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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918112/validation-of-adam10-metalloprotease-as-a-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry3aa-toxin-functional-receptor-in-colorado-potato-beetle-leptinotarsa-decemlineata
#1
V M Ruiz-Arroyo, I García-Robles, C Ochoa-Campuzano, G A Goig, E Zaitseva, G Baaken, A C Martínez-Ramírez, C Rausell, M D Real
Bacillus thuringiensis parasporal crystal proteins (Cry proteins) are insecticidal pore-forming toxins that bind to specific receptor molecules on the brush border membrane of susceptible insect midgut cells to exert their toxic action. In the Colorado potato beetle (CPB), a coleopteran pest, we previously proposed that interaction of Cry3Aa toxin with a CPB ADAM10 metalloprotease is an essential part of the mode of action of this toxin. Here, we annotated the gene sequence encoding an ADAM10 metalloprotease protein (CPB-ADAM10) in the CPB genome sequencing project, and using RNA interference gene silencing we demonstrated that CPB-ADAM10 is a Cry3Aa toxin functional receptor in CPB...
December 5, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914919/expressing-a-moth-abcc2-gene-in-transgenic-drosophila-causes-susceptibility-to-bt-cry1ac-without-requiring-a-cadherin-like-protein-receptor
#2
Tristan Stevens, Sisi Song, John B Bruning, Amanda Choo, Simon W Baxter
Bt toxins ingested by insect pests can bind to midgut receptors and cause death, although several steps in this process remain unclear. Multiple Bt toxin receptors have been identified in Lepidoptera, including a cadherin-like protein (CaLP), which is central to several models explaining Bt toxins' mode of action. Mutations in the Plutella xylostella ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter C2 (Px-abcc2), rather than CaLP, are genetically linked with Bt Cry1Ac resistance. Here we expressed Px-abcc2 in Drosophila and performed larval bioassays to determine whether this protein acts as an effective Bt receptor...
November 30, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908826/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-midgut-in-silkworm-infected-with-bombyx-mori-cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis-virus
#3
Kun Gao, Xiang-Yuan Deng, Meng-Ke Shang, Guang-Xing Qin, Cheng-Xiang Hou, Xi-Jie Guo
: Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) specifically infects the epithelial cells in the midgut of silkworm and causes them to death, which negatively affects the sericulture industry. In order to determine the midgut response at the protein levels to the virus infection, differential proteomes of the silkworm midgut responsive to BmCPV infection were identified with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883266/silencing-of-ecdysone-receptor-insect-intestinal-mucin-and-sericotropin-genes-by-bacterially-produced-double-stranded-rna-affects-larval-growth-and-development-in-plutella-xylostella-and-helicoverpa-armigera
#4
B Israni, M V Rajam
RNA interference mediated gene silencing, which is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), has become a important tool for functional genomics studies in various systems, including insects. Bacterially produced dsRNA employs the use of a bacterial strain lacking in RNaseIII activity and harbouring a vector with dual T7 promoter sites, which allow the production of intact dsRNA molecules. Here, we report an assessment of the functional relevance of the ecdysone receptor, insect intestinal mucin and sericotropin genes through silencing by dsRNA in two lepidopteran insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Plutella xylostella, both of which cause serious crop losses...
November 24, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867074/toxicity-of-cry1a-toxins-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-to-cf1-cells-does-not-involve-activation-of-adenylate-cyclase-pka-signaling-pathway
#5
Leivi Portugal, Carlos Muñóz-Garay, Diana L Martínez de Castro, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacteria produce Cry toxins that are able to kill insect pests. Different models explaining the mode of action of these toxins have been proposed. The pore formation model proposes that the toxin creates pores in the membrane of the larval midgut cells after interaction with different receptors such as cadherin, aminopeptidase N and alkaline phosphatase and that this pore formation activity is responsible for the toxicity of these proteins. The alternative model proposes that interaction with cadherin receptor triggers an intracellular cascade response involving protein G, adenylate cyclase (AC) and protein kinase A (PKA)...
November 17, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862222/exposure-to-chlorantraniliprole-affects-the-energy-metabolism-of-the-caddisfly-sericostoma-vittatum
#6
Andreia C M Rodrigues, Carlos Gravato, Carla Quintaneiro, Maria D Bordalo, Oksana Golovko, Vladimír Žlábek, Carlos Barata, Amadeu M V M Soares, João L T Pestana
Caddisflies have been included in ecotoxicological studies due to their sensitivity and ecological relevance. The present study aimed to assess the sub-lethal effects of an anthranilic diamide insecticide, chlorantraniliprole (CAP), to Sericostoma vittatum. CAP, used worldwide, is a persistent compound that has been found in surface waters at concentrations from 0.1 to 9.7 µg/L. CAP targets the ryanodine receptors and this ecotoxicological assessment was focused on biomarkers related to neurotransmission, biotransformation, oxidative stress damage and on energy processing related endpoints (feeding, energy reserves and cellular metabolism)...
November 10, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823898/rnai-in-the-striped-stem-borer-chilo-suppressalis-establishes-a-functional-role-for-aminopeptidase-n-in-cry1ab-intoxication
#7
X Y Wang, L X Du, C X Liu, L Gong, L Z Han, Y F Peng
The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, is a major target pest of transgenic rice expressing the Cry1Ab protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in China. Evolution of resistance in this pest is a major threat to the durability of Bt rice. Since Bt exerts its activity through binding to specific receptors in the midgut of target insects, identification of functional Cry1Ab receptors in the midgut of C. suppressalis larvae is crucial to evaluate potential resistance mechanisms and develop effective strategies for delaying insect resistance...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779241/comparative-venomics-of-psyttalia-lounsburyi-and-p-concolor-two-olive-fruit-fly-parasitoids-a-hypothetical-role-for-a-gh1-%C3%AE-glucosidase
#8
Hugo Mathé-Hubert, Dominique Colinet, Emeline Deleury, Maya Belghazi, Marc Ravallec, Julie Poulain, Carole Dossat, Marylène Poirié, Jean-Luc Gatti
Venom composition of parasitoid wasps attracts increasing interest - notably molecules ensuring parasitism success on arthropod pests - but its variation within and among taxa is not yet understood. We have identified here the main venom proteins of two braconid wasps, Psyttalia lounsburyi (two strains from South Africa and Kenya) and P. concolor, olive fruit fly parasitoids that differ in host range. Among the shared abundant proteins, we found a GH1 β-glucosidase and a family of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713019/galleria-mellonella-hemocytes-a-novel-phagocytic-assay-for-leishmania-viannia-braziliensis
#9
Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier, Allan Henrique Depieri Cataneo, Tatiane Marcuso Orsini, Ana Paula Fortes Dos Santos Thomazelli, Gabriela Alcântara Dalevedo, Admilton Gonçalves de Oliveira, Luciano Aparecido Panagio, Idessania Nazareth Costa, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Ricardo Sergio Almeida
Galleria mellonella is an excellent invertebrate model for the study of diseases that involve interactions with cells from the innate immune system, since they have an innate immune system capable of recognizing the pathogens. Here we present for the first time, an alternative model for an in vitro phagocytic assay using hemocytes of G. mellonella larvae to study infection by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. We showed that the insect phagocytic cells were able to engulf promastigotes. Furthermore, this infective form differentiated into the amastigote form inside those cells...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706708/characterization-of-a-novel-cry8ea3-binding-v-atpase-subunit-a-in-holotrichia-parallela
#10
W Wei, G Wei, Z Dan, Y Xiaoping, Z Yakun
Several receptor proteins of Cry toxin have been previously identified, including cadherin-like, aminopeptidase N, and alkaline phosphatase. In the present work, a novel binding protein, V-ATPase subunit A (HpVAA), was identified in Holotricia parallela larvae and characterized. We performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends technology to obtain the cDNA of the full-length hpvaa. Sequencing analysis showed that the open reading frame of hpvaa (GenBank accession No...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658924/toward-an-understanding-of-divergent-compound-eye-development-in-drones-and-workers-of-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera-l-a-correlative-analysis-of-morphology-and-gene-expression
#11
David S Marco Antonio, Klaus Hartfelder
Eye development in insects is best understood in Drosophila melanogaster, but little is known for other holometabolous insects. Combining a morphological with a gene expression analysis, we investigated eye development in the honeybee, putting emphasis on the sex-specific differences in eye size. Optic lobe development starts from an optic lobe anlage in the larval brain, which sequentially gives rise to the lobula, medulla, and lamina. The lamina differentiates in the last larval instar, when it receives optic nerve projections from the developing retina...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618036/susceptibility-and-immune-defence-mechanisms-of-rhynchophorus-ferrugineus-olivier-coleoptera-curculionidae-against-entomopathogenic-fungal-infections
#12
Abid Hussain, Muhammad Rizwan-Ul-Haq, Hassan Al-Ayedh, Ahmed Mohammed AlJabr
Insects infected with entomopathogenic fungi, experience physiological changes that influence their growth and immune defence. The potential of nine isolates of entomopathogenic fungi was evaluated after determining percent germination and relative conidial hydrophobicity. However, nutritional indices were evaluated after immersing eighth-instar Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae into each isolate suspension (1 × 10⁷ conidia/mL). The results showed that isolates B6884 and M9374 had 44.51% and 39.02% higher conidial hydrophobicity compared with isolate I03011 (least virulent)...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607882/discovery-of-the-aryl-heterocyclic-amine-aha-insecticides-synthesis-insecticidal-activity-field-results-mode-of-action-and-bioavailability-of-a-leading-field-candidate
#13
William H Dent, Mark A Pobanz, Chaoxian Geng, Thomas C Sparks, Gerald B Watson, Theodore J Letherer, Kenneth W Beavers, Cathy D Young, Yelena A Adelfinskaya, Ronald R Ross, Greg Whiteker, James Renga
BACKGROUND: Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) antagonists are proven targets for control of Lepidopteran and other pests. New heterocyclic compounds with high insecticidal activity were discovered using a competitive-intelligence inspired scaffold hopping approach to generate analogs of fipronil, a known GABA antagonist. These novel aryl heterocyclic amines (AHA's) displayed broad spectrum activity on a number of chewing insect pests. RESULTS: Through >370 modifications of the core AHA structure, a 7-pyrazolopyridine lead molecule was found to exhibit much improved activity on a number of insect pests...
September 8, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586183/characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-receptor-for-activated-c-kinase-from-silk-producing-insect-antheraea-pernyi
#14
Bao-Jian Zhu, Hao Yu, Sen Tian, Li-Shang Dai, Yu Sun, Chao-Liang Liu
The receptor for activated C kinase (RACK) is an important scaffold protein with regulatory functions in cells. However, its role in the immune response of Antheraea pernyi to pathogen challenge remains unclear. To investigate the biological functions of RACK in the wild silkworm A. pernyi, cloning was performed and the expression patterns of the RACK gene were analyzed. Sequence analysis revealed that the RACK gene was 1120 bp containing a 960-bp open reading frame. The deduced RACK protein sequence reveals the higher identity with its homologs from other insects...
2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476930/artificial-mirna-mediated-silencing-of-ecdysone-receptor-ecr-affects-larval-development-and-oogenesis-in-helicoverpa-armigera
#15
Sneha Yogindran, Manchikatla Venkat Rajam
The insect pests are real threat to farmers as they affect the crop yield to a great extent. The use of chemical pesticides for insect pest control has always been a matter of concern as they pollute the environment and are also harmful for human health. Bt (Bacillus thuringensis) technology helped the farmers to get rid of the insect pests, but experienced a major drawback due to the evolution of insects gaining resistance towards these toxins. Hence, alternative strategies are high on demand to control insect pests...
October 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374982/role-of-adipokinetic-hormone-and-adenosine-in-the-anti-stress-response-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Milada Zemanová, Tereza Stašková, Dalibor Kodrík
The role of adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and adenosine in the anti-stress response was studied in Drosophila melanogaster larvae and adults carrying a mutation in the Akh gene (Akh(1)), the adenosine receptor gene (AdoR(1)), or in both of these genes (Akh(1) AdoR(1) double mutant). Stress was induced by starvation or by the addition of an oxidative stressor paraquat (PQ) to food. Mortality tests revealed that the Akh(1) mutant was the most resistant to starvation, while the AdoR(1) mutant was the most sensitive...
August 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317549/insulin-and-20-hydroxyecdysone-action-in-bombyx-mori-glycogen-content-and-expression-pattern-of-insulin-and-ecdysone-receptors-in-fat-body
#17
Bela Keshan, Bembem Thounaojam, Sanathoibi D Kh
Insulin and ecdysone signaling play a critical role on the growth and development of insects including Bombyx mori. Our previous study showed that Bombyx larvae reached critical weight for metamorphosis between day 3.5 and 4 of the fifth larval instar. The present study showed that the effect of insulin on the accumulation of glycogen in fat body of Bombyx larvae depends on the critical growth period. When larvae are in active growth period (before reaching critical weight), insulin caused increased accumulation of glycogen, while its treatment in larvae at terminal growth period (after critical period) resulted in an increased mobilization of glycogen...
June 14, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265829/identification-of-an-alkaline-phosphatase-as-a-putative-cry1ac-binding-protein-in-ostrinia-furnacalis-guen%C3%A3-e
#18
Tingting Jin, Xiaoli Duan, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón, Zhenying Wang, Kanglai He
Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, is an important insect pest of maize susceptible to different Cry1A toxins. Based on amino acid sequence alignment of ALP sequences from lepidopteran larvae an alp gene was cloned from ACB, named ofalp. Pull dawn assays using biotinylated Cry1Ac and brush border membrane vesicles isolated from second instar ACB larvae showed that four proteins of 50, 65, 68 and 70kDa precipitated with the Cry1Ac. The 65kDa band cross-reacted with the anti-OfALP monoclonal antibody...
July 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27249340/direct-interaction-of-avermectin-with-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mediates-the-penetration-resistance-in-drosophila-larvae
#19
Li-Ping Chen, Pan Wang, Ying-Jian Sun, Yi-Jun Wu
With the widespread use of avermectins (AVMs) for managing parasitic and agricultural pests, the resistance of worms and insects to AVMs has emerged as a serious threat to human health and agriculture worldwide. The reduced penetration of AVMs is one of the main reasons for the development of the resistance to the chemicals. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we use the larvae of Drosophila melanogaster as the model organism to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of penetration resistance to AVMs...
April 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184815/a-critical-role-for-the-drosophila-dopamine-d1-like-receptor-dop1r2-at-the-onset-of-metamorphosis
#20
Kimberly Regna, Peri T Kurshan, Benjamin N Harwood, Adam M Jenkins, Chao-Qiang Lai, Marc A T Muskavitch, Alan S Kopin, Isabelle Draper
BACKGROUND: Insect metamorphosis relies on temporal and spatial cues that are precisely controlled. Previous studies in Drosophila have shown that untimely activation of genes that are essential to metamorphosis results in growth defects, developmental delay and death. Multiple factors exist that safeguard these genes against dysregulated expression. The list of identified negative regulators that play such a role in Drosophila development continues to expand. RESULTS: By using RNAi transgene-induced gene silencing coupled to spatio/temporal assessment, we have unraveled an important role for the Drosophila dopamine 1-like receptor, Dop1R2, in development...
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
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