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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470505/grunting-s-competitive-advantage-considerations-of-force-and-distraction
#1
Scott Sinnett, Cj Maglinti, Alan Kingstone
BACKGROUND: Grunting is pervasive in many athletic contests, and empirical evidence suggests that it may result in one exerting more physical force. It may also distract one's opponent. That grunts can distract was supported by a study showing that it led to an opponent being slower and more error prone when viewing tennis shots. An alternative explanation was that grunting masks the sound of a ball being hit. The present study provides evidence against this alternative explanation by testing the effect of grunting in a sport-mixed martial arts-where distraction, rather than masking, is the most likely mechanism...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465607/the-efficacy-of-heart-rate-variability-in-tracking-travel-and-training-stress-in-youth-female-rowers-a-preliminary-study
#2
Julian D Egan-Shuttler, Rohan Edmonds, Stephen J Ives
(248 words)Heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) is a reliable indicator of cardiac parasympathetic activity and has been used in athletic populations to measure training adaptations. To date, there is limited research showing whether HRV is practical in youth female athletes and rowers during short periods of overload training. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the practicality of HRV in documenting training responses during a period of overload training in youth female rowers...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463034/chronic-ketogenic-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-has-minimal-effects-on-acid-base-status-in-elite-athletes
#3
Amelia J Carr, Avish P Sharma, Megan L Ross, Marijke Welvaert, Gary J Slater, Louise M Burke
Although short (up to 3 days) exposure to major shifts in macronutrient intake appears to alter acid-base status, the effects of sustained (>1 week) interventions in elite athletes has not been determined. Using a non-randomized, parallel design, we examined the effect of adaptations to 21 days of a ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) or periodized carbohydrate (PCHO) diet on pre- and post-exercise blood pH, and concentrations of bicarbonate (HCO₃- ) and lactate (La- ) in comparison to a high carbohydrate (HCHO) control...
February 18, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457371/validation-of-a-blood-marker-for-plasma-volume-in-endurance-athletes-during-a-live-high-train-low-altitude-training-camp
#4
Louisa M Lobigs, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Victor L Vuong, Nicolin Tee, Christopher J Gore, Peter Peeling, Brian Dawson, Yorck O Schumacher
Altitude is a confounding factor within the Athlete's Biological Passport (ABP) due, in part, to the plasma volume (PV) response to hypoxia. Here, a newly developed PV blood test is applied to assess the possible efficacy of reducing the influence of PV on the volumetric ABP markers; hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and the OFF-score. Endurance athletes (n=34) completed a 21 night simulated live high: train low protocol (14h.d-1 at 3000m). Bloods were collected twice pre-altitude, at days 3, 8 and 15 at altitude and 1, 7, 21 and 42 days post-altitude...
February 19, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444538/-effects-of-judo-specific-resistance-training-on-kinetic-and-electromyographic-parameters-of-pulling-exercises-in-judo-athletes
#5
Norman Helm, Olaf Prieske, Thomas Muehlbauer, Tom Krüger, Urs Granacher
BACKGROUND: In judo, rapid force production during pulling movements is an important component of athletic performance, which is why this capacity needs to be specifically exercised in judo. This study aimed at examining the effects of a judo-specific resistance training program using a judo ergometer system (PTJ) versus a traditional resistance training regime using a partner (PTP) on kinetics and muscle activity of judo-specific pulling exercises. METHOD: Twenty-four male judo athletes (age: 22 ± 4 years, training experience: 15 ± 3 years) were randomly assigned to two groups...
February 14, 2018: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444412/heart-rate-variability-responses-to-acute-and-repeated-post-exercise-sauna-in-trained-cyclists
#6
Anthony S Leicht, Aaron Halliday, Wade H Sinclair, Shaun D'Auria, Martin Buchheit, Glen P Kenny, Jamie Stanley
Short- to medium-term (i.e. 4-14 days) heating protocols induce physiological adaptations including improved cardiac autonomic modulations, as assessed using heart rate variability, which may contribute to greater exercise performance. Whether similar cardiac autonomic changes occur during an intense heating protocol (sauna) reported to increase plasma volume in athletes remains to be confirmed. This study examined the changes in heart rate and its variability during a single, extreme heat (sauna) exposure and repeated exposures in athletes...
February 14, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444266/fundamentals-of-glycogen-metabolism-for-coaches-and-athletes
#7
Bob Murray, Christine Rosenbloom
The ability of athletes to train day after day depends in large part on adequate restoration of muscle glycogen stores, a process that requires the consumption of sufficient dietary carbohydrates and ample time. Providing effective guidance to athletes and others wishing to enhance training adaptations and improve performance requires an understanding of the normal variations in muscle glycogen content in response to training and diet; the time required for adequate restoration of glycogen stores; the influence of the amount, type, and timing of carbohydrate intake on glycogen resynthesis; and the impact of other nutrients on glycogenesis...
February 10, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444097/the-effects-of-intensified-training-on-resting-metabolic-rate-rmr-body-composition-and-performance-in-trained-cyclists
#8
Amy L Woods, Anthony J Rice, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Alice M Wallett, Bronwen Lundy, Margot A Rogers, Marijke Welvaert, Shona Halson, Andrew McKune, Kevin G Thompson
BACKGROUND: Recent research has demonstrated decreases in resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance following a period of intensified training in elite athletes, however the underlying mechanisms of change remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate how an intensified training period, designed to elicit overreaching, affects RMR, body composition, and performance in trained endurance athletes, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. METHOD: Thirteen (n = 13) trained male cyclists completed a six-week training program consisting of a "Baseline" week (100% of regular training load), a "Build" week (~120% of Baseline load), two "Loading" weeks (~140, 150% of Baseline load, respectively) and two "Recovery" weeks (~80% of Baseline load)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431592/in-season-changes-in-ventricular-morphology-and-systolic-function-in-adolescent-female-athletes
#9
Andrew M Watson, Carol Coutinho, Kristin Haraldsdottir, Stacey Brickson, Warren Dunn, Marlowe Eldridge
PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of physical maturity on the changes in ventricular morphology and function with sport training in female youth athletes. METHODS: Thirty-two female athletes (age 13-18 years) underwent height and weight measurement and 2-D echocardiographic evaluation immediately prior to, and following, a 20-week soccer season. Pre- and post-season left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), ejection fraction (LVEF), stroke volume (LVSV), mass (LVM), and posterior wall thickness (LVPWT), right ventricular end-diastolic diameter (RVEDD), end-diastolic area (RVEDA), and fractional area change (RVFAC), and interventricular septal thickness (IVST) were compared...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420150/adaptations-in-muscle-oxidative-capacity-fiber-size-and-oxygen-supply-capacity-after-repeated-sprint-training-in-hypoxia-combined-with-chronic-hypoxic-exposure
#10
Stephan van der Zwaard, Franck Brocherie, Bengt L G Kom, Grégoire P Millet, Louise Deldicque, Willem J van der Laarse, Olivier Girard, Richard T Jaspers
In this study, we investigate adaptations in muscle oxidative capacity, fiber size and oxygen supply capacity in team-sport athletes after six repeated-sprint sessions in normobaric hypoxia or normoxia combined with 14 days of chronic normobaric hypoxic exposure. Lowland elite field hockey players resided at simulated altitude ({greater than or equal to}14 h∙d-1 at 2800-3000 m) and performed regular training plus six repeated-sprint sessions in normobaric hypoxia (3000 m; LHTLH; n=6) or normoxia (0 m, LHTL; n=6) or lived at sea level with regular training only (LLTL; n=6)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417874/adaptive-working-memory-training-reduces-the-negative-impact-of-anxiety-on-competitive-motor-performance
#11
Emmanuel Ducrocq, Mark Wilson, Tim J Smith, Nazanin Derakshan
Optimum levels of attentional control are essential to prevent athletes from experiencing performance breakdowns under pressure. The current study explored whether training attentional control using the adaptive dual n-back paradigm, designed to directly target processing efficiency of the main executive functions of working memory (WM), would result in transferrable effects on sports performance outcomes. A total of 30 tennis players were allocated to an adaptive WM training or active control group and underwent 10 days of training...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413645/the-role-of-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-assessment-of-highly-trained-athletes
#12
REVIEW
Sabiha Gati, Sanjay Sharma, Dudley Pennell
Exercise-associated benefits on the cardiovascular systems are well established. Although exercise-associated sudden cardiac death is rare, most deaths in young athletes are due to hereditary or congenital cardiac diseases. Athletic adaptation itself is associated with several structural changes that overlap those observed in individuals with cardiomyopathies, often leading to dilemmas for the clinician regarding life-changing decisions including advice against competitive sports participation. Cardiac magnetic resonance plays an increasingly important role in helping to establish an accurate diagnosis in these individuals...
February 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401199/effect-of-a-16-week-combined-strength-and-plyometric-training-program-followed-by-a-detraining-period-on-athletic-performance-in-pubertal-volleyball-players
#13
Abed Fathi, Raouf Hammami, Jason Moran, Rihab Borji, Sonia Sahli, Haithem Rebai
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 16 weeks of combined strength and plyometric training or plyometric training alone, and how a detraining program can modify adaptations in response to the training stimulus. Sixty male volleyball players (circa PHV:-1 to +1 years from PHV) were assigned to a Combined Training group (CTG) (n=20), a Plyometric Training group (PTG) (n=20) or a control group (CG) (n=20). The experimental groups (CTG and PTG) participated in training twice weekly for 16 weeks...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393546/comparison-of-metabolic-adaptations-between-endurance-and-sprint-trained-athletes-after-an-exhaustive-exercise-in-two-different-calf-muscles-using-a-multi-slice-31-p-mr-spectroscopic-sequence
#14
Kevin Moll, Alexander Gussew, Maria Nisser, Steffen Derlien, Martin Krämer, Jürgen R Reichenbach
Measurements of exercise-induced metabolic changes, such as oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide exhalation or lactate concentration, are important indicators for assessing the current performance level of athletes in training science. With exercise-limiting metabolic processes occurring in loaded muscles, 31 P-MRS represents a particularly powerful modality to identify and analyze corresponding training-induced alterations. Against this background, the current study aimed to analyze metabolic adaptations after an exhaustive exercise in two calf muscles (m...
February 2, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372481/the-importance-of-muscular-strength-training-considerations
#15
REVIEW
Timothy J Suchomel, Sophia Nimphius, Christopher R Bellon, Michael H Stone
This review covers underlying physiological characteristics and training considerations that may affect muscular strength including improving maximal force expression and time-limited force expression. Strength is underpinned by a combination of morphological and neural factors including muscle cross-sectional area and architecture, musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate coding, motor unit synchronization, and neuromuscular inhibition. Although single- and multi-targeted block periodization models may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, concepts within each model must be considered within the limitations of the sport, athletes, and schedules...
January 25, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359513/vascular-characteristics-in-young-women-effect-of-extensive-endurance-training-or-a-sedentary-life-style
#16
Niclas Bjarnegård, Toste Länne, Magnus Cinthio, Jan Ekstrand, Kristofer Hedman, Eva Nylander, Jan Henriksson
AIM: To explore whether high level endurance training in early age has an influence on the arterial wall properties in young women. METHODS: Forty-seven athletes (ATH) and 52 controls (CTR), all 17 to 25 years of age, were further divided into runners (RUN), whole-body endurance athletes (WBA), sedentary controls (SC) and normally active controls (AC). 2-D ultrasound scanning of the carotid arteries was performed to determine local common carotid artery (CCA) geometry and wall distensibility...
January 22, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351161/effects-of-contrast-strength-vs-plyometric-training-on-lower-limb-explosive-performance-ability-to-change-direction-and-neuromuscular-adaptation-in-soccer-players
#17
Mehrez Hammami, Nawel Gaamouri, Roy J Shephard, Mohamed Souhaiel Chelly
The aim was to compare the effects of two differing 8-week in-season strength training programs (contrast strength training [CST] vs. plyometric training [PT]) on selected performance tests (5 and 40m sprints, S 4 X 5 m change of direction test, squat (SJ) and countermovement (CMJ) jumps , leg peak power on a cycle ergometer force-velocity test, 1-repetition maximal (1-RM) half squat, and electromyographic [EMG] activity of the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and rectus femoris muscles during vertical jump tests)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345167/dietary-supplements-for-health-adaptation-and-recovery-in-athletes
#18
Eric S Rawson, Mary P Miles, D Enette Larson-Meyer
Some dietary supplements are recommended to athletes based on data that supports improved exercise performance. Other dietary supplements are not ergogenic per se, but may improve health, adaptation to exercise, or recovery from injury, and so could help athletes to train and/or compete more effectively. In this review, we describe several dietary supplements that may improve health, exercise adaptation, or recovery. Creatine monohydrate may improve: recovery from and adaptation to intense training, recovery from periods of injury with extreme inactivity, cognitive processing, and reduce severity of or enhance recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329889/exploring-individual-adaptations-to-an-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury-prevention-programme
#19
Aaron S Fox, Jason Bonacci, Scott G McLean, Natalie Saunders
BACKGROUND: Individual responses to anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programmes (ACL IPPs) have received little attention. This study examined the effects of an ACL IPP on neuromuscular control and lower limb biomechanics during landing at the group and individual levels. METHODS: Sixteen female athletes were randomly allocated to training (n=8) or control (n=8) groups. Electromyography, and three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected during landing at two testing sessions...
January 9, 2018: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320519/the-effect-of-small-sided-games-with-different-levels-of-opposition-on-the-tactical-behaviour-of-young-footballers-with-different-levels-of-sport-expertise
#20
Alba Práxedes, Alberto Moreno, Alexander Gil-Arias, Fernando Claver, Fernando Del Villar
To optimize players' tactical abilities, coaches need to design training sessions with representative learning tasks, such as, small-sided games. Moreover, it is necessary to adapt the complexity of the tasks to the skill level of the athletes to maximally improve their perceptual, visual and attentive abilities. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of two teaching programs, each utilizing modified games with varied levels of opposition, on decision-making and action execution in young players with different levels of sports expertise...
2018: PloS One
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