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Receptors insects larvae

Hugo Mathé-Hubert, Dominique Colinet, Emeline Deleury, Maya Belghazi, Marc Ravallec, Julie Poulain, Carole Dossat, Marylène Poirié, Jean-Luc Gatti
Venom composition of parasitoid wasps attracts increasing interest - notably molecules ensuring parasitism success on arthropod pests - but its variation within and among taxa is not yet understood. We have identified here the main venom proteins of two braconid wasps, Psyttalia lounsburyi (two strains from South Africa and Kenya) and P. concolor, olive fruit fly parasitoids that differ in host range. Among the shared abundant proteins, we found a GH1 β-glucosidase and a family of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier, Allan Henrique Depieri Cataneo, Tatiane Marcuso Orsini, Ana Paula Fortes Dos Santos Thomazelli, Gabriela Alcântara Dalevedo, Admilton Gonçalves de Oliveira, Luciano Aparecido Panagio, Idessania Nazareth Costa, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Ricardo Sergio Almeida
Galleria mellonella is an excellent invertebrate model for the study of diseases that involve interactions with cells from the innate immune system, since they have an innate immune system capable of recognizing the pathogens. Here we present for the first time, an alternative model for an in vitro phagocytic assay using hemocytes of G. mellonella larvae to study infection by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. We showed that the insect phagocytic cells were able to engulf promastigotes. Furthermore, this infective form differentiated into the amastigote form inside those cells...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
W Wei, G Wei, Z Dan, Y Xiaoping, Z Yakun
Several receptor proteins of Cry toxin have been previously identified, including cadherin-like, aminopeptidase N, and alkaline phosphatase. In the present work, a novel binding protein, V-ATPase subunit A (HpVAA), was identified in Holotricia parallela larvae and characterized. We performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends technology to obtain the cDNA of the full-length hpvaa. Sequencing analysis showed that the open reading frame of hpvaa (GenBank accession No...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
David S Marco Antonio, Klaus Hartfelder
Eye development in insects is best understood in Drosophila melanogaster, but little is known for other holometabolous insects. Combining a morphological with a gene expression analysis, we investigated eye development in the honeybee, putting emphasis on the sex-specific differences in eye size. Optic lobe development starts from an optic lobe anlage in the larval brain, which sequentially gives rise to the lobula, medulla, and lamina. The lamina differentiates in the last larval instar, when it receives optic nerve projections from the developing retina...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Abid Hussain, Muhammad Rizwan-Ul-Haq, Hassan Al-Ayedh, Ahmed Mohammed AlJabr
Insects infected with entomopathogenic fungi, experience physiological changes that influence their growth and immune defence. The potential of nine isolates of entomopathogenic fungi was evaluated after determining percent germination and relative conidial hydrophobicity. However, nutritional indices were evaluated after immersing eighth-instar Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae into each isolate suspension (1 × 10⁷ conidia/mL). The results showed that isolates B6884 and M9374 had 44.51% and 39.02% higher conidial hydrophobicity compared with isolate I03011 (least virulent)...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
William H Dent, Mark A Pobanz, Chaoxian Geng, Thomas C Sparks, Gerald B Watson, Theodore J Letherer, Kenneth W Beavers, Cathy D Young, Yelena A Adelfinskaya, Ronald R Ross, Greg Whiteker, James Renga
BACKGROUND: Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) antagonists are proven targets for control of Lepidopteran and other pests. New heterocyclic compounds with high insecticidal activity were discovered using a competitive-intelligence inspired scaffold hopping approach to generate analogs of fipronil, a known GABA antagonist. These novel aryl heterocyclic amines (AHA's) displayed broad spectrum activity on a number of chewing insect pests. RESULTS: Through >370 modifications of the core AHA structure, a 7-pyrazolopyridine lead molecule was found to exhibit much improved activity on a number of insect pests...
September 8, 2016: Pest Management Science
Baojian Zhu, Hao Yu, Sen Tian, Li-Shang Dai, Yu Sun, Chao-Liang Liu
The receptor for activated C kinase (RACK) is an important scaffold protein with regulatory functions in cells. However, its role in the immune response of Antheraea pernyi to pathogen challenge remains unclear. To investigate the biological functions of RACK in the wild silkworm A. pernyi, cloning was performed and the expression patterns of the RACK gene were analyzed. Sequence analysis revealed that the RACK gene was 1120 bp containing a 960-bp open reading frame. The deduced RACK protein sequence reveals the higher identity with its homologs from other insects...
August 31, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
Sneha Yogindran, Manchikatla Venkat Rajam
The insect pests are real threat to farmers as they affect the crop yield to a great extent. The use of chemical pesticides for insect pest control has always been a matter of concern as they pollute the environment and are also harmful for human health. Bt (Bacillus thuringensis) technology helped the farmers to get rid of the insect pests, but experienced a major drawback due to the evolution of insects gaining resistance towards these toxins. Hence, alternative strategies are high on demand to control insect pests...
October 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Milada Zemanová, Tereza Stašková, Dalibor Kodrík
The role of adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and adenosine in the anti-stress response was studied in Drosophila melanogaster larvae and adults carrying a mutation in the Akh gene (Akh(1)), the adenosine receptor gene (AdoR(1)), or in both of these genes (Akh(1) AdoR(1) double mutant). Stress was induced by starvation or by the addition of an oxidative stressor paraquat (PQ) to food. Mortality tests revealed that the Akh(1) mutant was the most resistant to starvation, while the AdoR(1) mutant was the most sensitive...
August 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Bela Keshan, Bembem Thounaojam, Sanathoibi D Kh
Insulin and ecdysone signaling play a critical role on the growth and development of insects including Bombyx mori. Our previous study showed that Bombyx larvae reached critical weight for metamorphosis between day 3.5 and 4 of the fifth larval instar. The present study showed that the effect of insulin on the accumulation of glycogen in fat body of Bombyx larvae depends on the critical growth period. When larvae are in active growth period (before reaching critical weight), insulin caused increased accumulation of glycogen, while its treatment in larvae at terminal growth period (after critical period) resulted in an increased mobilization of glycogen...
June 14, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Tingting Jin, Xiaoli Duan, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón, Zhenying Wang, Kanglai He
Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, is an important insect pest of maize susceptible to different Cry1A toxins. Based on amino acid sequence alignment of ALP sequences from lepidopteran larvae an alp gene was cloned from ACB, named ofalp. Pull dawn assays using biotinylated Cry1Ac and brush border membrane vesicles isolated from second instar ACB larvae showed that four proteins of 50, 65, 68 and 70kDa precipitated with the Cry1Ac. The 65kDa band cross-reacted with the anti-OfALP monoclonal antibody...
July 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Li-Ping Chen, Pan Wang, Ying-Jian Sun, Yi-Jun Wu
With the widespread use of avermectins (AVMs) for managing parasitic and agricultural pests, the resistance of worms and insects to AVMs has emerged as a serious threat to human health and agriculture worldwide. The reduced penetration of AVMs is one of the main reasons for the development of the resistance to the chemicals. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we use the larvae of Drosophila melanogaster as the model organism to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of penetration resistance to AVMs...
April 2016: Open Biology
Kimberly Regna, Peri T Kurshan, Benjamin N Harwood, Adam M Jenkins, Chao-Qiang Lai, Marc A T Muskavitch, Alan S Kopin, Isabelle Draper
BACKGROUND: Insect metamorphosis relies on temporal and spatial cues that are precisely controlled. Previous studies in Drosophila have shown that untimely activation of genes that are essential to metamorphosis results in growth defects, developmental delay and death. Multiple factors exist that safeguard these genes against dysregulated expression. The list of identified negative regulators that play such a role in Drosophila development continues to expand. RESULTS: By using RNAi transgene-induced gene silencing coupled to spatio/temporal assessment, we have unraveled an important role for the Drosophila dopamine 1-like receptor, Dop1R2, in development...
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Shingo Kikuta, Haruka Endo, Natsuo Tomita, Tomoyuki Takada, Chiharu Morita, Kiyoshi Asaoka, Ryoichi Sato
Insect herbivores recognize non-volatile compounds in plants to direct their feeding behavior. Gustatory receptors (Gr) appear to be required for nutrient recognition by gustatory organs in the mouthparts of insects. Gr10 is expressed in Bombyx mori (BmGr10) mouthparts such as maxillary galea, maxillary palp, and labrum. BmGr10 is predicted to function in sugar recognition; however, the precise biochemical function remains obscure. Larvae of B. mori are monophagous feeders able to find and feed on mulberry leaves...
July 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Katsuhiro Konno, Kohei Kazuma, Ken-ichi Nihei
Solitary wasps paralyze insects or spiders with stinging venom and feed the paralyzed preys to their larva. Accordingly, the venoms should contain a variety of constituents acting on nervous systems. However, only a few solitary wasp venoms have been chemically studied despite thousands of species inhabiting the planet. We have surveyed bioactive substances in solitary wasp venoms found in Japan and discovered a variety of novel bioactive peptides. Pompilidotoxins (PMTXs), in the venoms of the pompilid wasps Anoplius samariensis and Batozonellus maculifrons, are small peptides consisting of 13 amino acids without a disulfide bond...
April 2016: Toxins
Shi-Hong Gu, Yun-Chih Hsieh, Pei-Ling Lin
A complex signaling network appears to be involved in prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH)-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis in insect prothoracic glands (PGs). Less is known about the genomic action of PTTH signaling. In the present study, we investigated the effect of PTTH on the expression of Bombyx mori HR38, an immediate early gene (IEG) identified in insect systems. Our results showed that treatment of B. mori PGs with PTTH in vitro resulted in a rapid increase in HR38 expression. Injection of PTTH into day-5 last instar larvae also greatly increased HR38 expression, verifying the in vitro effect...
July 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Irene Ozáez, Mónica Aquilino, Gloria Morcillo, José-Luis Martínez-Guitarte
Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are emerging contaminants that are ubiquitous in fresh and marine aquatic systems due to their extensive use in cosmetics, plastics, paints, textiles, and many other industrial products. The estrogenic effects of organic UV filters have been long demonstrated in vertebrates, and other hormonal activities may be altered, according to more recent reports. The impact of UV filters on the endocrine system of invertebrates is largely unknown. We have previously reported that some UV filters may affect ecdysone-related genes in the aquatic insect Chironomus riparius, an ecotoxicologically important model organism...
July 2016: Environmental Pollution
Priyanka Sharma, Sunil Thakur, Pamita Awasthi
Juvenile hormone (JH) analogs are nowadays in use to control harmful pests. In order to develop new bioactive molecules as potential pesticides, we have incorporated different active structural features like sulfonamide, aromatic rings, amide group, and amino acid moiety to the base structure. We have screened a series of designed novel JH analogs against JH receptor protein (jhbpGm-2RCK) of Galleria mellonella in comparison to commercial insect growth regulators (IGRs) - Pyriproxyfen (T1) and Fenoxycarb (T2)...
May 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
William B Walker, Francisco Gonzalez, Stephen F Garczynski, Peter Witzgall
Olfaction and gustation play critical roles in the life history of insects, mediating vital behaviors such as food, mate and host seeking. Chemosensory receptor proteins, including odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs) function to interface the insect with its chemical environment. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide pest of apple, pear and walnut, and behavior-modifying semiochemicals are used for environmentally safe control. We produced an Illumina-based transcriptome from antennae of males and females as well as neonate head tissue, affording a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the codling moth chemosensory receptor repertoire...
2016: Scientific Reports
Rebecca J Linger, Esther J Belikoff, Ying Yan, Fang Li, Holly A Wantuch, Helen L Fitzsimons, Maxwell J Scott
BACKGROUND: Diabetes and its concurrent complications impact a significant proportion of the population of the US and create a large financial burden on the American health care system. FDA-approved maggot debridement therapy (MDT), the application of sterile laboratory-reared Lucilia sericata (green bottle fly) larvae to wounds, is a cost-effective and successful treatment for diabetic foot ulcers and other medical conditions. Human platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is a secreted dimeric peptide growth factor that binds the PDGF receptor...
2016: BMC Biotechnology
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