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hepatic fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916092/multiple-hepatic-sclerosing-hemangiomas-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Kyohei Yugawa, Tomoharu Yoshizumi, Noboru Harada, Takashi Motomura, Norifumi Harimoto, Shinji Itoh, Toru Ikegami, Yuji Soejima, Yoshihiko Maehara
BACKGROUND: Hepatic sclerosing hemangioma, a very rare benign tumor, is characterized by fibrosis and hyalinization occurring in association with degeneration of a hepatic cavernous hemangioma. Such atypical hemangiomas can be diagnosed incorrectly as primary or metastatic malignancies based on imaging characteristics. We present herein a rare case of giant and multiple hepatic sclerosing hemangiomas that are difficult to differentiate from hepatic malignancies and review the relevant literature...
June 19, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915780/gastrostomy-tube-insertion-in-pediatric-patients-with-autosomal-recessive-polycystic-kidney-disease-arpkd-current-practice
#2
Kathrin Burgmaier, Joy Brandt, Rukshana Shroff, Peter Witters, Lutz T Weber, Jörg Dötsch, Franz Schaefer, Djalila Mekahli, Max C Liebau
Introduction: Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a severe hepatorenal disorder of childhood. Early renal disease in ARPKD may require renal replacement therapy and is associated with failure to thrive resulting in a need for nasogastric tube feeding or gastrostomy. In ARPKD patients, the benefit of a gastrostomy in nutrition and growth needs to be weighed against the potential risk of complications of congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) and portal hypertension like variceal bleeding. CHF in ARPKD has thus been considered as a relative contraindication for gastrostomy insertion...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915313/in-vitro-inhibition-of-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation-by-the-autophagy-related-lipid-droplet-protein-atg2a
#3
Yun Hong, Sirui Li, Jifeng Wang, Youming Li
Clinical studies have found that moderate intake of retinol or oleic acid can enlarge the lipid droplets of hepatic stellate cells and suppress their activation. However, the link between lipid droplets and cell activation is unknown. This study compared the dynamics of lipid droplet-associated protein expression between activated and reverted stellate cells. Reversion of the activated human stellate cell line LX-2 and inhibition of primary mouse stellate cell activation were induced by retinol or oleic acid, which resulted in larger lipid droplets and the downregulation of cell activation markers...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915243/role-of-serum-m2bpgi-levels-on-diagnosing-significant-liver-fibrosis-and-cirrhosis-in-treated-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#4
Lung-Yi Mak, Danny Ka-Ho Wong, Ka-Shing Cheung, Wai-Kay Seto, Ching-Lung Lai, Man-Fung Yuen
BACKGROUND: Mac-2-binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi), a novel serum marker for liver fibrosis, was seldom studied in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We aimed to evaluate its role on diagnosing significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in treated CHB patients. METHODS: CHB patients treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) with baseline liver biopsies and retrievable serum samples were recruited. Paired liver biopsies were performed in patient subgroups at 1 and 3 years...
June 19, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915227/microrna-214-promotes-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation-and-liver-fibrosis-by-suppressing-sufu-expression
#5
Liping Ma, Xiaoxue Yang, Rong Wei, Tinghong Ye, Jian-Kang Zhou, Maoyao Wen, Ruoting Men, Ping Li, Biao Dong, Lunxu Liu, Xianghui Fu, Heng Xu, Rami I Aqeilan, Yu-Quan Wei, Li Yang, Yong Peng
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to modulate cellular processes in the liver. However, the role of miRNAs in liver fibrosis is poorly understood. Because the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a pivotal event in the initiation and progression of hepatic fibrosis, we investigate the differential expression of miRNAs in activated and quiescent rat HSCs by microarray analysis and find that miR-214 (miR-214-3p) is significantly upregulated during HSC activation. Moreover, the robust induction of miR-214 is correlated with liver fibrogenesis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-treated rats and mice, high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice, and cirrhosis in humans...
June 18, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914308/il-28b-rs12979860-polymorphism-affect-the-course-of-chronic-hepatitis-and-the-development-of-hcc-in-egyptian-patients-with-hepatitis-c-type-4
#6
A M Attallah, D Omran, M S Marie, M A Abdelrazek, A Salama, R El Essawey, L Mobarak, S Maklad, A Omar
BACKGROUND: A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the interleukin 28B (IL28B) gene may alter the trajectory of hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection. Several studies have sought to determine a link between the IL28B rs12979860 SNP and the development of HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but with variable results, consensus is awaited. We hypothesised that IL28B rs12979860 SNP is linked to HCC in patients with HCV type 4. METHODS: IL28B genotyping of 300 patients with HCV related fibrosis (n=100), cirrhosis (n=100) and HCC (n=100) was carried out and the results were analyzed to determine the association between the IL28B genotype and clinical outcome...
June 19, 2018: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913295/comparison-of-the-effects-of-contractubex%C3%A2-gel-and-benzothiazole-after-topical-application-in-an-experimental-model-of-epidural-fibrosis-in-rats
#7
Huseyin Bozkurt, Emel Cicek Bozkurt, Hulya Ozpinar, Densel Arac, Ismail Kaya, Hidir Ozer, Reyhan Egilmez
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative epidural adhesion is one of the most frequent causes of failed-back surgery syndrome, presenting with back and leg pain or neurological deficits. Development of preventive measures for epidural adhesion after laminectomy remains critical to improve the outcomes of lumbar surgery. We hypothesized that positive effects of the topical application of Contractubex®Gel and benzothiazole individually and in combination can aid in the prevention of epidural fibrosis in a rat laminectomy model...
June 15, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913259/fibroproliferative-genes-are-preferentially-expressed-in-central-centrifugal-cicatricial-alopecia
#8
Crystal Aguh, Yemisi Dina, Conover Talbot, Luis Garza
BACKGROUND: Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia (CCCA) is a primary cicatricial alopecia that most commonly affects women of African descent. Like CCCA, fibroproliferative disorders (FPDs) such as keloids, atherosclerosis and fibroids, are characterized by low-grade inflammation and irritation resulting in end stage fibrosis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if fibroproliferative genes were upregulated in patients with CCCA METHODS: Five patients with biopsy proven CCCA were recruited for this study...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910796/the-complement-system-and-c1q-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-mixed-cryoglobulinemia
#9
REVIEW
Ahmed El-Shamy, Andrea D Branch, Thomas D Schiano, Peter D Gorevic
The complement system bridges innate and adaptive immunity against microbial infections, with viral infection being a major trigger. Activation of the classical, alternative, and lectin pathways have been reported in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and/or cryoglobulinemia. HCV infection leads to dysregulation of complement-mediated immune responses. Clinical and experimental evidence support involvement of complement in intra- and extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection, such as liver fibrosis and type II cryoglobulinemia...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909701/prevalence-and-outcome-of-post-transfusion-hepatitis-c-acquired-at-different-ages-and-detected-in-look-back-screening
#10
Charlotta Millbourn, Afrodite Psaros Einberg, Gudrun Lindh, Ingegerd Hökeberg, Björn Fischler, Karin Lindahl
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Sweden is estimated to 0.5%. Before 1992, blood transfusion posed a risk of HCV transmission. The primary aim of this study was to estimate anti-HCV prevalence in Stockholm County among individuals receiving blood transfusions 1965-1991. The secondary aim was to study the effect of age at transfusion on the development of liver disease and treatment outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of individuals found to be anti-HCV tested positive in Stockholm County during a national screening campaign in Sweden 2008-2010...
June 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908040/dual-energy-ct-for-noninvasive-staging-of-liver-fibrosis-accuracy-of-iodine-density-measurements-from-contrast-enhanced-data
#11
Keitaro Sofue, Masakatsu Tsurusaki, Achille Mileto, Tomoko Hyodo, Kosuke Sasaki, Tatsuya Nishii, Takaaki Chikugo, Norihisa Yada, Masatoshi Kudo, Kazuro Sugimura, Takamichi Murakami
AIM: To investigate whether iodine density measurements from contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT data can noninvasively stage liver fibrosis. METHODS: This single-center, prospective study was approved by our IRB with written informed consent. Forty-seven consecutive patients (26 men and 21 women; mean age, 63.1 years) with chronic liver disease underwent contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT of the liver (noncontrast, arterial, portal venous, and equilibrium phase images), followed by liver biopsy...
June 16, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907965/the-genetic-architecture-of-diet-induced-hepatic-fibrosis-in-mice
#12
Simon T Hui, Zeyneb Kurt, Iina Tuominen, Frode Norheim, Richard C Davis, Calvin Pan, Darwin L Dirks, Clara E Magyar, Samuel W French, Karthickeyan Chella Krishnan, Simon Sabir, Francisco Campos-Pérez, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez, Luis Macías-Kauffer, Paola León-Mimila, Samuel Canizales-Quinteros, Xia Yang, Simon W Beaven, Adriana Huertas-Vazquez, Aldons J Lusis
We report the genetic analysis of a "humanized" hyperlipidemic mouse model for progressive nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis. Mice carrying transgenes for human APOE*3-Leiden and CETP and fed a "Western" diet were studied on the genetic backgrounds of over 100 inbred mouse strains. The mice developed hepatic inflammation and fibrosis that was highly dependent on genetic background, with vast differences in the degree of fibrosis. Histological analysis showed features characteristic of human NASH, including macrovesicular steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning, inflammatory foci and pericellular collagen deposition...
June 16, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907829/multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-quantitation-of-liver-disease-a-two-centre-cross-sectional-observational-study
#13
Natasha McDonald, Peter J Eddowes, James Hodson, Scott I K Semple, Nigel P Davies, Catherine J Kelly, Stella Kin, Miranda Phillips, Amy H Herlihy, Timothy J Kendall, Rachel M Brown, Desley A H Neil, Stefan G Hübscher, Gideon M Hirschfield, Jonathan A Fallowfield
LiverMultiScan is an emerging diagnostic tool using multiparametric MRI to quantify liver disease. In a two-centre prospective validation study, 161 consecutive adult patients who had clinically-indicated liver biopsies underwent contemporaneous non-contrast multiparametric MRI at 3.0 tesla (proton density fat fraction (PDFF), T1 and T2* mapping), transient elastography (TE) and Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) test. Non-invasive liver tests were correlated with gold standard histothological measures. Reproducibility of LiverMultiScan was investigated in 22 healthy volunteers...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907790/comparison-of-two-protocols-of-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-cirrhosis-in-rats-improving-yield-and-reproducibility
#14
José I Fortea, Carolina Fernández-Mena, Marta Puerto, Cristina Ripoll, Jorge Almagro, Juan Bañares, José M Bellón, Rafael Bañares, Javier Vaquero
Despite being a cardinal experimental model, the induction of cirrhosis in rats by repeated exposure to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has low reproducibility. Here, we compared two models of cirrhosis induced by orogastric administration of CCl4 once (CCl4-1xWk) or twice a week (CCl4-2xWk) for 12 weeks in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Control rats received water instead of CCl4. Both CCl4 protocols similarly attenuated body weight gain (p < 0.01 vs. Control). Although both CCl4 protocols increased hepatic fibrosis, portal hypertension and splenomegaly, the magnitude of these alterations was higher and more consistent in CCl4-2xWk rats...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907694/hmgb1-induced-autophagy-facilitates-hepatic-stellate-cells-activation-a-new-pathway-in-liver-fibrosis
#15
Jing Li, Chuxiong Zeng, Beishi Zheng, Chun Liu, Min Tang, Yan Jiang, Yizhong Chang, Weiping Song, Yingxin Wang, Changqing Yang
High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) plays a context-dependent role in autophagy, which is required for hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. However, the significance of HMGB1-induced HSCs autophagy in liver fibrosis has not been elucidated. Here, we first documented an enrichment of peripheral and intra-hepatic HMGB1 signal in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver fibrosis progression, and presented the direct evidence of anatomic proximity of HMGB1 with a-SMA (a marker for HSCs activation) in cirrhotic liver specimens...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906588/gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase-to-cholinesterase-and-platelet-ratio-in-predicting-significant-liver-fibrosis-and-cirrhosis-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#16
Danping Liu, Jian Li, Wei Lu, Yanbing Wang, Xinlan Zhou, Dan Huang, Xiufen Li, Rongrong Ding, Zhanqing Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of a new mathematical model gamma- glutamyl transpeptidase to cholinesterase and platelet ratio (GCPR) versus gamma- glutamyl transpeptidase to platelet ratio (GPR) in predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: A complete cohort of 2343 patients was divided into early and late cohort depending on the time of liver biopsy. With reference to the Scheuer standard, liver pathological stage ≥S2 and ≥S4 were defined as significant fibrosis and cirrhosis, respectively...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906476/adar1-affects-hcv-infection-by-modulating-innate-immune-response
#17
Maria Pujantell, Sandra Franco, Iván Galván-Femenía, Roger Badia, Marc Castellví, Edurne Garcia-Vidal, Bonaventura Clotet, Rafael de Cid, Cristina Tural, Miguel A Martínez, Eva Riveira-Muñoz, José A Esté, Ester Ballana
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a globally prevalent infectious pathogen. As many as 80% of people infected with HCV do not control the virus and develop a chronic infection. Response to interferon (IFN) therapy is widely variable in chronic HCV infected patients, suggesting that HCV has evolved mechanisms to suppress and evade innate immunity responsible for its control and elimination. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is a relevant factor in the regulation of the innate immune response. The loss of ADAR1 RNA-editing activity and the resulting loss of inosine bases in RNA are critical in producing aberrant RLR-mediated innate immune response, mediated by RNA sensors MDA5 and RIG-I...
June 12, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905099/diabetes-mellitus-with-concurrent-cerebellar-degeneration-and-necrosis-in-a-domestic-goose-anser-anser-domesticus
#18
Peter M DiGeronimo, Nicholas A Crossland, Angela Jugan, Javier G Nevarez, Thomas N Tully, Dawn E Evans
A 5-year-old sexually intact male Toulouse goose ( Anser anser domesticus) was presented for ataxia, polyuria, and polydipsia. The goose was cachectic and exhibited head tremors. Results of plasma biochemical analysis and point-of-care glucometry revealed persistent hyperglycemia. Despite supportive care and oral glipizide, the goose died within 48 hours of presentation. Necropsy revealed severe pancreatic atrophy and fibrosis with regionally extensive cerebellar encephalomalacia and generalized Purkinje cell degeneration and necrosis...
June 2018: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904153/mouse-models-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-an-overview-and-highlights-for-immunotherapy-research
#19
REVIEW
Zachary J Brown, Bernd Heinrich, Tim F Greten
Mouse models are the basis of preclinical and translational research in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Multiple methods exist to induce tumour formation in mice, including genetically engineered mouse models, chemotoxic agents, intrahepatic or intrasplenic injection of tumour cells and xenograft approaches. Additionally, as HCC generally develops in the context of diseased liver, methods exist to induce liver disease in mice to mimic viral hepatitis, fatty liver disease, fibrosis, alcohol-induced liver disease and cholestasis...
June 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902644/high-prevalence-of-hepatic-fibrosis-measured-by-elastography-in-a-population-based-study-of-mexican-americans
#20
Gordon P Watt, Miryoung Lee, Jen-Jung Pan, Michael B Fallon, Rohit Loomba, Laura Beretta, Joseph B McCormick, Susan P Fisher-Hoch
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatic fibrosis is a primary risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which affect a disproportionate number of Hispanics in the United States. We aimed to determine the prevalence of significant fibrosis, measured by point shear-wave elastography (pSWE), and determine characteristics of hepatic fibrosis and simple steatosis in a population-based study of Mexican American Hispanics in south Texas. METHODS: Liver stiffness was measured by pSWE, performed by 2 separate operators, for 406 participants in the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort from 2015 through 2017...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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