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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454153/muscle-carnosine-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Charly Keytsman, Laura Blancquaert, Inez Wens, Maarten Missine, Pieter Van Noten, Frank Vandenabeele, Wim Derave, Bert O Eijnde
BACKGROUND: Muscle carnosine is related to contractile function (Ca ++ handling) and buffering of exercise-induced acidosis. As these muscular functions are altered in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) it is relevant to understand muscle carnosine levels in MS. METHODS: Tibialis anterior muscle carnosine was measured in an animal MS model (EAE, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, n = 40) and controls (CON, n = 40) before and after exercise training (EAE EX , CON EX , 10d, 1 h/d, 24 m/min treadmill running) or sedentary conditions (EAE SED , CON SED )...
February 11, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453746/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-on-treg-and-th17-of-rats-with-ischemic-cardiomyopathy
#2
Zhisong Chen, Wenwen Yan, Yu Mao, Yi Ni, Lin Zhou, Haoming Song, Wenjun Xu, Leming Wang, Yuqin Shen
Immune activation and inflammation participate in the progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). Th17 cells and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells both come from naive Th cells and share reciprocal development pathways but exhibit opposite effects. We hypothesized that the Th17/Treg balance was impaired in patients with CHF, and exercise can improve it. Rats with ischemic cardiomyopathy were prepared by ligaturing the left anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery. Rats in training group were trained with treadmill; Th17 cells increased significantly while Treg cells significantly decreased in s by flow cytometry, and the peripheral blood level of IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α was obviously elevated by ELISA assay...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453101/can-higher-training-practice-dosage-with-treadmill-slip-perturbation-necessarily-reduce-risk-of-falls-following-overground-slip
#3
Anna Lee, Tanvi Bhatt, Xuan Liu, Yiru Wang, Yi-Chung Pai
BACKGROUND: Perturbation training is an emerging paradigm to reduce idiopathic falls (without clinical signs or symptoms) in older adults. While a higher threat dosage (intensity) in motor learning often directly relates to greater adaptation, retention, and generalization, little is known whether increasing the practice dosage (repetition) of slip-perturbation training would necessarily improve its outcomes. RESEARCH QUESTION: Can higher practice dosage of treadmill slip-perturbation training lead to greater generalization to an overground slip immediately after the training? METHODS: Forty-five community-dwelling older adults (73...
February 13, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452690/utility-of-physician-selection-of-cardiac-tests-in-a-chest-pain-unit-to-exclude-acute-coronary-syndrome-among-patients-without-a-history-of-coronary-artery-disease
#4
Stacey J Howell, Jonathan Bui, Balasingam Thevakumar, Ezra A Amsterdam
There are few data on the utility of physician selection of cardiac tests, including no-test, in a chest pain unit (CPU) to rule out acute coronary syndrome in low-risk patients without a history of coronary artery disease. We analyzed consecutive low-risk patients admitted to our CPU between 2012 and 2014 and determined the proportion of patients selected for testing, the type of initial cardiac test selected, and the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) at 30 days and 6 months. The study group comprised 619 patients: mean age 57 years (27 to 92), 332 women (54%), and 360 (58%) with multiple cardiac risk factors...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452626/translation-of-an-evidence-based-therapeutic-exercise-program-for-patients-with-peripheral-artery-disease
#5
Dereck L Salisbury, Mary O Whipple, Marsha Burt, Rebecca J L Brown, Alan Hirsch, Christopher Foley, Diane Treat-Jacobson
The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate quality outcomes including referral, enrollment, and completion rates of a new peripheral artery disease (PAD)-specific supervised exercise therapy (SET) program within a preexisting clinical exercise wellness program and to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and patient-centered outcomes derived from 12 weeks of PAD-specific SET. Recruited participants completed an individualized, minimally supervised, PAD-specific SET program based on the AHA-ACC guidelines...
March 2018: Journal of Vascular Nursing: Official Publication of the Society for Peripheral Vascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452288/repetitive-tlr-3-activation-in-the-lung-induces-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-and-cachexia
#6
Ted G Graber, Brandy L Rawls, Bing Tian, William J Durham, Camille R Brightwell, Allan R Brasier, Blake B Rasmussen, Christopher S Fry
Due to immunosenescence, older adults are particularly susceptible to lung-based viral infections, with increased severity of symptoms in those with underlying chronic lung disease. Repeated respiratory viral infections produce lung maladaptations, accelerating pulmonary dysfunction. Toll like 3 receptor (TLR3) is a membrane protein that senses exogenous double-stranded RNA to activate the innate immune response to a viral infection. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] mimics double stranded RNA and has been shown to activate TLR3...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450729/physical-activity-and-mediterranean-diet-based-on-olive-tree-phenolic-compounds-from-two-different-geographical-areas-have-protective-effects-on-early-osteoarthritis-muscle-atrophy-and-hepatic-steatosis
#7
Marta Anna Szychlinska, Paola Castrogiovanni, Francesca Maria Trovato, Houda Nsir, Mokhtar Zarrouk, Debora Lo Furno, Michelino Di Rosa, Rosa Imbesi, Giuseppe Musumeci
PURPOSE: Osteoarthitis (OA) leads to progressive loss of articular cartilage, pain and joint disability. An acute injury constitutes an important risk factor for early OA, determining an inflammatory process responsible of cartilage degeneration and muscle atrophy, due to the joint pain and immobility. The study aims to assess the effects of conjugation of physical activity and diet enriched by olive tree compounds [extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and olive leaf extract (OLE)], on the musculoskeletal system in OA rat model...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448221/trip-specific-training-enhances-recovery-after-large-postural-disturbances-for-which-there-is-expectation
#8
Simisola O Oludare, Mackenzie L Pater, Noah J Rosenblatt, Mark D Grabiner
PURPOSE: Informed consent usually provides foreknowledge of experimental methods that can potentially increase expectation of stimuli and, therefore, influence the response. We determined the effects of increased expectation and trip-specific training on the recovery response following a treadmill-delivered, trip-specific disturbance. To deliver unexpected disturbances, subjects were deceived during the informed consent process. The primary hypothesis was that the recovery response following an expected postural disturbance would be characterized by trunk kinematics that have been shown to decrease the likelihood of a fall, compared to following an unexpected postural disturbance...
February 5, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447545/effects-of-wearing-lower-leg-compression-sleeves-on-locomotion-economy
#9
Eduard Kurz, Christoph Anders
The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effect of compression sleeves on muscle activation cost during locomotion. Twenty-two recreationally active men (age: 25 ± 3 years) ran on a treadmill at four different speeds (ordered sequence of 2.8, 3.3, 2.2, and 3.9 m/s). The tests were performed without (control situation, CON) and while wearing specially designed lower leg compression sleeves (SL). Myoelectric activity of five lower leg muscles (tibialis anterior, fibularis longus, lateral and medial head of gastrocnemius, and soleus) was captured using Surface EMG...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447379/acute-exercise-is-not-cardioprotective-and-may-induce-apoptotic-signalling-in-heart-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Benedikte T Smenes, Fredrik H Bækkerud, Katrine H Slagsvold, Erlend Hassel, Martin Wohlwend, Maria Pinho, Morten Høydal, Ulrik Wisløff, Øivind Rognmo, Alexander Wahba
OBJECTIVES: During open-heart surgery, the myocardium experiences ischaemia-reperfusion injury. A single bout of moderate, 30-min exercise induces preconditioning and protects the heart from ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rats, but this has never been investigated in humans. We aimed to investigate whether 1 bout of moderate exercise 24 h prior to surgery protects against mitochondrial and cardiac damage. METHODS: Patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass were eligible for this pilot study...
February 13, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445295/the-effect-of-exercise-frequency-on-neuropathic-pain-and-pain-related-cellular-reactions-in-the-spinal-cord-and-midbrain-in-a-rat-sciatic-nerve-injury-model
#11
Megumi Sumizono, Harutoshi Sakakima, Shotaro Otsuka, Takuto Terashi, Kazuki Nakanishi, Koki Ueda, Seiya Takada, Kiyoshi Kikuchi
Background: Exercise regimens are established methods that can relieve neuropathic pain. However, the relationship between frequency and intensity of exercise and multiple cellular responses of exercise-induced alleviation of neuropathic pain is still unclear. We examined the influence of exercise frequency on neuropathic pain and the intracellular responses in a sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Materials and methods: Rats were assigned to four groups as follows: CCI and high-frequency exercise (HFE group), CCI and low-frequency exercise (LFE group), CCI and no exercise (No-Ex group), and naive animals (control group)...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444976/foxo-transcription-factors-modulate-autophagy-and-proteoglycan-4-in-cartilage-homeostasis-and-osteoarthritis
#12
Tokio Matsuzaki, Oscar Alvarez-Garcia, Sho Mokuda, Keita Nagira, Merissa Olmer, Ramya Gamini, Kohei Miyata, Yukio Akasaki, Andrew I Su, Hiroshi Asahara, Martin K Lotz
Aging is a main risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA). FoxO transcription factors protect against cellular and organismal aging, and FoxO expression in cartilage is reduced with aging and in OA. To investigate the role of FoxO in cartilage, Col2Cre-FoxO1, 3, and 4 single knockout (KO) and triple KO mice (Col2Cre-TKO) were analyzed. Articular cartilage in Col2Cre-TKO and Col2Cre-FoxO1 KO mice was thicker than in control mice at 1 or 2 months of age. This was associated with increased proliferation of chondrocytes of Col2Cre-TKO mice in vivo and in vitro...
February 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444520/remodeling-of-wall-mechanics-and-the-myogenic-mechanism-of-rat-intramural-coronary-arterioles-in-response-to-a-short-term-daily-exercise-program-role-of-endothelial-factors
#13
Mária Szekeres, György L Nádasy, Gabriella Dörnyei, Annamária Szénási, Akos Koller
PURPOSE: Exercise elicits early adaptation of coronary vessels enabling the coronary circulation to respond adequately to higher flow demands. We hypothesized that short-term daily exercise induces biomechanical and functional remodeling of the coronary resistance arteries related to pressure. METHODS: Male rats were subjected to a progressively increasing 4-week treadmill exercise program (over 60 min/day, 1 mph in the final step). In vitro pressure-diameter measurements were performed on coronary segments (119 ± 5 μm in diameter at 50 mm Hg) with microarteriography...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444414/no-individual-or-combined-effects-of-caffeine-and-beetroot-juice-supplementation-during-submaximal-or-maximal-running
#14
Johanna Oskarsson, Kerry McGawley
BACKGROUND: Dietary supplements such as caffeine and beetroot juice are used by athletes in an attempt to optimize performance and therefore gain an advantage in competition. AIM: To investigate the individual and combined effects of caffeine and beetroot-juice supplementation during submaximal and maximal treadmill running. METHODS: Seven males (VO<sub>2max</sub>: 59.0 ± 2.9 mL/kg/min) and two females (VO<sub>2max</sub>: 53...
February 14, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444172/motor-and-psychosocial-impact-of-robot-assisted-gait-training-in-a-real-world-rehabilitation-setting-a-pilot-study
#15
Cira Fundarò, Anna Giardini, Roberto Maestri, Silvia Traversoni, Michelangelo Bartolo, Roberto Casale
In the last decade robotic devices have been applied in rehabilitation to overcome walking disability in neurologic diseases with promising results. Robot assisted gait training (RAGT) using the Lokomat seems not only to improve gait parameters but also the perception of well-being. Data on the psychosocial patient-robot impact are limited, in particular in the real-world of RAGT, in the rehabilitation setting. During rehabilitation training, the Lokomat can be considered an "assistive device for movement"...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444141/the-3-min-all-out-test-is-valid-for-determining-critical-power-but-not-anaerobic-work-capacity-in-tethered-running
#16
Maria Carolina Traina Gama, Ivan Gustavo Masselli Dos Reis, Filipe Antônio de Barros Sousa, Claudio Alexandre Gobatto
The purpose of the study was to investigate if the 3-min all-out test (3MT) is valid for obtaining critical power intensity (CP) and the amount of work that can be performed above CP (W') on non-motorized treadmills in tethered running. Eight physically active individuals (24 ± 3 years; 78.3 ± 8.7 kg; 179 ± 5 cm; 9.0 ± 2.5% body fat) performed four different efforts at constant intensity to exhaustion in order to determine CP and W'. The mechanical power values obtained were subsequently plotted with their corresponding time to exhaustion (limit time) for application of three mathematical models: power hyperbolic versus time limit (Hyp), linear power versus 1/time (P vs 1/t) and linear work versus time limit (Ԏ vs t)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443967/peptidoglycan-synthesis-drives-an-ftsz-treadmilling-independent-step-of-cytokinesis
#17
João M Monteiro, Ana R Pereira, Nathalie T Reichmann, Bruno M Saraiva, Pedro B Fernandes, Helena Veiga, Andreia C Tavares, Margarida Santos, Maria T Ferreira, Vânia Macário, Michael S VanNieuwenhze, Sérgio R Filipe, Mariana G Pinho
Peptidoglycan is the main component of the bacterial wall and protects cells from the mechanical stress that results from high intracellular turgor. Peptidoglycan biosynthesis is very similar in all bacteria; bacterial shapes are therefore mainly determined by the spatial and temporal regulation of peptidoglycan synthesis rather than by the chemical composition of peptidoglycan. The form of rod-shaped bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis or Escherichia coli, is generated by the action of two peptidoglycan synthesis machineries that act at the septum and at the lateral wall in processes coordinated by the cytoskeletal proteins FtsZ and MreB, respectively...
February 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443549/endurance-exercise-training-and-high-fat-diet-differentially-affect-composition-of-diacylglycerol-molecular-species-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#18
Noriaki Kawanishi, Kana Takagi, Hyeon-Cheol Lee, Daiki Nakano, Toshiaki Okuno, Takehiko Yokomizo, Shuichi Machida
Insulin resistance of peripheral muscle is implicated in the aetiology of metabolic syndrome in obesity. Although accumulation of glycerolipids, such as triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol (DAG), in muscle contributes to insulin resistance in obese individuals, endurance-trained athletes also have higher glycerolipid levels but normal insulin sensitivity. We hypothesised that the difference in insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle between athletes and obese individuals stems from changes in fatty acid composition of accumulated lipids...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443047/application-of-chronic-stimulation-to-study-contractile-activity-induced-rat-skeletal-muscle-phenotypic-adaptations
#19
Yuho Kim, Jonathan M Memme, David A Hood
Skeletal muscle is a highly adaptable tissue, as its biochemical and physiological properties are greatly altered in response to chronic exercise. To investigate the underlying mechanisms that bring about various muscle adaptations, a number of exercise protocols such as treadmill, wheel running, and swimming exercise have been used in the animal studies. However, these exercise models require a long period of time to achieve muscle adaptations, which may be also regulated by humoral or neurological factors, thus limiting their applications in studying the muscle-specific contraction-induced adaptations...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441279/externally-applied-compression-therapy-for-fontan-patients
#20
Joseph Hernandez, Steven G Chopski, Sam Lee, William B Moskowitz, Amy L Throckmorton
Background: Limited therapeutic options are available for Fontan patients with dysfunctional or failing single ventricle physiology. This study describes the evaluation of an alternative, non-invasive, at-home therapeutic compression treatment for Fontan patients. Our hypothesis is that routinely administered, externally applied compression treatments to the lower extremities will augment systemic venous return, improve ventricular preload, and thus enhance cardiac output in Fontan patients...
January 2018: Translational Pediatrics
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