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cardiovascular anaesthesia

Kanchi Muralidhar, Deepak Tempe, Yatin Mehta, Poonam Malhotra Kapoor, Chirojit Mukherjee, Thomas Koshy, Prabhat Tewari, Naman Shastri, Satyajeet Misra, Kumar Belani
During current medical care, perioperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has become a vital component of patient management, especially in cardiac operating rooms and in critical care medicine. Information derived from echocardiography has an important bearing on the patient's outcome. The Indian Association of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Anaesthesiologists (IACTA) has promoted the use of TEE during routine clinical care of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. An important mission of IACTA is to oversee training and certify anesthesiologists in the perioperative and intensive care use of TEE...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Priyamvada Gupta, Durga Jethava, Ruchika Choudhary, Dharam Das Jethava
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation are considered as potent stimuli which lead to an increase in heart rate and blood pressure. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) has been studied for pre-operative anxiolysis and sedation in Intensive Care Unit. We made a hypothesis that melatonin can provide haemodynamic stability during laryngoscopy and intubation when given 120 min before the procedure. METHODS: Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Grade I and II patients of either gender, 20-45 years old, 40-65 kg body weight, scheduled to undergo elective surgical procedures under general anaesthesia were assigned into two equal groups - Group C (control) and Group M (melatonin)...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Deepak Prakash Borde, Antony George, Shreedhar Joshi, Suresh Nair, Thomas Koshy, Uday Gandhe, Murali Chakravarthy
CONTEXT: Use of perioperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has expanded in India. Despite attempts to standardize the practice of TEE in cardiac surgical procedures, variation in practice and application exists. This is the first online survey by Indian College of Cardiac Anaesthesia, research and academic wing of the Indian Association of Cardiovascular Thoracic Anaesthesiologists (IACTA). AIMS: We hypothesized that variations in practice of intraoperative TEE exist among centers and this survey aimed at analyzing them...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
R Dandriyal, S Pachauri, K Y Giri, S Rastogi, N I B Prasad, S Agarwal, H P Singh
Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of clonidine with lidocaine as a local anaesthetic agent for inferior alveolar mandibular nerve blocks for dental extraction. We studied 200 patients who required extraction of mandibular teeth and divided them into two groups of 100 each, the first of which was given lidocaine and adrenaline (12.5μg/ml) and the second lidocaine and clonidine (15μg/ml). Cardiovascular vascular variables (blood pressure, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure) were assessed before, during, and after extraction, and postoperative pain was measured on a visual analogue scale...
October 3, 2016: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Sayaka Ishigaki, Takahiro Ogura, Ayana Kanaya, Yu Miyake, Kenichi Masui, Tomiei Kazama
BACKGROUND: The influence of preoperative rehydration on the action of rocuronium has not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to evaluate the hypothesis that preoperative rehydration lowers arterial rocuronium plasma concentrations and changes its associated neuromuscular blocking effects during induction of anaesthesia. DESIGN: Randomised, single-blinded study. SETTING: A secondary hospital from October 2013 to July 2014...
September 2, 2016: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Z Xia, H Li, M G Irwin
Myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury is the leading cause of death in patients with cardiovascular disease. Interventions such as ischaemic pre and postconditioning protect against myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury. Certain anaesthesia drugs and opioids can produce the same effects, which led to an initial flurry of excitement given the extensive use of these drugs in surgery. The underlying mechanisms have since been extensively studied in experimental animal models but attempts to translate these findings to clinical settings have resulted in contradictory results...
September 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
J C Galán Gutiérrez, F E Fernández Suárez, P Miranda García, L A Sopena Zubiria
Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) is a complex combination of cardiovascular abnormalities defined as pulmonary hypertension with investment or bidirectional flow through an intracardiac or aortopulmonary communication, usually secondary to a congenital heart disease not resolved promptly. It carries a significant risk of perioperative mortality, with an incidence close to 30% for non-cardiac surgery. We report the anaesthetic management in a ES patient undergoing breast surgery, which was successfully performed under general anaesthesia combined with thoracic analgesic blocks...
August 20, 2016: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
Rebecca Langhoff, Ulrike Auer, Julia Maneng, Agnes Hochgerner, Mathias Ritzmann
The aim of this study was to describe clinical and behavioural parameters of piglets castrated with the use of CO2 anaesthesia by using the commercial available device MS Pigsleeper. 80 male piglets with three to six days of age were allocated to four groups, and were castrated or left uncastrated either after receiving 70% CO2/30% O02, or without anaesthesia. Defensive movements and heart rates were measured during induction and castration phase. At castration phase the dewclaw reflex was tested and piglets were monitored for vocalisation...
July 2016: Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift
Na Zhao, Jin Xu, Balwinder Singh, Xuerong Yu, Taixiang Wu, Yuguang Huang
BACKGROUND: Cardiac complications are not uncommon in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, especially in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) or at high risk of CAD. Perioperative cardiac complications can lead to mortality and morbidity, as well as higher costs for patient care. Nitrates, which are among the most commonly used cardiovascular drugs, perform the function of decreasing cardiac preload while improving cardiac blood perfusion. Sometimes, nitrates are administered to patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery to reduce the incidence of cardiac complications, especially for patients with CAD...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Tae Kyong Kim, Youn Joung Cho, Chae-Won Lim, Jeong Jin Min, Eue-Keun Choi, Deok Man Hong, Yunseok Jeon
BACKGROUND: Ramosetron is a relatively new 5-hydroxytryptamine three receptor antagonist with higher binding affinity and more prolonged duration of action compared to ondansetron. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of ramosetron on QTc interval and possible cardiovascular adverse effects in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHOD: A total of 114 patients who underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery were enrolled in this randomised placebo-controlled trial...
2016: BMC Anesthesiology
T E F Abbott, G L Ackland, R A Archbold, A Wragg, E Kam, T Ahmad, A W Khan, E Niebrzegowska, R N Rodseth, P J Devereaux, R M Pearse
BACKGROUND: Increased baseline heart rate is associated with cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality in the general population. We hypothesized that elevated preoperative heart rate increases the risk of myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS). METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a prospective international cohort study of patients aged ≥45 yr undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Preoperative heart rate was defined as the last measurement before induction of anaesthesia...
August 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Suze Dominique Bruins, Pauline Meng Choo Leong, Shin Yi Ng
INTRODUCTION: We reviewed patients with critical incidents that occurred in the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) at a major tertiary hospital, and the effect of these incidents on PACU length of stay and discharge disposition was assessed. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of patients in the PACU over a two-year period from 24 June 2011 to 23 August 2013. Data on critical incidents were recorded in the administrative database using a standardised data form...
July 21, 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
P Konopelski, M Ufnal
Electrocardiography (ECG) in rats is a widely applied experimental method in basic cardiovascular research. The technique of ECG recordings is simple; however, the interpretation of electrocardiographic parameters is challenging. This is because the analysis may be biased by experimental settings, such as the type of anaesthesia, the strain or age of animals. Here, we aimed to review electrocardiographic parameters in rats, their normal range, as well as the effect of experimental settings on the parameters variation...
July 15, 2016: Physiological Research
Mahmut Alp Karahan, Hüseyin Sert, Zeliha Ayhan, Bülend Ayhan
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a rare, autosomal dominant syndrome presenting with mental retardation and physical abnormalities, including broad thumbs, big and broad toes, short stature and craniofacial anomalies. Special attention was paid to the possibilities of difficult airway, aspiration pneumonia and cardiovascular dysfunction during anaesthesia. Micrognathia, retrognathia, broad nasal bridge, abnormally large or 'beak-shaped' nose, hypoplastic maxilla and small mouth-typical dysmorphic facial features are one of the biggest causes of the difficult airway in this syndrome...
June 2016: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
Mehmet Ali Erdoğan, Muharrem Uçar, Ahmet Selim Özkan, Ülkü Özgül, Mahmut Durmuş
Phaeochromocytoma is a catecholamine-secreting vascular tumour that is derived from chromaffin cell. Lethal cardiovascular complications, such as serious hypertension, myocardial infarction and aortic dissection, may occur because of uncontrolled catecholamine release. Each stage of anaesthesia management has vital importance because of this destructive catecholamine secretion that may occur during induction, perioperative stage and surgical manipulation. In this study, we report regarding the preoperative preparation and severe, persistent hypertension attack management with a combination of α-adrenergic blockade, β-adrenergic blockade, sodium nitroprusside and remifentanil in a patient who underwent laparoscopic surgery for phaeochromocytoma...
February 2016: Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim
C M Loughran, A L Raisis, G Hosgood, C J Secombe, G D Lester
REASON FOR PERFORMING THE STUDY: Cardiac output does not always increase with dobutamine administration in anaesthetised horses and information on peripheral perfusion is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of intravenous dobutamine infusion with and without a concurrent 20 mL/kg bodyweight bolus of crystalloid fluids on the cardiovascular function of acepromazine premedicated, hypotensive, isoflurane-anaesthetised horses. STUDY DESIGN: Randomised, crossover experiment...
June 28, 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
Lorenzo Ball, Federico Costantino, Paolo Pelosi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiac surgery is at high risk for the development of postoperative complications involving cardiovascular and respiratory system, as well as kidneys and central nervous system. The aim of this review is to provide an overview on the most recent findings concerning the type and incidence of different complications after cardiac surgery and to summarize the current recommendations. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite an improvement of surgical and anaesthesia techniques that resulted in a significant decrease in mortality, postoperative complications play a major role in affecting morbidity, mortality, length of hospital stay and patients' quality of life...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
I Cerasoli, S Nannarone, S Schauvliege, L Duchateau, A Bufalari
OBJECTIVE: The effects of lidocaine, administered before induction of anaesthesia with propofol, on arterial blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, cough reflex, ease of intubation, extrapyramidal signs and required dose of propofol in healthy premedicated dogs were evaluated. METHODS: Twenty-four client-owned dogs were premedicated intramuscularly with 1 µg/kg dexmedetomidine and 0·2 mg/kg methadone, and randomly allocated to receive 2 mg/kg lidocaine (group L) or saline (group P) 120 seconds before induction of anaesthesia with propofol...
August 2016: Journal of Small Animal Practice
E M Schulberg, A R Webb, H Kolawole
We present a case of early skin and challenge testing in a patient following severe anaphylaxis to rocuronium. The patient presented for semi-elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy and developed anaphylaxis with severe cardiovascular collapse after induction of anaesthesia. Surgery was cancelled but was considered necessary before the recommended four to six weeks for formal allergy testing. Limited skin and challenge testing was performed to rocuronium and cisatracurium while the patient was in the intensive care unit to identify a safe neuromuscular blocking drug for subsequent early surgery...
May 2016: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
M R Pinsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
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