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Strength, conditioning, athlete

Seth O'Neill, Paul J Watson, Simon Barry
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Achilles tendinopathy can be a debilitating chronic condition for both active and inactive individuals. The identification of risk facors is important both in preventing but also treating tendinopathy, many factors have been proposed but there is a lack of primary epidemiological data. The purpose of this study was to develop a statement of expert consensus on risk factors for Achilles tendinopathy in active and sedentary patient populations to inform a primary epidemiological study...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Imen Fekhfekh, Abdelmoneem Yahia, Mokhtar Chaabene, Salma Jribi, Nizar Suissi, Mohamed Habib Elleuch, Sameh Ghroubi
OBJECTIVE: To study the acute effect of static and dynamic stretching on the knee muscle strength and postural capacity in athletes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen judokas performed 2 stretching protocols (static and dynamic) on the muscles of both lower limbs with an interval of 48hours in a random order. An evaluation of the dominant knee muscle strength with an isokinetic dynamometer CybexNormII was performed before and after each stretching protocol in a concentric mode at a speed of 60 and 180°/s...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Pascal Edouard, Pierrick Arnal, Philippe Gimenez, Pierre Samozino, Pedro Jimenez-Reyes, Matt Brughelli, Jurdan Mendiguchia, Jean-Benoit Morin
OBJECTIVE: The hamstring muscles are the most injured muscles in athletes practicing sprints. However, they seem greatly contributing to the production of horizontal force, a key element in the sprint acceleration performance. The aim of our study was to experimentally analyse the link between the production of horizontal force and strength of the hamstrings at maximum sprints on a treadmill and in fatigue conditions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fourteen male subjects accustomed to sprint participated in the experiment consisting in 12 6-seconds sprints separated by 44seconds of recovery on an instrumented treadmill sprint for measuring the horizontal force, coupled with the simultaneous recording of the EMG activity of the vastus lateralis, rectus biceps femoris and gluteus muscles...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Pascal Edouard, Pierre Samozino, Romain Slotala, Jurdan Mendiguchia, Jean-Benoit Morin
Hamstring muscle injury is the main injury related to athletics, but also other sports including acceleration and sprints, with important consequences (time loss of sport and re-injury risk). In a prevention approach, a better knowledge of risk factors and mechanisms of these lesions seem relevant, and it can pass through a better understanding of the biomechanical and muscular determinants of performance in sprint and acceleration. The ability to produce a horizontal force on the ground [i.e. orienting the total push backward (or ground force reaction forward)], and to do so despite the increase in running speed, is an important determinant of sprint performance...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Jon N Radcliffe, Paul Comfort, Tom Fawcett
Research is limited in exploring the specific psychology oriented responsibilities of the strength and conditioning professional. The present research explored the psychological responsibilities adopted by accredited strength and conditioning coaches. Participants comprised 10 participants working within the UK, 3 within the USA and 5 within Australia offering a cross section of experience from raging sport disciplines and educational backgrounds. Participants were interviewed either in person or via Skype...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Lee A Bridgeman, Michael R McGuigan, Nicholas D Gill, Deborah Dulson
The aims of this study were to (A) investigate the acute effects of different drop jump (DJ) accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) protocols and (B) to investigate the effect of these AEL DJ protocols on subsequent countermovement jump (CMJ) performance. The subjects were 12 strength-trained athletes, initially, baseline CMJ performance was assessed and individual optimal DJ drop height identified. In subsequent weeks subjects completed 1 set of 5 DJ's with no additional load or an AEL of 10, 20 or 30% of their individual body mass (BM) utilising dumbbells to provide the extra load...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Simon Spencer, Alex Wolf, Alison Rushton
CONTEXT:  Identification of strategies to prevent spinal injury, optimize rehabilitation, and enhance performance is a priority for practitioners. Different exercises produce different effects on neuromuscular performance. Clarity of the purpose of a prescribed exercise is central to a successful outcome. Spinal exercises need to be classified according to the objective of the exercise and planned physical outcome. OBJECTIVE:  To define the modifiable spinal abilities that underpin optimal function during skilled athletic performance, clarify the effect of spinal pain and pathologic conditions, and classify spinal exercises according to the objective of the exercise and intended physical outcomes to inform training and rehabilitation...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
Katherine Lee, James Onate, Samar McCann, Tamerah Hunt, Wilbert Turner, Mark Merrick
Clinical Scenario: In wrestling, athletes often support a large amount of weight on their heads or are forced into extreme ranges of motion. These suboptimal movement conditions lead to a high prevalence of neck injuries in wrestlers. A large portion of the work done by the cervical musculature in wrestling is theorized to be eccentric or isometric types of contractions. Strengthening of these cervical muscles is clinically considered to play a vital role in being competitive on the wrestling mat. The cervical stability provided by strengthening these muscles may also play a part in injury prevention among wrestlers...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Lachlan P James, Emma M Beckman, Vincent G Kelly, G Gregory Haff
PURPOSE: To determine whether the maximal strength, impulse and power characteristics of competitive mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes differ according to competition level. METHODS: Twenty-nine male semi-professional and amateur MMA competitors were stratified into either higher-level (HL) or lower-level (LL) performers on the basis of competition grade and success. The one-repetition maximum (1RM) squat was used to assess lower body dynamic strength, while a spectrum of impulse, power, force and velocity variables were evaluated during an incremental load jump squat...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Ilias Smilios, Konstantinos Sotiropoulos, Karolina Barzouka, Marios Christou, Savvas P Tokmakidis
PURPOSE: This study examined the acute effects of contrast loading on mechanical power output during bench-press throws in junior volleyball players. METHOD: Eleven males (age: 16.5±0.5 years) performed a contrast loading and a control protocol. The contrast protocol included the execution of 3 bench-throws with a 30% load of 1RM, after 3 min a conditioning set of 5 bench-throws with a 60% load of 1RM and after 3 and 5 min two more sets of 3 bench-throws with a 30% load of 1RM...
September 6, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Veronica Southard, Joanne DiFrancisco-Donoghue, James Mackay, Stephanie Idjadi, Neil Wright
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) include bradykinesia, gait abnormalities, balance deficits, restless leg syndrome, and muscular fatigue. Compression garments (CG) have been shown to improve performance in athletes by increasing venous return and reduce lactic acid. OBJECTIVE: Assess the effect of compression garments on the performance of 3 standardized functional tests in persons with PD. METHODOLOGY: The functional tests selected represented strength, endurance, and mobility measures in individuals with PD...
July 2016: International Journal of Health Sciences
J L Ayers, M DeBeliso, T G Sevene, K J Adams
Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches), on power (vertical jump height), strength (1RM back squat), and speed (40-yard sprint) in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program...
September 2016: Biology of Sport
Ralph W Cook, Wellington K Hsu
Surgical management of lumbar spine conditions can produce excellent outcomes in athletes. Microdiscectomy for lumbar disc herniation has favorable outcomes; most athletes return to play at preoperative performance levels. Direct pars repair is successful in younger athletes, with high rates of return to play for a variety of fixation techniques. Fusion in athletes with scoliosis is a negative predictor. There are few evidence-based return to play criteria. Athletes should demonstrate full resolution of symptoms and flexibility, endurance, and strength before returning to play...
October 2016: Clinics in Sports Medicine
Rachel Patrick, Josh McGinty, Ann Lucado, Beth Collier
BACKGROUND: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears and associated Tommy Johns surgical intervention from excessive and poor quality pitching has increased immensely-with more college and professional pitchers undergoing the surgery in 2014 alone than in the 1990s as a whole.(1) Faulty mechanics developed at young ages are often well-engrained by the late adolescent years and the minimal healing ability of the largely avascular UCL often leads to delayed safe return to sport.(2). PURPOSE: The purpose of this case study was to describe an innovative, multimodal approach to conservative management of a chronic UCL injury in a college-aged baseball pitcher...
August 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
William R VanWye, Jase Pinerola, Karen Craig Ogle, Harvey W Wallmann
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Screening for referral, regardless of setting, is the responsibility of all physical therapists. A serious condition that sports physical therapists may encounter is upper extremity (UE) deep venous thrombosis (DVT), which can result in the important and sometimes fatal complication of pulmonary embolism. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 22 year-old male right-hand dominant collegiate pitcher was referred for physical therapist evaluation and treatment secondary to acute right UE pain and swelling...
August 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Chih-Wei Chang, Yi-Ming Chen, Yi-Ju Hsu, Chi-Chang Huang, Yu-Tse Wu, Mei-Chich Hsu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sports anemia is a persistent and severe problem in athletes owing to strenuous exercise-induced oxidative stress and hepcidin upregulation. The roots of Angelica sinensis (AS), a familiar traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for replenishing blood since antiquity. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the effects of ethanolic AS extract in a 4-week study on sports anemia in female Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To induce anemia, a strenuous exercise protocol consisting of running and swimming was employed with increasing intensity...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Asaad A Khan, Lucy Safi, Malissa Wood
Athletic heart syndrome refers to the physiological and morphological changes that occur in a human heart after repetitive strenuous physical exercise. Examples of exercise-induced changes in the heart include increases in heart cavity dimensions, augmentation of cardiac output, and increases in heart muscle mass. These cardiac adaptations vary based on the type of exercise performed and are often referred to as sport-specific cardiac remodeling. The hemodynamic effects of endurance and strength training exercise lead to these adaptations...
April 2016: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
Lee A Bridgeman, Michael R McGuigan, Nicholas D Gill, Deborah K Dulson
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between concentric and eccentric peak force (PF) and countermovement jump (CMJ) performance in resistance-trained men. Subjects were 12 men (mean ± SD; age: 25.4 ± 3.5 years; height: 177.2 ± 4.5 cm; mass: 84.0 ± 10.1 kg). The subjects were tested for concentric and eccentric PF using the Exerbotics squat device. Subjects then completed 3 CMJs to allow for the calculation of peak power (PP), peak ground reaction force (PGRF) and jump height (JH)...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Minas A Mina, Anthony J Blazevich, Giannis Giakas, Laurent B Seitz, Anthony D Kay
The acute influence of chain-loaded variable resistance exercise on subsequent free-weight one-repetition maximum (1-RM) back squat performance was examined in 16 recreationally active men. The participants performed either a free-weight resistance (FWR) or chain-loaded resistance (CLR) back squat warm-up at 85% 1-RM on two separate occasions. After a 5-min rest, the participants attempted a free-weight 1-RM back squat; if successful, subsequent 5% load additions were made until participants failed to complete the lift...
November 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Robert G Lockie, Matthew R Moreno, Adrina Lazar, Ashley J Orjalo, Dominic V Giuliano, Fabrice G Risso, DeShaun L Davis, Jeff B Crelling, John R Lockwood, Farzad Jalilvand
Playing positions in soccer can exhibit different movement demands during a match, contributing to variations in physical and performance characteristics. NCAA soccer features different substitution rules when compared to FIFA-sanctioned matches, which could influence each players' characteristics. Therefore, this study determined the athletic performance characteristics of Division I female soccer players. Twenty-six players (3 goalkeepers; 8 defenders; 10 midfielders; 5 forwards) from the same squad completed assessments of: lower-body power (vertical and standing broad jump); linear (0-5, 0-10, 0-30 meter [m] sprint intervals) and change-of-direction (pro-agility shuttle; Arrowhead change-of-direction speed test) speed; and soccer-specific fitness (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test [YYIRT] levels 1 and 2)...
July 7, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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