisition of information, planning and execution. Inspired by observations of dung beetle navigational strategies that show switching between geocentric and egocentric strategies, we consider the question of optimal reorientation rates for the navigation of an agent moving along a preferred direction in the presence of multiple sources of noise...
July 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Taeman Han, Jin Ill Kim, Dae-Am Yi, Jongchel Jeong, Seung Lak An, In Gyun Park, Haechul Park
The ball-rolling dung beetles of the genus Scarabaeus are very ecologically important for the recycling of feces of large herbivores and the related nature management. There has been a significant decline, however, in the numbers of many species at the population and individual levels. S. typhon is currently thought to be the sole member of Scarabaeus distributed in Korea; however, that species underwent serious local extinctions in the 1970s. Before planning a full-scale species recovery, it is important to have an understanding of the exact species diversity and genetic structures of the focal species...
2016: Zootaxa
Roland Schafleitner, Shu-Mei Huang, Shui-Hui Chu, Jo-Yi Yen, Chen-Yu Lin, Miao-Rong Yan, Bharath Krishnan, Mao-Sen Liu, Hsiao-Feng Lo, Chien-Yu Chen, Long-Fang O Chen, Dung-Chi Wu, Thu-Giang Thi Bui, Srinivasan Ramasamy, Chih-Wei Tung, Ramakrishnan Nair
BACKGROUND: Bruchid beetles are an important storage pest of grain legumes. Callosobruchus sp. infect mungbean (Vigna radiata) at low levels in the field, multiply during grain storage and can destroy seed stocks in a few months. Resistance against bruchid beetles has been found in wild mungbean V. radiata var. sublobata TC1966 and in cultivated mungbean line V2802. RESULTS: Bruchid resistance data were obtained from recombinant inbred line populations TC1966 (V...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
Mario Cupello, Michele Rossini, Fernando Z Vaz-de-Mello
Recently, a new paper authored by two of us (Rossini & Vaz-de-Mello, 2015) addressed a taxonomic revision of Chalcocopris Burmeister, 1846, describing a second species for the genus and expanding our knowledge of its distribution and morphological diversity. In the present work, we address additional nomenclatural and historical issues not covered in that paper.
2016: Zootaxa
Igor Costa Amorim, Diogo Milani, Diogo Cavalcanti Cabral-de-Mello, Marília França Rocha, Rita Cássia Moura
B chromosomes have so far been described in about 80 species of Coleoptera, mainly using conventional staining analysis. In this study, 152 individuals of the dung beetle Dichotomius sericeus (Coleoptera), collected from three isolated geographical areas in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were analyzed to determine the frequency, prevalence, distribution, meiotic behavior, and possible B chromosome origin. The cytogenetic analysis consisted of conventional staining, C-banding, triple fluorochrome staining (CMA3/DA/DAPI), and fluorescent in situ hybridization using ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) and H3 histone gene as probes, as well as microdissection and chromosome painting of the B chromosome...
August 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Jos Barlow, Gareth D Lennox, Joice Ferreira, Erika Berenguer, Alexander C Lees, Ralph Mac Nally, James R Thomson, Silvio Frosini de Barros Ferraz, Julio Louzada, Victor Hugo Fonseca Oliveira, Luke Parry, Ricardo Ribeiro de Castro Solar, Ima C G Vieira, Luiz E O C Aragão, Rodrigo Anzolin Begotti, Rodrigo F Braga, Thiago Moreira Cardoso, Raimundo Cosme de Oliveira, Carlos M Souza, Nárgila G Moura, Sâmia Serra Nunes, João Victor Siqueira, Renata Pardini, Juliana M Silveira, Fernando Z Vaz-de-Mello, Ruan Carlo Stulpen Veiga, Adriano Venturieri, Toby A Gardner
Concerted political attention has focused on reducing deforestation, and this remains the cornerstone of most biodiversity conservation strategies. However, maintaining forest cover may not reduce anthropogenic forest disturbances, which are rarely considered in conservation programmes. These disturbances occur both within forests, including selective logging and wildfires, and at the landscape level, through edge, area and isolation effects. Until now, the combined effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the conservation value of remnant primary forests has remained unknown, making it impossible to assess the relative importance of forest disturbance and forest loss...
July 7, 2016: Nature
Cássio Alencar Nunes, Rodrigo Fagundes Braga, José Eugênio Cortes Figueira, Frederico de Siqueira Neves, G Wilson Fernandes
Mountains provide an interesting context in which to study the many facets of biodiversity in response to macroclimate, since environmental conditions change rapidly due to elevation. Although the decrease in biodiversity with increasing elevation is generally accepted, our understanding of the variation of functional diversity along altitudinal gradients is still poorly known. The partitioning of diversity into spatial components can help to understand the processes that influence the distribution of species, and these studies are urgently needed in face of the increasing threats to mountain environments throughout the world...
2016: PloS One
Thomas S Collett, Antoine Wystrach, Paul Graham
A study of dung beetles rolling dung balls to safety reveals unexpected facets of the beetle's acquisition and use of celestial information for keeping to a straight path.
June 6, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Tobin J Hammer, Noah Fierer, Bess Hardwick, Asko Simojoki, Eleanor Slade, Juhani Taponen, Heidi Viljanen, Tomas Roslin
Antibiotics are routinely used to improve livestock health and growth. However, this practice may have unintended environmental impacts mediated by interactions among the wide range of micro- and macroorganisms found in agroecosystems. For example, antibiotics may alter microbial emissions of greenhouse gases by affecting livestock gut microbiota. Furthermore, antibiotics may affect the microbiota of non-target animals that rely on dung, such as dung beetles, and the ecosystem services they provide. To examine these interactions, we treated cattle with a commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic and assessed downstream effects on microbiota in dung and dung beetles, greenhouse gas fluxes from dung, and beetle size, survival and reproduction...
May 25, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"