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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032729/impact-of-inserted-long-rest-periods-during-repeated-sprint-exercise-on-performance-adaptation
#1
Akiho Ikutomo, Nobukazu Kasai, Kazushige Goto
Repeated sprint training consists of a series of brief maximal sprints, 3-7 s in duration, separated by short rest periods of <60 s. However, little is known about the influence of different rest period lengths between sprints on performance adaptation. We determined the influence of inserting long rest periods during repeated sprint training on performance adaptation in competitive athletes. Twenty-one well-trained athletes were separated into either the short rest period group (SHORT; n = 10) or the long rest period group (LONG; n = 11)...
October 14, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022255/acute-and-chronic-response-to-exercise-in-athletes-the-supernormal-heart
#2
Antonello D'Andrea, Tiziana Formisano, Lucia Riegler, Raffaella Scarafile, Raffaella America, Francesca Martone, Marco di Maio, Maria Giovanna Russo, Eduardo Bossone, Maurizio Galderisi, Raffaele Calabrò
During last decades, most studies have examined the exercise-induced remodeling defined as "athlete's heart". During exercise, there is an increased cardiac output that causes morphological, functional, and electrical modification of the cardiac chambers. The cardiac remodeling depends also on the type of training, age, sex, ethnicity, genetic factors, and body size. The two main categories of exercise, endurance and strength, determine different effects on the cardiac remodeling. Even if most sport comprise both strength and endurance exercise, determining different scenarios of cardiac adaptation to the exercise...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021910/the-training-type-influence-on-male-elite-athletes-ventilatory-function
#3
Tijana Durmic, Biljana Lazovic Popovic, Mirjana Zlatkovic Svenda, Marina Djelic, Vladimir Zugic, Tamara Gavrilovic, Zoran Mihailovic, Marija Zdravkovic, Roman Leischik
BACKGROUND/AIM: To assess and compare measured ventilatory volumes (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), peak expirium flow (PEF) and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV)), ventilatory function capacities (forced vital capacity (FVC) and vital capacity (VC)) and FEV1/VC ratio in a sample of power and endurance elite athletes and their age-matched and sex-matched sedentary control group. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was applied on male elite athletes (n=470) who were classified according to the type of the predominantly performed exercise in the following way: group 1: endurance group (EG=270), group 2: power athletes group (SG=200) and group 3: sedentary control group (CG=100)...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018362/effects-of-unloaded-vs-loaded-plyometrics-on-speed-and-power-performance-of-elite-young-soccer-players
#4
Ronaldo Kobal, Lucas A Pereira, Vinicius Zanetti, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Irineu Loturco
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of loaded and unloaded plyometric training strategies on speed and power performance of elite young soccer players. Twenty-three under-17 male soccer players (age: 15.9 ± 1.2 years, height: 178.3 ± 8.1 cm, body-mass (BM): 68.1 ± 9.3 kg) from the same club took part in this study. The athletes were pair-matched in two training groups: loaded vertical and horizontal jumps using an haltere type handheld with a load of 8% of the athletes' body mass (LJ; n = 12) and unloaded vertical and horizontal plyometrics (UJ; n = 11)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017017/the-effect-of-resistance-training-set-configuration-on-strength-power-and-hormonal-adaptation-in-female-volleyball-players
#5
Hamid Arazi, Aida Khanmohammadi, Abbas Asadi, G Gregory Haff
The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact of altering the set structure during an 8-week resistance training program on anthropometric, hormonal, and strength power characteristics. Thirty female volleyball players were recruited for participation and then randomly assigned to one of three resistance training groups: 1) cluster sets (CRT; n=10), 2) traditional sets (TRT: n=10), or 3) control (CON: n=10). All athletes were evaluated for thigh and arm circumference, vertical jump (VJ), 20-m sprint, 4x9-m shuttle-run, 1 repetition maximum (1RM) back squat, bench press, military press, and deadlift prior to and after an 8-week periodized training intervention...
October 10, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993881/maximal-rate-of-heart-rate-increase-correlates-with-fatigue-recovery-status-in-female-cyclists
#6
Maximillian J Nelson, Clint R Bellenger, Rebecca L Thomson, Eileen Y Robertson, Kade Davison, Daniela Schäfer Olstad, Jonathan D Buckley
PURPOSE: Being able to identify how an athlete is responding to training would be useful to optimise adaptation and performance. The maximal rate of heart rate increase (rHRI), a marker of heart rate acceleration has been shown to correlate with performance changes in response to changes in training load in male athletes; however, it has not been established if it also correlates with performance changes in female athletes. METHODS: rHRI and cycling performance were assessed in six female cyclists following 7 days of light training (LT), 14 days of heavy training (HT) and a 10 day taper period...
October 9, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992020/rapid-communication-dietary-selenium-improves-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-young-equine-athletes
#7
S H White, S Wohlgemuth, C Li, L K Warren
Exercise is known to promote mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle as well as enhance mitochondrial function and efficiency in human and rodent models. These adaptations help to decrease exercise-associated production of reactive oxygen species, which can negatively affect health and performance if antioxidant mechanisms are overwhelmed. Little is known about the adaptations of mitochondria in response to exercise training in the growing horse or if supplementation with a dietary antioxidant can improve mitochondrial function...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990148/athletes-and-the-aorta-normal-adaptations-and-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-pathology
#8
REVIEW
J Stephen Hedley, Dermot Phelan
Over a hundred years ago, physicians first recognized that participation in regular, vigorous training resulted in enlargement of the heart. Since that time, the term "athlete's heart" has entered the medical lexicon as a global expression encompassing the electrical, functional, and morphological adaptations that develop in response to physical training. Exercise-induced adaptations of the aorta, which is also exposed to large hemodynamic stresses during prolonged endurance exercise or resistance training, are less well recognized...
October 9, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983841/evidence-based-concepts-for-prevention-of-knee-and-acl-injuries-2017-guidelines-of-the-ligament-committee-of-the-german-knee-society-dkg
#9
Julian Mehl, Theresa Diermeier, Elmar Herbst, Andreas B Imhoff, Thomas Stoffels, Thore Zantop, Wolf Petersen, Andrea Achtnich
INTRODUCTION: Knee injuries and especially anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are frequent in athletes. Therefore, primary and secondary prevention of sports-related lower limb injuries is an ongoing topic of interest. The aim of present study was to establish guidelines for the prevention of knee and ACL injuries on the basis of evidence-based concepts represented in current literature. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review regarding prevention programs for knee and ACL injuries was conducted...
October 5, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958144/assessment-of-pn-gal-as-a-marker-of-renal-function-in-elite-cyclists-during-professional-competitions
#10
A Andreazzoli, C Fossati, A Spaccamiglio, R Salvo, F Quaranta, C Minganti, L Di Luigi, P Borrione
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) has been shown to be lower than physiological values during exercise with a strong negative correlation with exercise intensity. Among new markers of renal function, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) seems to be very promising. It is an early, sensitive and specific marker of acute kidney injury (AKI) with two isoforms: plasma NGAL (pNGAL) and urinary NGAL (uNGAL). The aim of the present study was to assess acute variations in NGAL plasma levels after performing high endurance physical exercise in a group of professional cyclists during the two major European professional cycling competitions (Giro D’Italia and Tour de France)...
July 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955250/primary-motor-cortex-excitability-in-karate-athletes-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-study
#11
Vincenzo Monda, Anna Valenzano, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Monica Salerno, Francesco Sessa, Antonio I Triggiani, Andrea Viggiano, Laura Capranica, Gabriella Marsala, Vincenzo De Luca, Luigi Cipolloni, Maria Ruberto, Francesco Precenzano, Marco Carotenuto, Christian Zammit, Monica Gelzo, Marcellino Monda, Giuseppe Cibelli, Giovanni Messina, Antonietta Messina
Purpose: The mechanisms involved in the coordination of muscle activity are not completely known: to investigate adaptive changes in human motor cortex Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was often used. The sport models are frequently used to study how the training may affect the corticospinal system excitability: Karate represents a valuable sport model for this kind of investigations for its high levels of coordination required to athletes. This study was aimed at examining possible changes in the resting motor threshold (rMT) and in the corticospinal response in karate athletes, and at determining whether athletes are characterized by a specific value of rMT...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948583/a-narrative-review-of-the-physical-demands-and-injury-incidence-in-american-football-application-of-current-knowledge-and-practices-in-workload-management
#12
REVIEW
Toby Edwards, Tania Spiteri, Benjamin Piggott, G Gregory Haff, Christopher Joyce
The sport of American football (AmF) exposes athletes to high-velocity movements and frequent collisions during competition and training, placing them at risk of contact and non-contact injury. Due to the combative nature of the game, the majority of injuries are caused by player contact; however, a significant number are also non-contact soft-tissue injuries. The literature suggests that this mechanism of injury can be prevented through workload monitoring and management. The recent introduction of microtechnology into AmF allows practitioners and coaches to quantify the external workload of training and competition to further understand the demands of the sport...
September 25, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948538/the-right-heart-acute-and-chronic-issues
#13
REVIEW
Timothy W Churchill, Aaron L Baggish
Cardiovascular remodeling in response to sustained moderate and high-intensity exercise is a well-established phenomenon. Following more than a century of work focused on the left ventricle (LV), remodeling of the right side of the heart has recently become a topic of considerable scientific and clinical interest. Morphologic and functional changes have now been well documented in the right ventricle (RV) after isolated bouts of endurance exercise and in association with long-term sustained training. Although exercise-induced cardiac remodeling is classically viewed as an adaptive, clinically benign process, it has recently been hypothesized that repetitive bouts of intense exercise may trigger pathologic changes in the RV characterized by patchy fibrosis and a predisposition to arrhythmia...
September 25, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933713/adaptations-associated-with-an-after-school-strength-and-conditioning-program-in-middle-school-aged-boys-a-quasi-experimental-design
#14
Brennan J Thompson, Matt S Stock, Jacob A Mota, Alexander S Drusch, Ryan N DeFranco, Tyler R Cook, Matthew A Hamm
High-intensity strength and conditioning programs aimed at improving youth performance are becoming increasingly prevalent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 16-week after-school strength and conditioning program on performance and body composition in middle-school-aged boys. Subjects in the training group (n = 16, mean age = 11.8 years) performed 90 minutes of supervised plyometric and resistance training twice weekly for 16 weeks. A group of control subjects (n = 9, age = 12.1 years) maintained their current activity levels...
October 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933024/effects-of-rest-interval-duration-in-resistance-training-on-measures-of-muscular-strength-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Jozo Grgic, Brad J Schoenfeld, Mislav Skrepnik, Timothy B Davies, Pavle Mikulic
BACKGROUND: Rest interval (RI) duration is an important resistance-training variable underlying gain in muscular strength. Recommendations for optimal RI duration for gains in muscular strength are largely inferred from studies examining the acute resistance training effects, and the generalizability of such findings to chronic adaptations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: The goals of this systematic literature review are: (i) to aggregate findings and interpret the studies that assessed chronic muscular strength adaptations to resistance training interventions involving different RI durations, and (ii) to provide evidence-based recommendations for exercise practitioners and athletes...
September 20, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929623/influence-of-combined-iron-supplementation-and-simulated-hypoxia-on-the-haematological-module-of-the-athlete-biological-passport
#16
Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Victor L Vuong, Andrew D Govus, Yorck Olaf Schumacher, David Hughes, Greg Lovell, Daniel Eichner, Christopher J Gore
The integrity of Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) is underpinned by understanding normal fluctuations of its biomarkers to environmental or medical conditions, e.g. altitude training or iron deficiency. The combined impact of altitude and iron supplementation on the ABP was evaluated in endurance-trained athletes (n=34) undertaking 3-weeks of simulated live-high: train-low (14 h.d(-1) , 3000m). Athletes received either oral, intravenous (IV) or placebo iron supplementation, commencing two weeks prior and continuing throughout hypoxic exposure...
September 19, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928069/comments-on-the-new-international-criteria-for-electrocardiographic-interpretation-in-athletes
#17
Luis Serratosa-Fernández, Domingo Pascual-Figal, María Dolores Masiá-Mondéjar, María Sanz-de la Garza, Zigor Madaria-Marijuan, Juan Ramón Gimeno-Blanes, Carmen Adamuz
Sudden cardiac death is the most common medical cause of death during the practice of sports. Several structural and electrical cardiac conditions are associated with sudden cardiac death in athletes, most of them showing abnormal findings on resting electrocardiogram (ECG). However, because of the similarity between some ECG findings associated with physiological adaptations to exercise training and those of certain cardiac conditions, ECG interpretation in athletes is often challenging. Other factors related to ECG findings are race, age, sex, sports discipline, training intensity, and athletic background...
September 16, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917030/the-role-of-intra-session-exercise-sequence-in-the-interference-effect-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Lee Eddens, Ken van Someren, Glyn Howatson
BACKGROUND: There is a necessity for numerous sports to develop strength and aerobic capacity simultaneously, placing a significant demand upon the practice of effective concurrent training methods. Concurrent training requires the athlete to perform both resistance and endurance exercise within a training plan. This training paradigm has been associated with an 'interference effect', with attenuated strength adaptation in comparison to that following isolated resistance training. The effectiveness of the training programme rests on the intricacies of manipulating acute training variables, such as exercise sequence...
September 15, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913725/exercise-and-competitive-sport-physiology-adaptations-and-uncertain-long-term-risks
#19
REVIEW
Patrick T Gleason, Jonathan H Kim
The benefits of regular and moderate exercise training on cardiovascular outcomes have been well established. In addition, strenuous exercise training leads to corollary cardiac structural and functional adaptations that are sport-specific and facilitate athletic performance. In this review, the normal physiologic and hemodynamic changes that occur during exercise and the subsequent differential exercise-induced cardiac remodeling patterns that develop will be discussed. Paradoxically, recent data have raised concern about the long-term impact of higher doses of physical activity and exercise on mortality and cardiovascular health outcomes...
September 14, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902119/determination-of-vertical-jump-as-a-measure-of-neuromuscular-readiness-and-fatigue
#20
Casey M Watkins, Saldiam R Barillas, Megan A Wong, David C Archer, Ian J Dobbs, Robert G Lockie, Jared W Coburn, Tai T Tran, Lee E Brown
Coaches closely monitor training loads and periodize sessions throughout the season to create optimal adaptations at the proper time. However, only monitoring training loads ignores the innate physiological stress each athlete feels individually. Vertical jump (VJ) is widely used as a measure of lower body power, and has been used in post-match studies to demonstrate fatigue levels. However, no pre-training monitoring via VJ performance has been previously studied. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of VJ as a measure of readiness and fatigue on a daily sessional basis...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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