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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239989/a-systematic-review-of-the-association-between-physical-fitness-and-musculoskeletal-injury-risk-part-3-flexibility-power-speed-balance-and-agility
#1
Sarah J de la Motte, Peter Lisman, Timothy C Gribbin, Kaitlin Murphy, Patricia A Deuster
We performed a systematic review and evaluation of the existing scientific literature on the association between flexibility, power, speed, balance, and agility, and musculoskeletal injury (MSK-I) risk in military and civilian populations. MEDLINE, EBSCO, EMBASE, and the Defense Technical Information Center were searched for original studies published from 1970 through 2015 that examined associations between these physical fitness measures (flexibility, power, speed, balance, and agility) and MSK-I. Methodological quality and strength of the evidence were determined following criteria adapted from previously published systematic reviews...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239986/practical-model-of-low-volume-paddling-based-sprint-interval-training-improves-aerobic-and-anaerobic-performances-in-professional-female-canoe-polo-athletes
#2
Mohsen Sheykhlouvand, Erfan Khalili, Mohammadali Gharaat, Hamid Arazi, Mousa Khalafi, Bahman Tarverdizadeh
Brief, intense exercise training employing running and cycling as exercise interventions may induce aerobic and anaerobic adaptations in athletes from wide range of sports. However, this has not been studied extensively for those sports in which the upper-body is predominantly involved. Our purpose was to examine the effects of kayak paddling-based sprint interval training (SIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness and anaerobic performance. 16 professional female canoe polo athletes (age = 27.6 ± 1.9 years; height = 165...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238242/heart-rate-variability-is-a-moderating-factor-in-the-workload-injury-relationship-of-competitive-crossfit%C3%A2-athletes
#3
Sean Williams, Thomas Booton, Matthew Watson, Daniel Rowland, Marco Altini
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a popular tool for monitoring training adaptation and readiness in athletes, but it also has the potential to indicate early signs of somatic tissue overload prior to the onset of pain or fully developed injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between HRV, workloads, and risk of overuse problems in competitive CrossFit™ athletes. Daily resting HRV and workloads (duration × session-RPE) were recorded in six competitive CrossFit™ athletes across a 16 week period...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222606/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-axis-functioning-in-overtraining-syndrome-findings-from-endocrine-and-metabolic-responses-on-overtraining-syndrome-eros-eros-hpa-axis
#4
Flavio A Cadegiani, Claudio E Kater
BACKGROUND: Overtraining syndrome (OTS) results from excessive training load without adequate recovery and leads to decreased performance and fatigue. The pathophysiology of OTS in athletes is not fully understood, which makes accurate diagnosis difficult. Previous studies indicate that alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may be responsible for OTS; however, the data is not conclusive. This study aimed to compare, through gold standard and exercise-independent tests, the response of the HPA axis in OTS-affected athletes (OTS group) to healthy physically active subjects (ATL group) and healthy non-active subjects (NCS group)...
December 8, 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212672/cardiovascular-response-to-prescribed-detraining-among-recreational-athletes
#5
Charles Richard Pedlar, Marcel G Brown, Robert E Shave, James M Otto, Aimee Drane, Jennifer Michaud-Finch, Miranda Contursi, Meagan M Wasfy, Adolph Hutter, Michael H Picard, Gregory D Lewis, Aaron L Baggish
Exercise-induced cardiac remodeling (EICR) and the attendant myocardial adaptations characteristic of the athlete's heart may regress during periods of exercise reduction or abstinence. The time course and mechanisms underlying this reverse remodeling, specifically the impact of concomitant plasma volume (PV) contraction on cardiac chamber size, remain incompletely understood. We therefore studied recreational runners (n=21, aged 34 ± 7 years; 48% male) who completed an 18-week training program (~7 h.w-1) culminating in the 2016 Boston Marathon after which total exercise exposure was confined to <2 h...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212609/effect-of-combined-exercise-versus-aerobic-only-training-on-skeletal-muscle-lipid-metabolism-in-a-rodent-model-of-type1-diabetes
#6
Michelle S Dotzert, Matthew W McDonald, Michael R Murray, J Zachary Nickels, Earl G Noble, C W James Melling
OBJECTIVES: Abnormal skeletal muscle lipid metabolism is associated with insulin resistance in people with type 1 diabetes. Although lipid metabolism is restored with aerobic exercise training, the risk for postexercise hypoglycemia is increased with this modality. Integrating resistance and aerobic exercise is associated with reduced hypoglycemic risk; however, the effects of this exercise modality on lipid metabolism and insulin resistance remain unknown. We compared the effects of combined (aerobic + resistance) versus aerobic exercise training on oxidative capacity and muscle lipid metabolism in a rat model of type 1 diabetes...
December 4, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210955/comparison-between-power-off-ice-test-and-performance-on-ice-anaerobic-testing
#7
Vincent Gosselin Boucher, Andrée-Anne Parent, Fanie St-Jean Miron, Mario Leone, Alain Steve Comtois
The importance of specific testing has been shown in ice hockey performance and the understanding and connection between them may lead to adapting training and follow up in elite athletes. The aim of the present study was to compare two off-ice power tests with performances on ice with a complete professional hockey team. The broad jump test and the vertical jump test were used for the off-ice evaluations, while the SAS-40 and the repeated skate sprint modify (RSSm) tests were used as the performance variables...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210324/patterns-of-locomotor-regulation-during-the-pole-vault-approach-phase
#8
Laurie Needham, Timothy A Exell, Ian N Bezodis, Gareth Irwin
A successful approach phase is key to achieving high performances in the pole vault. The aim of this study was to explore the nature of locomotor control patterns during the pole vault approach phase. Fourteen well-trained athletes performed ten jumps which were recorded using 2D video sampling at 200 Hz and analysed. Key kinematics were reconstructed from camera data using a modified 2D-DLT. Patterns of regulation were determined from the standard deviation of footfall locations during the approach phase...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206785/three-weeks-of-overload-training-increases-resting-muscle-sympathetic-activity
#9
Alexandra M Coates, Anthony V Incognito, Jeremy D Seed, Connor J Doherty, Philip J Millar, Jamie F Burr
PURPOSE: Overload training is hypothesized to alter autonomic regulation, though interpretations using indirect measures of heart rate variability are conflicting. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of overload training on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), a direct measure of central sympathetic outflow, in recreational endurance athletes. METHODS: Measurements of heart rate variability, cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), MSNA (microneurography), and sympathetic BRS were obtained in seventeen healthy triathletes and cyclists after 1-week of reduced training (baseline) and following 3-weeks of either regular (CON, n=7) or overload (OL, n=10) training...
December 2, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189930/periodization-theory-confronting-an-inconvenient-truth
#10
John Kiely
Periodization theory has, over the past seven decades, emerged as the preeminent training planning paradigm. The philosophical underpinnings of periodization theory can be traced back to the integration of diverse shaping influences, whereby coaching beliefs and traditions were blended with historically available scientific insights and contextualized against pervading social planning models. Since then, many dimensions of elite preparation have evolved significantly, as driven by a combination of coaching innovations and science-led advances in training theory, techniques, and technologies...
November 30, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187343/an-ehealth-application-of-self-reported-sports-related-injuries-and-illnesses-in-paralympic-sport-pilot-feasibility-and-usability-study
#11
Kristina Fagher, Jenny Jacobsson, Örjan Dahlström, Toomas Timpka, Jan Lexell
BACKGROUND: Sport participation is associated with a risk of sports-related injuries and illnesses, and Paralympic athletes' additional medical issues can be a challenge to health care providers and medical staff. However, few prospective studies have assessed sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport (SRIIPS) over time. Advances in mobile phone technology and networking systems offer novel opportunities to develop innovative eHealth applications for collection of athletes' self-reports...
November 29, 2017: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182431/impact-induced-muscle-damage-and-contact-sport-aetiology-effects-on-neuromuscular-function-and-recovery-and-the-modulating-effects-of-adaptation-and-recovery-strategies
#12
Mitchell Naughton, Joanna Miller, Gary J Slater
Athletes involved in contact-sports are habitually exposed to skeletal muscle damage as part of their training and performance environments. This often leads to exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) resulting from repeated eccentric and/or high-intensity exercise, and impact-induced muscle damage (IIMD) resulting from collisions with opponents and the playing surface. Whilst EIMD has been an area of extensive investigation, IIMD has received comparatively little research, with the magnitude and timeframe of alterations following IIMD not presently well understood...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173470/effect-of-long-term-aerobic-anaerobic-and-aerobic-anaerobic-physical-training-in-seric-toxic-minerals-concentrations
#13
Marcos Maynar-Mariño, Francisco Llerena, Ignacio Bartolomé, Carmen Crespo, Diego Muñoz, María-Concepción Robles, María-Jesús Caballero
BACKGROUND: Many substances poured out from industries can be toxic to humans and can impair physical performance. Besides, physical training may modify the body concentrations of these substances as a result of physiological adaptations. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine if different modalities of exercise might affect serum concentrations of toxic trace elements in sportsmen. METHODS: 80 Spanish national sportsmen were recruited before the start of their training period...
January 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161335/shoulder-complaints-in-wheelchair-athletes-a-systematic-review
#14
Omar W Heyward, Riemer J K Vegter, Sonja de Groot, Lucas H V van der Woude
BACKGROUND: In recent years the popularity of disabled sports and competition among disabled athletes has grown considerably. With this rise in exposure of, and participation in wheelchair sports comes an increase in related stressors, including musculoskeletal load. External mechanical loading may increase the risk of shoulder complaints. The objective of this literature review was to 1) identify and describe the prevalence and/or incidence of shoulder complaints in wheelchair athletes in the literature, to 2) examine the factors and underlying mechanisms that could be potentially involved, and 3) provide some insights into the development of preventative measures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161094/the-effect-of-resistance-training-in-a-hypoxic-chamber-on-physical-performance-in-elite-rugby-athletes
#15
Brad Mayo, Cory Miles, Stacy Sims, Matthew Driller
Mayo, Brad, Cory Miles, Stacy Sims, and Matthew Driller. The effect of resistance training in a hypoxic chamber on physical performance in elite rugby athletes. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-Limited research suggests that muscle adaptations may be enhanced through resistance training in a hypoxic environment. Seventeen professional rugby union athletes (age [mean ± SD], 24 ± 3 years; body mass, 98.7 ± 12.8 kg; and height, 188.9 ± 7.9 cm), performed 12 resistance training sessions over a 3-week period...
November 21, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143667/validation-of-whole-blood-transcriptome-signature-during-microdose-recombinant-human-erythropoietin-rhuepo-administration
#16
Guan Wang, Jérôme Durussel, Jonathan Shurlock, Martin Mooses, Noriyuki Fuku, Georgie Bruinvels, Charles Pedlar, Richard Burden, Andrew Murray, Brendan Yee, Anne Keenan, John D McClure, Pierre-Edouard Sottas, Yannis P Pitsiladis
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) can improve human performance and is therefore frequently abused by athletes. As a result, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) introduced the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) as an indirect method to detect blood doping. Despite this progress, challenges remain to detect blood manipulations such as the use of microdoses of rHuEpo. METHODS: Forty-five whole-blood transcriptional markers of rHuEpo previously derived from a high-dose rHuEpo administration trial were used to assess whether microdoses of rHuEpo could be detected in 14 trained subjects and whether these markers may be confounded by exercise (n = 14 trained subjects) and altitude training (n = 21 elite runners and n = 4 elite rowers, respectively)...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140431/microvascular-adaptations-to-exercise-protective-effect-of-pgc-1-alpha
#17
Andrew O Kadlec, Chad Barnes, Matthew J Durand, David D Gutterman
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior and obesity are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Regular physical activity has independent protective effects on the cardiovascular system, but the mechanisms responsible remain elusive. Recent studies suggest that the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) participates in the response to exercise training. We hypothesized that the arterioles of athletes maintain dilation to flow despite combined inhibition of multiple vasodilators, but loss of PGC-1α renders these vessels susceptible to inhibition of a single vasodilator pathway...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140157/case-study-body-composition-periodization-in-an-olympic-level-female-middle-distance-runner-over-a-9-year-career
#18
Trent Stellingwerff
This case-study features an Olympic-level female middle-distance runner implementing a science-based approach to body composition periodization. Data is emerging to suggest that it is not sustainable from a health and/or performance perspective to be at peak body composition year-round, so body composition needs to be strategically periodized. Anthropometric (n=44), hematological, other health measures and 1500m race performances (n=83) were periodically assessed throughout a 9-year career. General preparation phase (September to April) featured the athlete at ~2 to 4% over ideal competition phase body weight (BW) and body fat (%) with optimal energy availability being prioritized...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135639/sleep-and-athletic-performance
#19
Andrew M Watson
Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training...
November 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129160/visual-but-not-motor-processes-predict-simple-visuomotor-reaction-time-of-badminton-players
#20
Thorben Hülsdünker, Heiko K Strüder, Andreas Mierau
The athlete's brain exhibits significant functional adaptations that facilitate visuomotor reaction performance. However, it is currently unclear if the same neurophysiological processes that differentiate athletes from non-athletes also determine performance within a homogeneous group of athletes. This information can provide valuable help for athletes and coaches aiming to optimize existing training regimes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the neurophysiological correlates of visuomotor reaction performance in a group of skilled athletes...
November 12, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
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