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hepatic fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725306/histology-and-glutamine-synthetase-immunoreactivity-in-liver-biopsies-from-patients-with-congestive-heart-failure
#1
Bela Horvath, Lei Zhu, Daniela Allende, Hao Xie, John Guirguis, Michael Cruise, Deepa T Patil, Robert O'Shea, John Rivas, Reyna Yordanka, Nan Lan, Xiuli Liu
BACKGROUND: Long-standing congestive heart failure can induce a constellation of histopathology changes in the liver that can range from mild sinusoidal dilation to advanced fibrosis and loss of normal perivenular expression of glutamine synthetase (GS). Liver biopsies might be performed to assess the perioperative risk of these patients or to determine the need of synchronous liver transplant. We aimed to assess interobserver agreement in recognizing these liver histologic features in patients undergoing evaluation for heart transplantation and to examine whether immunohistochemistry of GS will aid the diagnosis of cardiac hepatopathy (CH)...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725030/a-practical-model-evaluating-antiviral-cytokines-by-natural-killer-cells-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#2
Xiaoyan Li, Yurong Gu, Xiaobo Guo, Lin Gu, Liang Zhou, Xiaojuan Wu, Xueqin Wang, Zania Stamataki, Yuehua Huang
Natural killer (NK) cells play a major role in anti-viral immunity as first line defense during hepatitis B infection, particularly in untreated patients whose T cells functions are profoundly impaired. Cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α produced by NK cells are important anti-viral factors. However, there is lack of a quantifiable model to evaluate cytokine responses by NK cells. In this study, almost half of the patients (47.9%) beyond treatment criteria had high cytokine activity, although it was lower than those recommended for antiviral therapy (78...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724974/effects-of-exogenous-thymosin-%C3%AE-4-on-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-injury-and-fibrosis
#3
Xiankui Li, Lei Wang, Cai Chen
The present study investigated the effects of exogenous thymosin β4 (TB4) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury and fibrosis in rodent animals. Results showed that both in mice and rats CCl4 rendered significant increases in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, hepatic malondialdehyde formation, decreases in antioxidants including superoxide dismutase and glutathione, and up-regulated expressions of transforming growth factor-β1, α-smooth muscle actin, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in the liver tissues...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724398/whole-genome-sequencing-identifies-a-novel-alms1-gene-mutation-in-two-chinese-siblings-with-alstr%C3%A3-m-syndrome
#4
Lin Yang, Zixiu Li, Mei Mei, Xiaomei Fan, Guodong Zhan, Huijun Wang, Guoying Huang, Mingbang Wang, Weidong Tian, Wenhao Zhou
BACKGROUND: Alström syndrome is a rare multi-systemic disorder with a broad spectrum of symptoms. This syndrome is characterized by childhood retinal degeneration; sensorineural hearing loss; obesity; type 2 diabetes mellitus; cardiomyopathy; systemic fibrosis; and pulmonary, hepatic, and renal failure. CASE PRESENTATION: A Chinese quartet family with two siblings predominantly affected by cone-rod dystrophy and short stature were recruited. The craniofacial dysmorphism and on-set age-of-cone-rod dystrophy in the proband showed a minor intrafamilial variability...
July 19, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724048/impact-of-alcohol-consumption-among-patients-in-hepatitis-c-virus-treatment
#5
Andréa Carvalho Maia Vieira-Castro, Luiz Carlos Marques de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have questioned the recommendation of abstinence from alcohol for at least 6 months for alcoholic patients to be treated for hepatitis C. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to assess the impact of alcohol consumption among patients undergoing hepatitis C treatment. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 121 patients [78 (64.5%) men; 28-70 years] were evaluated. They were divided as follows: patients who consumed <12 g of ethanol/day throughout life (Group 1), 12-59 g/day (Group 2) and ≥60 g/day (Group 3)...
July 13, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723780/the-relationship-between-itpa-rs1127354-polymorphisms-and-efficacy-of-antiviral-treatment-in-northeast-chinese-chc-patients
#6
Zhenhua Liu, Song Wang, Wenqian Qi, Xu Wang, Derong Sun, Hongguang Wang, Yonggui Zhang, Zhongxie Li, Liying Zhu, Ping Zhao, Honghua Guo, Changyu Zhou, Jiangbin Wang
This prospective study investigated the relationship between 2 inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) polymorphisms (rs7270101 and rs1127354) and the efficacy of ribavirin-based antiviral therapy in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected Chinese patients.A total of 906 patients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C receiving pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin combination therapy between January 2011 and January 2014 from 5 hepatitis centers in Northeast China were enrolled. The patients were divided into genotype 1 and non-genotype 1 groups according to the genotype of infected HCV...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723414/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-as-a-treatment-strategy-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
REVIEW
Donald B Jump, Kelli A Lytle, Christopher M Depner, Sasmita Tripathy
Obese and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients have a high prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a continuum of chronic liver diseases ranging from benign hepatosteatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Because of its strong association with the obesity epidemic, NAFLD is rapidly becoming a major public health concern worldwide. Surprisingly, there are no FDA approved NAFLD therapies; and current therapies focus on the co-morbidities associated with NAFLD, namely, obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension...
July 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722244/risk-of-liver-decompensation-with-cumulative-use-of-mitochondrial-toxic-nucleoside-analogues-in-hiv-hepatitis-c-virus-coinfection
#8
Vincent Lo Re Rd, Bret Zeldow, Michael J Kallan, Janet P Tate, Dena M Carbonari, Sean Hennessy, Jay R Kostman, Joseph K Lim, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Robert Gross, Amy C Justice, Jason A Roy
PURPOSE: Among patients dually infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing mitochondrial toxic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (mtNRTIs) might induce chronic hepatic injury, which could accelerate HCV-associated liver fibrosis and increase the risk of hepatic decompensation and death. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study among 1747 HIV/HCV patients initiating NRTI-containing ART within the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (2002-2009) to determine if cumulative mtNRTI use increased the risk of hepatic decompensation and death among HIV-/HCV-coinfected patients...
July 19, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719029/directly-observed-therapy-of-sofosbuvir-ribavirin-peginterferon-with-minimal-monitoring-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-in-people-with-a-history-of-drug-use-in-chennai-india-c-dot
#9
Sunil S Solomon, Mark S Sulkowski, Pradeep Amrose, Aylur K Srikrishnan, Allison M McFall, Balakrishnan Ramasamy, Muniratnam S Kumar, Santhanam Anand, David L Thomas, Shruti H Mehta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We assessed the feasibility of field-based directly observed therapy (DOT) with minimal monitoring to deliver HCV treatment to people with a history of drug use in Chennai, India. METHODS: 50 participants were randomized 1:1 to sofosbuvir + peginterferon alfa 2a + ribavirin (SOF+PR) for 12 weeks (Arm 1) vs. sofosbuvir + ribavirin (SOF+R) for 24 weeks (Arm 2). SOF+R was delivered daily at participant chosen venues and weekly peginterferon injections at the study clinic...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719013/in-an-era-of-highly-effective-treatment-hepatitis-c-screening-of-the-general-population-of-the-united-states-for-hepatitis-c-should-be-considered
#10
Zobair Younossi, Deidre Blissett, Rob Blissett, Linda Henry, Youssef Younossi, Rachel Beckerman, Sharon Hunt
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment with all oral direct acting antiviral agents (DAA's) achieve sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of 98%. Re-assessment of general US population screening for HCV is imperative. This study compared the cost-effectiveness (CE) of three HCV screening strategies: screen all (SA), screen Birth Cohort (BCS), and screen high risks (HRS). METHODS: Using a previous designed decision-analytic Markov model, estimations of the natural history of HCV and CE evaluation of the three HCV screening strategies over a lifetime horizon in the US population was undertaken...
July 18, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718838/phyllanthus-niruri-standardized-extract-alleviates-the-progression-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-decreases-atherosclerotic-risk-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#11
Raghdaa Hamdan Al Zarzour, Mariam Ahmad, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Gurjeet Kaur, Mohammed Ali Ahmed Saeed, Majed Ahmed Al-Mansoub, Sultan Ayesh Mohammed Saghir, Nasiba Salisu Usman, Dhamraa W Al-Dulaimi, Mun Fei Yam
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major global health issues, strongly correlated with insulin resistance, obesity and oxidative stress. The current study aimed to evaluate anti-NAFLD effects of three different extracts of Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri). NAFLD was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats using a special high-fat diet (HFD). A 50% methanolic extract (50% ME) exhibited the highest inhibitory effect against NAFLD progression. It significantly reduced hepatomegaly (16%) and visceral fat weight (22%), decreased NAFLD score, prevented fibrosis, and reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) (48%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (65%), free fatty acids (FFAs) (25%), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (45%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (38%), insulin concentration (67%), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (73%), serum atherogenic ratios TC/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (29%), LDL/HDL (66%) and (TC-HDL)/HDL (64%), hepatic content of cholesterol (43%), triglyceride (29%) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (40%) compared to a non-treated HFD group...
July 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717906/undiagnosed-liver-fibrosis-in-patients-undergoing-pancreatoduodenectomy-for-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#12
Andrew Gdowski, Houssam Osman, Umar Butt, Steve Foster, Dhiresh Rohan Jeyarajah
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstruction of the biliary system may cause hepatic fibrosis and liver failure. The purpose of this study was to define the incidence of unrecognized liver fibrosis in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). METHODS: Retrospective data were collected on patients undergoing PD during a 21-month period. Each patient had a core needle biopsy at the time of surgery by a hepatobiliary surgeon. RESULTS: This study identified 36 consecutive patients who were referred to a tertiary center and underwent pancreatoduodenectomy during a period of 21 months...
July 17, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717244/trail-regulatory-receptors-constrain-human-hepatic-stellate-cell-apoptosis
#13
Harsimran D Singh, Itziar Otano, Krista Rombouts, Kasha P Singh, Dimitra Peppa, Upkar S Gill, Katrin Böttcher, Patrick T F Kennedy, Jude Oben, Massimo Pinzani, Henning Walczak, Giuseppe Fusai, William M C Rosenberg, Mala K Maini
The TRAIL pathway can mediate apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells to promote the resolution of liver fibrosis. However, TRAIL has the capacity to bind to regulatory receptors in addition to death-inducing receptors; their differential roles in liver fibrosis have not been investigated. Here we have dissected the contribution of regulatory TRAIL receptors to apoptosis resistance in primary human hepatic stellate cells (hHSC). hHSC isolated from healthy margins of liver resections from different donors expressed variable levels of TRAIL-R2/3/4 (but negligible TRAIL-R1) ex vivo and after activation...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715086/optimal-use-of-transient-elastography-and-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-to-stage-liver-fibrosis-in-hiv-hcv-coinfected-patients-in-clinical-practice
#14
Juan José López, Núria Pérez-Àlvarez, Raul V Rodríguez, Antoni Jou, Pere Carbonell, José A Jiménez, Laura Soldevila, Montserrat Tenesa, Jordi Tor, Bonaventura Clotet, Jordi Bechini, Cristina Tural
OBJECTIVES: Liver fibrosis (LF) is crucial for the individualized management of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We evaluated the concordance between two noninvasive methods for staging LF, transient elastography (TE) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI), in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and HCV. We propose an algorithm for optimal use of both techniques in routine clinical practice. METHODS: A total of 89 human immunodeficiency virus/HCV-coinfected patients underwent TE and ARFI on the same day...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714405/emerging-targets-to-relieve-fat-stress-induced-liver-diseases-udca-tocotrienol-%C3%AF-3-pufas-and-igy-targeted-npc1l1-cholesterol-transporter
#15
Ji-Young Cha, Jong-Min Park, Ho-Jae Lee, Jin-Sik Bae, Young-Min Han, Byung-Chul Oh, Kwang Hyun Ko, Ki-Baik Hahm
Fat stress-induced liver disease is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome initiated by excess fat accumulation and encompasses a wide spectrum of diseases from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, a precursor lesion progressing to more aggressive liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the incidence of these fat stress-induced liver diseases is rapidly increasing worldwide in parallel with the growing epidemics of obesity and metabolic diseases, its exact pathogenesis is not well defined...
July 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714273/%C3%AE-catenin-regulation-of-farnesoid-x-receptor-signaling-and-bile-acid-metabolism-during-murine-cholestasis
#16
Michael D Thompson, Akshata Moghe, Pamela Cornuet, Rebecca Marino, Jianmin Tian, Pengcheng Wang, Xiaochao Ma, Marc Abrams, Joseph Locker, Satdarshan P S Monga, Kari Nejak-Bowen
Cholestatic liver diseases result from impaired bile flow and are characterized by inflammation, atypical ductular proliferation (ADP), and fibrosis. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays a role in bile duct development, yet its role in cholestatic injury remains indeterminate. Liver-specific β-catenin knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to cholestatic injury via bile duct ligation or short-term exposure to 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) diet. Intriguingly, KO exhibit a dramatic protection from liver injury, fibrosis, and ADP, which coincided with significantly decreased total hepatic bile acids (BA)...
July 17, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714196/impact-of-an-electronic-health-record-alert-in-primary-care-on-increasing-hepatitis-c-screening-and-curative-treatment-for-baby-boomers
#17
Monica A Konerman, Mary Thomson, Kristen Gray, Meghan Moore, Hetal Choxi, Elizabeth Seif, Anna Sf Lok
Despite effective treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC), deficiencies in diagnosis and access preclude disease elimination. Screening of baby boomers remains low. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of an electronic health record (EHR) based prompt on HCV screening rates in baby boomers in primary care, and access to specialty care and treatment among those newly diagnosed. We implemented an EHR based "Best Practice Advisory" (BPA) that prompted primary care providers (PCPs) to perform HCV screening for patients seen in primary care clinic: 1) born between 1945-1965; 2) lacked a prior diagnosis of HCV infection; and 3) lacked prior documented anti-HCV testing...
July 17, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713900/nlrc5-silencing-ameliorates-cardiac-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-the-tgf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-1-smad3-signaling-pathway
#18
Hongtao Zhou, Xuefang Yu, Guiming Zhou
The proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix are the predominant pathological characteristics of cardiac fibrosis. As the largest member of the nucleotide‑binding domain and leucine‑rich repeat (NLR) family, NLRC5 has been shown to be pivotal in the development of hepatic fibrosis. However, whether NLRC5 is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the role of NLRC5 and its mechanisms in regulating cardiac fibrosis...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711549/a-case-of-hypocholesterolemia-and-steatosis-in-a-carrier-of-a-pcsk9-loss-of-function-mutation-and-polymorphisms-predisposing-to-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
Mathilde Di Filippo, Benoit Vokaer, Nabil G Seidah
We report a new case of hypobetalipoproteinemia in a 44-year-old man of Peruvian origin exhibiting a heterozygous PCSK9 missense mutation (c.946 G>T, p. Gly316Cys). In vitro functional studies demonstrated that this mutation leads to a loss of function of PCSK9 on low-density lipoprotein receptor degradation. This patient exhibited liver steatosis; he was neither diabetic, nor obese or alcoholic, but is a carrier of 2 polymorphisms, p.Ile148Met (rs738409) and p.Glu167Lys (rs58542926) on PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 gene, respectively, previously shown to be associated with nonalcoholic steatosis and fibrosis evolution...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711320/liver-stiffness-measurement-by-transient-elastography-predicts-late-posthepatectomy-outcomes-in-patients-undergoing-resection-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Muthukumarassamy Rajakannu, Daniel Cherqui, Oriana Ciacio, Nicolas Golse, Gabriella Pittau, Marc Antoine Allard, Teresa Maria Antonini, Audrey Coilly, Antonio Sa Cunha, Denis Castaing, Didier Samuel, Catherine Guettier, René Adam, Eric Vibert
BACKGROUND: Postoperative hepatic decompensation is a serious complication of liver resection in patients undergoing hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver fibrosis and clinical significant portal hypertension are well-known risk factors for hepatic decompensation. Liver stiffness measurement is a noninvasive method of evaluating hepatic venous pressure gradient and functional hepatic reserve by estimating hepatic fibrosis. Effectiveness of liver stiffness measurement in predicting persistent postoperative hepatic decompensation has not been investigated...
July 12, 2017: Surgery
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