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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790182/protein-kinase-c-delta-phosphorylates-ecdysone-receptor-b1-to-promote-gene-expression-and-apoptosis-under-20-hydroxyecdysone-regulation
#1
Cai-Hua Chen, Jing Pan, Yu-Qin Di, Wen Liu, Li Hou, Jin-Xing Wang, Xiao-Fan Zhao
The nuclear receptor EcRB1, which is activated by the insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), is reportedly phosphorylated by a protein kinase after 20E induction. However, the protein kinase has not been identified, and the significance of EcRB1 phosphorylation is unclear. In this study, we identified a protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) isoform (the E isoform) that phosphorylates EcRB1 in the lepidopteran Helicoverpa armigera, a serious agricultural pest worldwide, to promote apoptotic gene expression and apoptosis during metamorphosis...
August 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777821/anatomy-and-behavioral-function-of-serotonin-receptors-in-drosophila-melanogaster-larvae
#2
Annina Huser, Melanie Eschment, Nazli Güllü, Katharina A N Collins, Kathrin Böpple, Lyubov Pankevych, Emilia Rolsing, Andreas S Thum
The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) is an important neuroactive molecule in the central nervous system of the majority of animal phyla. 5-HT binds to specific G protein-coupled and ligand-gated ion receptors to regulate particular aspects of animal behavior. In Drosophila, as in many other insects this includes the regulation of locomotion and feeding. Due to its genetic amenability and neuronal simplicity the Drosophila larva has turned into a useful model for studying the anatomical and molecular basis of chemosensory behaviors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765923/bombyx-mori-hemocyte-extract-has-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-human-phorbol-myristate-acetate-differentiated-thp%C3%A2-1-cells-via-tlr4-mediated-suppression-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#3
Young Il Kim, Kwang Ho Choi, Seong Ryul Kim, Tae-Won Goo, Seung-Won Park
Hemolymph is the circulating fluid of insects and is a key component of their immune system. However, little is known concerning hemocyte identification, development, differentiation and related cellular immune responses. The present study aimed to determine whether a hemocyte extract prepared from Bombyx mori larvae had anti‑inflammatory effects; THP‑1 (a human monocytic leukemia cell line) cells that had been differentiated into macrophage‑like cells by treatment with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) were used...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750998/the-alternative-splicing-of-bdtai-and-its-involvement-in-the-development-of-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#4
Hong Liu, Hui-Min Li, Yong Yue, Zhong-Hao Song, Jin-Jun Wang, Wei Dou
Interest in insect metamorphosis has primarily focused on juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysone. Compared to ecdysone signaling, the molecular action of JH is less well established because Methoprene-tolerant (Met) as the JH receptor has been identified until recently. In vitro studies have indicated that Met forms an active JH-dependent complex with one partner protein, Taiman (Tai). However, the related studies on Tai's role in insect metamorphosis are very limited. In this study, five Tai isoforms differing in C-terminal region are identified from the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, an important worldwide pest infesting fruits and vegetables...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739824/epigenetic-mechanisms-regulate-innate-immunity-against-uropathogenic-and-commensal-like-escherichia-coli-in-the-surrogate-insect-model-galleria-mellonella
#5
Miriam Heitmueller, André Billion, Ulrich Dobrindt, Andreas Vilcinskas, Krishnendu Mukherjee
Innate immunity-related genes in humans are activated during urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli but are suppressed by commensals. Epigenetic mechanisms play a pivotal role in the regulation of gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. To determine whether epigenetic mechanisms can explain the different behaviors of pathogenic and commensal bacteria, we infected larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella, a widely-used model insect host, with a uropathogenic E...
July 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736530/identification-and-expression-profiling-of-chemosensory-genes-in-dendrolimus-punctatus-walker
#6
Su-Fang Zhang, Hui-Hui Liu, Xiang-Bo Kong, Hong-Bin Wang, Fu Liu, Zhen Zhang
Dendrolimus punctatus Walker is a serious pest affecting conifers in southern China. As extensive pesticide spraying is currently required to control D. punctatus, new control strategies are urgently needed. Chemosensory genes represent potential molecular targets for development of alternative pest control strategies, and the expression characteristics of these genes provide an indication of their function. To date, little information is available regarding chemosensory genes in D. punctatus or their expression profiles at different development stages and in various tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736301/foxa-transcriptional-factor-modulates-insect-susceptibility-to-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1ac-toxin-by-regulating-the-expression-of-toxin-receptor-abcc2-and-abcc3-genes
#7
Jianghuai Li, Yuemin Ma, Wanli Yuan, Yutao Xiao, Chenxi Liu, Jia Wang, Jianxin Peng, Rong Peng, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo, Yongbo Yang, Kaiyu Liu
Cry toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are insecticidal proteins widely used in insect control. Recently, it was shown that ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins (ABC) such as ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCG1 and ABCA2 are implicated in the insecticidal action of Cry toxins as putative receptors. However, the transcriptional regulators involved in the expression of ABC transporter genes remain unknown. Sequence analysis of promoter regions of ABCC2 gene from Helicoverpa armigera and ABCC3 gene from Spodoptera litura Sl-HP cultured cells, revealed the potential participation of Forkhead box protein A (FOXA), a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes through remodeling chromatin...
July 21, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729614/knockdown-of-two-cadherin-genes-confers-resistance-to-cry2a-and-cry1c-in-chilo-suppressalis
#8
Zan Zhang, Xiaolu Teng, Weihua Ma, Fei Li
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins play an important role in the management of insect pests. Resistance to Bt toxins has been reported in many pest insects but the mechanism responsible for this resistance in rice crop pests remains largely unknown. Cadherin is one of several Bt toxin receptors. At present, only one cadherin gene, CsCAD1, has been documented in the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. We amplified a nearly full-length transcript of another C. suppressalis cadherin gene, CsCAD2, and found that it has a different expression pattern to CsCAD1...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645488/characterization-and-expression-patterns-of-key-ecdysteroid-biosynthesis-and-signaling-genes-in-a-spider-mite-panonychus-citri
#9
Gang Li, Jin-Zhi Niu, Moises Zotti, Qin-Zhe Sun, Lin Zhu, Jun Zhang, Chong-Yu Liao, Wei Dou, Dan-Dan Wei, Jin-Jun Wang, Guy Smagghe
Ecdysteroids play a crucial role in regulating molting in the phylum of Arthropoda and much is known with members of the subphylum of Hexapoda including the Insecta. However, this is still unclear in key pests as spider mites belonging to the subphylum of Chelicerata that originated earlier in the Cambrian period. In this study, we investigated 14 key genes of ecdysteroid biosynthesis and signaling and their expression over the different developmental stages in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Stigmaeidae)...
August 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631341/evaluation-of-flubendiamide-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-metabolic-changes-in-helicoverpa-armigera-hubner
#10
Bharat Nareshkumar, Shaik Mohammad Akbar, Hari Chand Sharma, Senigala K Jayalakshmi, Kuruba Sreeramulu
Phthalic acid diamide insecticides are the most effective insecticides used against most of the lepidopteran pests including Helicoverpa armigera, a polyphagous pest posing threat to several crops worldwide. The present studies were undertaken to understand different target sites and their interaction with insect ryanodine receptors (RyR). Bioassays indicated that flubendiamide inhibited the larval growth in dose-dependent manner with LD50 value of 0.72 μM, and at 0.8 μM larval growth decreased by about 88%...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630013/receptor-mediated-endocytosis-of-vicilin-in-callosobruchus-maculatus-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-larval-midgut-epithelial-cells
#11
Daniele Kunz, Gabriel B Oliveira, Adriana F Uchôa, Richard I Samuels, Maria Lígia R Macedo, Carlos P Silva
The transport of proteins across the intestinal epithelium of insects is still not well understood. There is evidence that vicilin, a major storage protein of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata), is internalized in larvae of the seed-beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. It has been reported that this vicilin interacts with proteins present in the microvillar membranes of columnar cells along the digestive tract of the larvae. In the present work, we studied the cellular pathway involved in endocytosis of vicilin in larval C...
August 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562598/inhibition-of-insect-olfactory-behavior-by-an-airborne-antagonist-of-the-insect-odorant-receptor-co-receptor-subunit
#12
Devin Kepchia, Scott Moliver, Kunal Chohan, Cameron Phillips, Charles W Luetje
Response to volatile environmental chemosensory cues is essential for insect survival. The odorant receptor (OR) family is an important class of receptors that detects volatile molecules; guiding insects towards food, mates, and oviposition sites. ORs are odorant-gated ion channels, consisting of a variable odorant specificity subunit and a conserved odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) subunit, in an unknown stoichiometry. The Orco subunit possesses an allosteric site to which modulators can bind and noncompetitively inhibit odorant activation of ORs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526479/foxo-mediates-the-timing-of-pupation-through-regulating-ecdysteroid-biosynthesis-in-the-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#13
Xianyu Lin, Na Yu, Guy Smagghe
The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), the major developmental hormone in insects, controls all the developmental transitions including ecdysis and metamorphosis. In our study with last larval stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of Forkhead box protein O (FoxO) resulted in reduced food intake and larval mass and this agreed with a reduction in the expression of insulin signaling-related genes (insulin-like peptides 2, 3, 4, and chico). Interestingly, we also observed a significant delay in the moment of the pupation and these FoxO-silenced larvae then died at the middle pupal stage...
May 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522416/implantation-assays-using-the-integument-of-early-stage-bombyx-larvae-insights-into-the-mechanisms-underlying-the-acquisition-of-competence-for-metamorphosis
#14
Tomohiro Inui, Takaaki Daimon
It is widely accepted that the anti-metamorphic action of insect juvenile hormones (JHs) is required to inhibit larval-pupal metamorphosis. However, recent studies using RNAi or knockout techniques reveal that larval status may be maintained independently of JHs during the early larval stages. To investigate why larvae of very early instars do not have competence to metamorphose and how they acquire this competence through larval development, we revisited the classic experiments of Piepho (ca. 1930s) and performed implantation assays using the integument of very young larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475112/insect-active-toxins-with-promiscuous-pharmacology-from-the-african-theraphosid-spider-monocentropus-balfouri
#15
Jennifer J Smith, Volker Herzig, Maria P Ikonomopoulou, Sławomir Dziemborowicz, Frank Bosmans, Graham M Nicholson, Glenn F King
Many chemical insecticides are becoming less efficacious due to rising resistance in pest species, which has created much interest in the development of new, eco-friendly bioinsecticides. Since insects are the primary prey of most spiders, their venoms are a rich source of insect-active peptides that can be used as leads for new bioinsecticides or as tools to study molecular receptors that are insecticidal targets. In the present study, we isolated two insecticidal peptides, µ/ω-TRTX-Mb1a and -Mb1b, from venom of the African tarantula Monocentropus balfouri...
May 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450373/rnaseq-analysis-of-the-drosophila-response-to-the-entomopathogenic-nematode-steinernema
#16
Shruti Yadav, Sean Daugherty, Amol Carl Shetty, Ioannis Eleftherianos
Drosophila melanogaster is an outstanding model to study the molecular and functional basis of host-pathogen interactions. Currently, our knowledge of microbial infections in D. melanogaster is well understood; however, the response of flies to nematode infections is still in its infancy. Here, we have used the potent parasitic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae, which lives in mutualism with its endosymbiotic bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila, to examine the transcriptomic basis of the interaction between D. melanogaster and entomopathogenic nematodes...
June 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427951/uncovering-the-immune-responses-of-apis-mellifera-ligustica-larval-gut-to-ascosphaera-apis-infection-utilizing-transcriptome-sequencing
#17
Dafu Chen, Rui Guo, Xijian Xu, Cuiling Xiong, Qin Liang, Yanzhen Zheng, Qun Luo, Zhaonan Zhang, Zhijian Huang, Dhiraj Kumar, Weijun Xi, Xuan Zou, Min Liu
Honeybees are susceptible to a variety of diseases, including chalkbrood, which is capable of causing huge losses of both the number of bees and colony productivity. This research is designed to characterize the transcriptome profiles of Ascosphaera apis-treated and un-treated larval guts of Apis mellifera ligustica in an attempt to unravel the molecular mechanism underlying the immune responses of western honeybee larval guts to mycosis. In this study, 24, 296 and 2157 genes were observed to be differentially expressed in A...
July 20, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389549/holotrichia-oblita-midgut-proteins-that-bind-to-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry8-like-toxin-and-assembly-of-the-h-oblita-midgut-tissue-transcriptome
#18
Jian Jiang, Ying Huang, Changlong Shu, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo, Chunqing Liu, Fuping Song, Jinsheng Lai, Jie Zhang
The Bacillus thuringiensis strain HBF-18 (CGMCC 2070), containing two cry genes (cry8-like and cry8Ga), is toxic to Holotrichia oblita larvae. Both Cry8-like and Cry8Ga proteins are active against this insect pest, and Cry8-like is more toxic. To analyze the characteristics of the binding of Cry8-like and Cry8Ga proteins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) in H. oblita larvae, binding assays were conducted with a fluorescent DyLight488-labeled Cry8-like toxin. The results of saturation binding assays demonstrated that Cry8-like bound specifically to binding sites on BBMVs from H...
June 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369111/larval-diapause-termination-in-the-bamboo-borer-omphisa-fuscidentalis
#19
Suphawan Suang, Manaporn Manaboon, Tippawan Singtripop, Kiyoshi Hiruma, Yu Kaneko, Pimonrat Tiansawat, Peter Neumann, Panuwan Chantawannakul
In insects, juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) regulate larval growth and molting. However, little is known about how this cooperative control is terminating larval diapause especially in the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis. In both in vivo and in vitro experiments, we here measured the expression levels of genes which were affected by juvenile hormone analogue (JHA: S-methoprene) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in diapausing O. fuscidentalis larvae. Corresponding mRNA expression changes in the subesophageal ganglion (SG) and prothoracic gland (PG) were evaluated using qRT-PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358336/patterns-of-gene-expression-in-western-corn-rootworm-diabrotica-virgifera-virgifera-neonates-challenged-with-cry34ab1-cry35ab1-and-cry34-35ab1-based-on-next-generation-sequencing
#20
Haichuan Wang, Seong-Il Eyun, Kanika Arora, Sek Yee Tan, Premchand Gandra, Etsuko Moriyama, Chitvan Khajuria, Jessica Jurzenski, Huarong Li, Maia Donahue, Ken Narva, Blair Siegfried
With Next Generation Sequencing technologies, high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was conducted to examine gene expression in neonates of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte) (Western Corn Rootworm, WCR) challenged with individual proteins of the binary Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal proteins, Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1, and the combination of Cry34/Cry35Ab1, which together are active against rootworm larvae. Integrated results of three different statistical comparisons identified 114 and 1300 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) in the Cry34Ab1 and Cry34/35Ab1 treatment, respectively, as compared to the control...
March 30, 2017: Toxins
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