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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730749/impact-of-the-dynamic-and-static-component-of-the-sport-practiced-for-electrocardiogram-analysis-in-screening-athletes
#1
Nicolas Maillot, Charles Guenancia, Nobila V Yameogo, Aurélie Gudjoncik, Fabien Garnier, Luc Lorgis, Frédéric Chagué, Yves Cottin
BACKGROUND: To interpret the electrocardiogram (ECG) of athletes, the recommendations of the ESC and the Seattle criteria define type-1 peculiarities, those induced by training, and type-2, those not induced by training, to rule out cardiomyopathy. The specificity of the screening was improved by Sheikh who definied "Refined Criteria", which includes a group of intermediate peculiarities. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of static and dynamic components on the prevalence of different types of abnormalities...
July 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724040/cardiac-remodeling-indicators-in-adolescent-athletes
#2
Joaquim Castanheira, João Valente-Dos-Santos, Daniela Costa, Diogo Martinho, Jorge Fernandes, João Duarte, Nuno Sousa, Vasco Vaz, Luis Rama, António Figueiredo, Manuel Coelho-E-Silva
Objective: The idea that different sports and physical training type results in different cardiac adaptations has been widely accepted. However, this remodelling process among different sport modalities is still not fully understood. Thus, the current study aims to investigate the heart morphology variation associated with a set of different modalities characterized by distinct models of preparation and different methods and demands of training and completion. Method: The sample comprises 42 basketball players, 73 roller hockey players, 28 judo athletes and 21 swimmers...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723843/no-superior-adaptations-to-carbohydrate-periodization-in-elite-endurance-athletes
#3
Kasper Degn Gejl, Line Thams, Mette Hansen, Torben Rokkedal-Lausch, Peter Plomgaard, Lars Nybo, Filip J Larsen, Daniele A Cardinale, Kurt Jensen, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Kristian Vissing, Niels Ørtenblad
PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effects of periodic CHO restriction on endurance performance and metabolic markers in elite endurance athletes. METHODS: Twenty-six male elite endurance athletes (VO2max: 65.0 ml O2[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed 4 weeks of regular endurance training, while matched and randomized into two groups training with (Low) or without (High) carbohydrate (CHO) manipulation three days a week. The CHO manipulation days consisted of a 1-hr high intensity bike session in the morning, recovery for 7 hrs while consuming isocaloric diets containing either high CHO (414±2...
July 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704312/trunk-muscle-activation-in-the-back-and-hack-squat-at-the-same-relative-loads
#4
David R Clark, Michael I Lambert, Angus M Hunter
The hack squat (HS) is likely to produce a greater 1 repetition maximum (1RM) compared to the back squat (BS). This can be attributed to the support of the trunk during the HS compared to no support during BS. This support however, may compromise trunk muscle activation (TMA), therefore producing different training adaptations. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to compare 1RM in BS and HS and TMA at 4 relative loads, 65, 75, 85 and 95% of maximal system mass. Ten males completed 3 test sessions:1) BS and HS 1RM, 2) HS & BS neuromuscular test familiarization, and, 3) Neuromuscular test for 3 reps at 4 loads for BS and HS...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700514/low-volume-high-intensity-interval-versus-continuous-endurance-training-effects-on-hematological-and-cardiorespiratory-system-adaptations-in-professional-canoe-polo-athletes
#5
Mohsen Sheykhlouvand, Mohammadali Gharaat, Erfan Khalili, Hamid Agha-Alinejad, Farhad Rahmaninia, Hamid Arazi
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two paddling-based high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous endurance training (CET) on hematological, immunological, and cardiorespiratory adaptations in professional canoe polo athletes. Twenty one male canoe polo athletes were randomly divided into one of three groups (N=7): 1) HIIT with variable intensity (VIHIIT) (6×60-second at 100,110,120,130,130, 130,120,110,100% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak from 1 to 9 session respectively, 1:3 work to recovery ratio); 2) HIIT with variable volume (VVHIIT) (6,7,8,9,9,9,8,7,6 repetitions/session from 1 to 9 session respectively)×60-second at lowest velocity that elicited V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), 1:3 work to recovery ratio); and 3) the CET group performed 3 times × 60 min paddling sessions (75% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) per week for 3 weeks...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699707/-electrocardiographic-interpretation-in-athletes-2017-recommendations-for-non-cardiologists
#6
Philippe Meyer, Vincent Gabus
A resting electrocardiogram (ECG) is recommended for screening of sudden cardiac death in young athletes. However, ECG interpretation in athletes requires an adequate training because normal physiological training adaptations in athletes can sometimes be hardly distinguished from abnormal findings suggestive of underlying pathology. In 2017, a consensus of international experts established new recommendations for a clear and accurate interpretation of ECGs in athletes. This article aims to guide non-cardiologists according to these new data, allowing a better triage of anomalies requiring further investigations...
July 12, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696985/tart-cherry-juice-in-athletes-a-literature-review-and-commentary
#7
Kenneth C Vitale, Shawn Hueglin, Elizabeth Broad
Tart cherry (TC) juice has many antioxidant and anti-inflammatory polyphenol compounds. TC lessens pain and accelerates strength recovery after exercise and decreases blood markers of inflammation/oxidative stress. These improvements occur in both strength and endurance exercise. TC supplementation may not be optimal during the adaptation/build stage of training. However, excessive inflammatory/oxidative stress during single-day intense training/competition or multiday tournaments may delay return to peak form...
July 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694229/motor-expertise-modulates-neural-oscillations-and-temporal-dynamics-of-cognitive-control
#8
Chun-Hao Wang, Cheng-Ta Yang, David Moreau, Neil G Muggleton
The field of motor expertise in athletes has recently been receiving increasing levels of investigation. However, there has been less investigation of how dynamic changes in behavior and in neural activity as a result of sporting participation might result in superiority for athletes in domain-general cognition. We used a flanker task to investigate conflict-related behavioral measures, such as mean reaction time (RT) and RT variability, in conjunction with electroencephalographic (EEG) measures, including N2d, theta activity power, and inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC)...
July 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682806/cognitive-resilience-and-psychological-responses-across-a-collegiate-rowing-season
#9
Morgan R Shields, M Alison Brooks, Kelli F Koltyn, Jee-Seon Kim, Dane B Cook
INTRODUCTION: Student-athletes face numerous challenges across their competitive season. Although mood states have been previously studied, little is known about adaptations in other psychological responses, specifically cognition. The purpose of this study was to characterize cognitive function, mood, sleep and stress responses at select time-points of a season in collegiate rowers. It was hypothesized that during baseline, typical training and recovery, athletes would show positive mental health profiles, in contrast to decreases in cognition with increases in negative mood and measurements of stress during peak training...
July 5, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670285/muscle-and-tendon-adaptation-in-adolescence-elite-volleyball-athletes-compared-to-untrained-boys-and-girls
#10
Falk Mersmann, Georgios Charcharis, Sebastian Bohm, Adamantios Arampatzis
Though the plasticity of human tendons is well explored in adults, it is still unknown how superimposed mechanical loading by means of athletic training affects the properties of tendons during maturation. Due to the increased responsiveness of muscle to mechanical loading, adolescence is an important phase to investigate the effects of training on the mechanical properties of tendons. Hence, in the present study we compared vastus lateralis (VL) architecture, muscle strength of the knee extensor muscles and patellar tendon mechanical properties of male and female adolescent elite athletes to untrained boys and girls...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662108/short-term-adaptations-following-complex-training-in-team-sports-a-meta-analysis
#11
Tomás T Freitas, Alejandro Martinez-Rodriguez, Julio Calleja-González, Pedro E Alcaraz
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to study the short-term adaptations on sprint and vertical jump (VJ) performance following Complex Training (CT) in team-sports. CT is a resistance training method aimed at developing both strength and power, which has a direct effect on sprint and VJ. It consists on alternating heavy resistance training exercises with plyometric/power ones, set for set, on the same workout. METHODS: A search of electronic databases up to July 2016 (PubMed-MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Knowledge) was conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659826/no-additional-benefits-of-block-over-evenly-distributed-high-intensity-interval-training-within-a-polarized-microcycle
#12
Kerry McGawley, Elisabeth Juudas, Zuzanna Kazior, Kristoffer Ström, Eva Blomstrand, Ola Hansson, Hans-Christer Holmberg
Introduction: The current study aimed to investigate the responses to block- versus evenly-distributed high-intensity interval training (HIT) within a polarized microcycle. Methods: Twenty well-trained junior cross-country skiers (10 males, age 17.6 ± 1.5 and 10 females, age 17.3 ± 1.5) completed two, 3-week periods of training (EVEN and BLOCK) in a randomized, crossover-design study. In EVEN, 3 HIT sessions (5 × 4-min of diagonal-stride roller-skiing) were completed at a maximal sustainable intensity each week while low-intensity training (LIT) was distributed evenly around the HIT...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656110/erythrocyte-omega-3-fatty-acid-content-in-elite-athletes-in-response-to-omega-3-supplementation-a-dose-response-pilot-study
#13
Franchek Drobnic, Félix Rueda, Victoria Pons, Montserrat Banquells, Begoña Cordobilla, Joan Carles Domingo
INTRODUCTION: Supplementation of Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) in athletes is related to the anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant effect and consequently its action on all the processes of tissue restoration and adaptation to physical stress. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the Omega-3 Index (O3Ix) response, in red blood cells, to supplemental EPA + DHA intake in the form of high purity and stable composition gums (G), in elite summer athletes. METHOD: Twenty-four summer sport athletes of both sexes, pertaining to the Olympic Training Center in Spain, were randomized to two groups (2G = 760 or 3G = 1140 mg of n-3 FA in Omegafort OKids, Ferrer Intl...
2017: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639445/periodized-training-archive-better-autonomic-modulation-and-aerobic-performance-than-non-periodized-training
#14
Vicente J Clemente-Suarez
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present research was to analyze autonomic response and aerobic performance after performing three different workloads training distributions. METHODS: Thirty athletes (38.7±9.8 years. 174.7±6.5 cm. 72.0±9.8 kg) were randomly divided in 3 groups of 10 participants each one to perform 3 different 4-week training programs: PRO group: increasing the aerobic training intensity during the 4-weeks; UNI group: performing a uniform aerobic intensity every week; and FRE group performing a free training...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630601/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-diets-and-body-composition
#15
REVIEW
Alan A Aragon, Brad J Schoenfeld, Robert Wildman, Susan Kleiner, Trisha VanDusseldorp, Lem Taylor, Conrad P Earnest, Paul J Arciero, Colin Wilborn, Douglas S Kalman, Jeffrey R Stout, Darryn S Willoughby, Bill Campbell, Shawn M Arent, Laurent Bannock, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Jose Antonio
Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of diet types (macronutrient composition; eating styles) and their influence on body composition. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1) There is a multitude of diet types and eating styles, whereby numerous subtypes fall under each major dietary archetype. 2) All body composition assessment methods have strengths and limitations. 3) Diets primarily focused on fat loss are driven by a sustained caloric deficit...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628396/differential-in-maximal-aerobic-capacity-by-sex-in-collegiate-endurance-athletes-consuming-a-marginally-low-carbohydrate-diet
#16
Marissa N Baranauskas, Brian Miller, Jordan T Olson, Michelle Boltz, Laura Richardson, Matthew Juravich, Ronald Otterstetter
PURPOSE: Although current sports nutrition recommendations advocate for a high carbohydrate (CHO) intake among endurance athletes, recent research has suggested that training with low CHO availability may augment adaptations to aerobic training. The purpose of this study was to observe the dietary habits of collegiate distance runners and to investigate the effects of habitual CHO intake on aerobic performance [VO2max(post)] during a competitive season. METHODS: During an 8-week trial period, 12 (N = 12) collegiate track athletes recorded their self-selected dietary intake via 24-hour recall...
July 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623425/effects-of-a-20-week-high-intensity-strength-and-sprint-training-program-on-tibial-bone-structure-and-strength-in-middle-aged-and-older-male-sprint-athletes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
T H Suominen, M T Korhonen, M Alén, A Heinonen, A Mero, T Törmäkangas, H Suominen
This randomized, controlled, high-intensity strength and sprint training trial in middle-aged and older male sprint athletes showed significant improvements in mid-tibial structure and strength. The study reveals the adaptability of aging bone, suggesting that through a novel, intensive training stimulus it is possible to strengthen bones during aging. INTRODUCTION: High-load, high-speed and impact-type exercise may be an efficient way of improving bone strength even in old age. We evaluated the effects of combined strength and sprint training on indices of bone health in competitive masters athletes, who serve as a group of older people who are likely to be able to participate in vigorous exercise of this kind...
June 16, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615996/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-safety-and-efficacy-of-creatine-supplementation-in-exercise-sport-and-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Richard B Kreider, Douglas S Kalman, Jose Antonio, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Robert Wildman, Rick Collins, Darren G Candow, Susan M Kleiner, Anthony L Almada, Hector L Lopez
Creatine is one of the most popular nutritional ergogenic aids for athletes. Studies have consistently shown that creatine supplementation increases intramuscular creatine concentrations which may help explain the observed improvements in high intensity exercise performance leading to greater training adaptations. In addition to athletic and exercise improvement, research has shown that creatine supplementation may enhance post-exercise recovery, injury prevention, thermoregulation, rehabilitation, and concussion and/or spinal cord neuroprotection...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597621/hemodynamic-adaptation-to-training-in-visually-impaired-professional-tandem-cyclists
#19
Anna M Kamelska, Krzysztof L Mazurek, Jacek J Nowakowski
BACKGROUND: Cycling is one of the disciplines with the greatest training-induced volumetric changes in cardiovascular systems. The aim of the study was to evaluate the hemodynamic adaptation to 7-month routine training in athletes with and without severe visual impairment. METHODS: The study involved 26 men: visually impaired (VI) (n = 13; 37±12.2 years) and properly sighted (PS) (n = 13; 41±12.8 years) elite tandem-cycling athletes. They underwent hemodynamic variables monitoring at rest and during exercise test by impedance cardiography (ICG), before (in the middle of the transition period) and after 7-month cycling training (at the beginning of the competitive period)...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597618/effects-of-resistance-training-overtraining-and-early-specialization-on-youth-athletes
#20
Benjamin K Walters, Connor R Read, A Reed Estes
INTRODUCTION: In 2014, 60 million youth ages 6-18 participated in some form of generalized athletics. 3.5 million children are injured annually participating in organized sport or recreational activities. While sound physical education can decrease the burden of youth sports injuries, the median annual physical education budget of $764 for United States elementary, middle and high schools may not allow enough flexibility to apply evidenced-based guidelines. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The topics were selected after a careful review of the 2016 National Strength and Conditioning Association Position Statement on Long-Term Athletic Development...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
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