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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904351/heart-rate-monitoring-in-team-sports-a-conceptual-framework-for-contextualizing-heart-rate-measures-for-training-and-recovery-prescription
#1
Christoph Schneider, Florian Hanakam, Thimo Wiewelhove, Alexander Döweling, Michael Kellmann, Tim Meyer, Mark Pfeiffer, Alexander Ferrauti
A comprehensive monitoring of fitness, fatigue, and performance is crucial for understanding an athlete's individual responses to training to optimize the scheduling of training and recovery strategies. Resting and exercise-related heart rate measures have received growing interest in recent decades and are considered potentially useful within multivariate response monitoring, as they provide non-invasive and time-efficient insights into the status of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and aerobic fitness. In team sports, the practical implementation of athlete monitoring systems poses a particular challenge due to the complex and multidimensional structure of game demands and player and team performance, as well as logistic reasons, such as the typically large number of players and busy training and competition schedules...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893180/potential-adverse-cardiac-remodelling-in-highly-trained-athletes-still-unknown-clinical-significance
#2
Luigi Gabrielli, Marta Sitges, Mario Chiong, Jorge Jalil, María Ocaranza, Silvana Llevaneras, Sebastian Herrera, Rodrigo Fernandez, Rodrigo Saavedra, Fernando Yañez, Luis Vergara, Alexis Diaz, Sergio Lavandero, Pablo Castro
Moderate endurance exercise has long been considered an essential element to maintain cardiovascular health, and sedentary behaviour in the general population has been related to a significant increase in all-causes of mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality and cardiovascular disease incidence. However, a growing group of people performs an intense exercise that leads to multiple heart adaptive changes that are collectively called "athlete's heart". In this review, we discussed the evidence of cardiac remodelling process secondary to repetitive and strenuous exercise in some predisposed athletes that produces intense and probably deleterious changes in cardiac morphology and function with no clear clinical significance in long-term follow-up...
June 12, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888638/strength-and-conditioning-in-adolescent-female-athletes
#3
Corinne Sommi, Frances Gill, Jeffrey D Trojan, Mary K Mulcahey
OBJECTIVES: Despite evidence that strength and conditioning (S&C) programs decrease injury risk and increase sport performance, young females are rarely offered S&C programs comparable to those of their male counterparts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current body of available literature regarding S&C in adolescent female athletes, describe potential benefits, and generate recommendations for S&C programs for female adolescent athletes. METHODS: The systematic review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
June 9, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886418/ventricular-arrhythmias-in-young-competitive-athletes-prevalence-determinants-and-underlying-substrate
#4
Alessandro Zorzi, Manuel De Lazzari, Giulio Mastella, Alice Niero, Domenico Trovato, Alberto Cipriani, Francesco Peruzza, Leonardo Portolan, Giampaolo Berton, Federco Sciacca, Saverio Tollot, Chiara Palermo, Roberto Bellu, Flavio D'ascenzi, Denisa Muraru, Luigi Paolo Badano, Sabino Iliceto, Maurizio Schiavon, Martina Perazzolo Marra, Domenico Corrado
BACKGROUND: Whether ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) represent a feature of the adaptive changes of the athlete's heart remains elusive. We aimed to assess the prevalence, determinants, and underlying substrates of VAs in young competitive athletes. METHOD AND RESULTS: We studied 288 competitive athletes (age range, 16-35 years; median age, 21 years) and 144 sedentary individuals matched for age and sex who underwent 12-lead 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring...
June 9, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875696/protein-and-the-adaptive-response-with-endurance-training-wishful-thinking-or-a-competitive-edge
#5
Pim Knuiman, Maria T E Hopman, Conor Verbruggen, Marco Mensink
The significance of carbohydrates for endurance training has been well established, whereas the role of protein and the adaptive response with endurance training is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this perspective is to discuss the current evidence on the role of dietary protein and the adaptive response with endurance training. On a metabolic level, a single bout of endurance training stimulates the oxidation of several amino acids. Although the amount of amino acids as part of total energy expenditure during exercise is relatively low compared to other substrates (e...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849885/autophagy-is-a-promoter-for-aerobic-exercise-performance-during-high-altitude-training
#6
REVIEW
Ying Zhang, Ning Chen
High altitude training is one of the effective strategies for improving aerobic exercise performance at sea level via altitude acclimatization, thereby improving oxygen transport and/or utilization. But its underlying molecular mechanisms on physiological functions and exercise performance of athletes are still vague. More recent evidence suggests that the recycling of cellular components by autophagy is an important process of the body involved in the adaptive responses to exercise. Whether high altitude training can activate autophagy or whether high altitude training can improve exercise performance through exercise-induced autophagy is still unclear...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848161/an-integrated-multifactorial-approach-to-periodization-for-optimal-performance-in-individual-and-team-sports
#7
Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M Burke, Gloria Balagué, Damian Farrow
Sports periodization has traditionally focused on the exercise aspect of athletic preparation, while neglecting the integration of other elements that can impact an athlete's readiness for peak competition performances. Integrated periodization allows the coordinated inclusion of multiple training components best suited for a given training phase into an athlete's program. The aim of this article is to review the available evidence underpinning integrated periodization, focusing on exercise training, recovery, nutrition, psychological skills, and skill acquisition as key factors by which athletic preparation can be periodized...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29809072/concurrent-training-for-sports-performance-the-two-sides-of-the-medal
#8
Nicolas Berryman, Inigo Mujika, Laurent Bosquet
The classical work by Robert C. Hickson showed in 1980 that the addition of a resistance training protocol to a predominantly aerobic program could lead to impaired leg strength adaptations in comparison to a resistance-only training regimen. This interference phenomenon was later highlighted in many reports, including a meta-analysis. However, it seems that the interference effect has not been consistently reported, probably because of the complex interactions between training variables and methodological issues...
May 29, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803122/an-entropy-approach-for-evaluating-adaptive-motor-learning-processes-while-walking-with-unstable-footwear
#9
Michael Buchecker, Erich Müller, Stefan Wegenkittl, Gerold Sattlecker, Thomas Stöggl
This study evaluated the short- and long-term effects of unstable shoes (US) on the structure/shape of variability in gait. Therefore, sample entropy (SEn) values of centre of mass velocity (vCOM) signals in medio-lateral (ML), anterior-posterior (AP) and vertical (VT) direction were computed for 12 sport students during walking with US and flat shoes (FS) before and after a 10-week accommodation period. Statistical analysis included two-way repeated-measures ANOVA followed by post hoc tests where appropriate (α = 0...
May 23, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797285/parkour-as-a-donor-sport-for-athletic-development-in-youth-team-sports-insights-through-an-ecological-dynamics-lens
#10
Ben William Strafford, Pawel van der Steen, Keith Davids, Joseph Antony Stone
Analyses of talent development in sport have identified that skill can be enhanced through early and continued involvement in donor sports which share affordances (opportunities for action) with a performer's main target sport. Aligning key ideas of the Athletic Skills Model and ecological dynamics theory, we propose how the sport of parkour could provide a representative and adaptive platform for developing athletic skill (e.g. coordination, timing, balance, agility, spatial awareness and muscular strength)...
May 24, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791605/athlete-s-heart-in-a-brazilian-paralympic-judo-team-case-series-study
#11
Japy Angelini Oliveira Filho, Maria Beatriz Monteiro Barros, Ana Fátima Salles, Leandro Santini Echenique, Orlando Campos Filho, Rui Manoel Santos Póvoa
BACKGROUND: Athlete's heart is a term describing the cardiovascular effects of long-term conditioning among highly trained athletes. It is a variation of normal standards. DESIGN AND SETTING: Case series study at the cardiology division of a public university hospital. METHODS: We studied 14 visually handicapped paralympic athletes (8 men) in the national judo team. They were 26.3 ± 6.4 years old, with body mass index 25 ± 14, and had been practicing judo for 9...
March 2018: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757054/pre-season-body-composition-adaptations-in-elite-caucasian-and-polynesian-rugby-union-athletes
#12
Adam J Zemski, Shelley E Keating, Elizabeth M Broad, Damian J March, Karen Hind, Gary J Slater
During pre-season training, rugby union (RU) athletes endeavour to enhance physical performance characteristics that are aligned with on-field success. Specific physique traits are associated with performance, therefore body composition assessment is routinely undertaken in elite environments. This study aimed to quantify pre-season physique changes in elite RU athletes with unique morphology and divergent ethnicity. Twenty-two Caucasian and Polynesian professional RU athletes received dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessments at the beginning and conclusion of an 11-week pre-season...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749641/antioxidant-rich-foods-and-response-to-altitude-training-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-elite-endurance-athletes
#13
Anu Elisa Koivisto, Gøran Paulsen, Ingvild Paur, Ina Garthe, Espen Tønnessen, Truls Raastad, Nasser Ezzatkhah Bastani, Jostein Hallén, Rune Blomhoff, Siv Kjølsrud Bøhn
High doses of isolated antioxidant supplements such as vitamin C and E, have demonstrated the potential to blunt cellular adaptations to training It is, however, unknown whether intake of high doses of antioxidants from foods has similar effects. Hence, the aim of the study was to investigate whether intake of antioxidant-rich foods affects adaptations to altitude training in elite athletes. In a randomized controlled trial, 31 national team endurance athletes (23 ± 5 years), ingested antioxidant-rich foods (n=16) or eucaloric control foods (n=15) daily during a 3-week altitude training camp (2320 m)...
May 11, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746803/urine-specific-gravity-as-an-indicator-of-dehydration-in-olympic-combat-sport-athletes-considerations-for-research-and-practice
#14
Damir Zubac, Reid Reale, Hrvoje Karnincic, Anamaria Sivric, Igor Jelaska
Urine specific gravity (USG ) is the most commonly reported biochemical marker used in research and applied settings to detect fluid deficits in athletes, including those participating in combat sports. Despite the popularity of its use, there has been a growing debate regarding the diagnostic accuracy and the applicability of USG in characterizing whole-body fluid status and fluctuations. Moreover, recent investigations report universally high prevalence of hypohydration (∼90%) via USG assessment in combat sport athletes, often in spite of stable body-mass...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745773/muscle-oxygenation-rather-than-vo-2-max-is-a-strong-predictor-of-performance-in-sprint-canoe-kayak
#15
Myriam Paquette, François Bieuzen, François Billaut
PURPOSE: This study aimed to characterize the relationships between muscle oxygenation and performance during on- and off-water tests in highly trained sprint canoe-kayak athletes. METHODS: Thirty athletes (19 kayakers and 11 canoeists) performed a maximal incremental test on a canoe or kayak ergometer for determination of VO2max and examination of the relation between peak power output (PPO) and physiological parameters. A subset of 21 athletes also performed a 200-m and a 500-m (for women) or 1000-m (for men) on-water time trials...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742749/the-relationship-between-asymmetry-and-athletic-performance-a-critical-review
#16
Sean J Maloney
Maloney, SJ. The relationship between asymmetry and athletic performance: A critical review. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Symmetry may be defined as the quality to demonstrate an exact correspondence of size, shape, and form when split along a given axis. Although it has been widely asserted that the bilateral asymmetries are detrimental to athletic performance, research does not wholly support such an association. Moreover, the research rarely seeks to distinguish between different types of bilateral asymmetry...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720949/active-recovery-after-high-intensity-interval-training-does-not-attenuate-training-adaptation
#17
Thimo Wiewelhove, Christoph Schneider, Alina Schmidt, Alexander Döweling, Tim Meyer, Michael Kellmann, Mark Pfeiffer, Alexander Ferrauti
Objective: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) can be extremely demanding and can consequently produce high blood lactate levels. Previous studies have shown that lactate is a potent metabolic stimulus, which is important for adaptation. Active recovery (ACT) after intensive exercise, however, enhances blood lactate removal in comparison with passive recovery (PAS) and, consequently, may attenuate endurance performance improvements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of regular ACT on training adaptations during a HIIT mesocycle...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719234/maximizing-cellular-adaptation-to-endurance-exercise-in-skeletal-muscle
#18
REVIEW
John A Hawley, Carsten Lundby, James D Cotter, Louise M Burke
The application of molecular techniques to exercise biology has provided novel insight into the complexity and breadth of intracellular signaling networks involved in response to endurance-based exercise. Here we discuss several strategies that have high uptake by athletes and, on mechanistic grounds, have the potential to promote cellular adaptation to endurance training in skeletal muscle. Such approaches are based on the underlying premise that imposing a greater metabolic load and provoking extreme perturbations in cellular homeostasis will augment acute exercise responses that, when repeated over months and years, will amplify training adaptation...
May 1, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710694/seeking-the-optimal-hematocrit-may-hemorheological-modelling-provide-a-solution
#19
Jean-Frédéric Brun, Emmanuelle Varlet-Marie, Marlène Richou, Eric Raynaud de Mauverger
Hematocrit increases during exercise and is usually decreased after regular training. However the interpretation of these facts is ambiguous since hematocrit is both a determinant of oxygen supply and the major determinant of blood viscosity. Classically hematocrit was assumed to impair blood flow, but it has been evidenced to exert a biphasic effect on it. In order to cope with these two apparently opposite effects of hematocrit, hemorheologists have proposed the concept hematocrit/viscosity ratio (h/η). This h/η ratio is related to tissue oxygenation in vascular diseases (eg, POAD) but not in healthy subjects...
April 14, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671383/sport-specific-biomechanical-responses-to-an-acl-injury-prevention-programme-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Jeffrey B Taylor, Kevin R Ford, Randy J Schmitz, Scott E Ross, Terry A Ackerman, Sandra J Shultz
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programmes have not been as successful at reducing injury rates in women's basketball as in soccer. This randomised controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02530333) compared biomechanical adaptations in basketball and soccer players during jump-landing activities after an ACL injury prevention programme. Eighty-seven athletes were cluster randomised into intervention (6-week programme) and control groups. Three-dimensional biomechanical analyses of drop vertical jump (DVJ), double- (SAG-DL) and single-leg (SAG-SL) sagittal, and double- (FRONT-DL) and single-leg (FRONT-SL) frontal plane jump landing tasks were tested before and after the intervention...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
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