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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352556/what-causes-psychosis-an-umbrella-review-of-risk-and-protective-factors
#1
Joaquim Radua, Valentina Ramella-Cravaro, John P A Ioannidis, Abraham Reichenberg, Nacharin Phiphopthatsanee, Taha Amir, Hyi Yenn Thoo, Dominic Oliver, Cathy Davies, Craig Morgan, Philip McGuire, Robin M Murray, Paolo Fusar-Poli
Psychosis is a heterogeneous psychiatric condition for which a multitude of risk and protective factors have been suggested. This umbrella review aimed to classify the strength of evidence for the associations between each factor and psychotic disorders whilst controlling for several biases. The Web of Knowledge database was searched to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies which examined associations between socio-demographic, parental, perinatal, later factors or antecedents and psychotic disorders, and which included a comparison group of healthy controls, published from 1965 to January 31, 2017...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352468/developmental-plasticity-of-gabaergic-neurotransmission-to-brainstem-motoneurons
#2
Lila Buls Wollman, Richard B Levine, Ralph F Fregosi
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) signalling regulates neuronal differentiation and synaptogenesis. Here we test the hypothesis that developmental nicotine exposure (DNE) disrupts the development of GABAergic synaptic transmission to hypoglossal motoneurons (XIIMNs). GABAergic spontaneous and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSC/mIPSC) were recorded from XIIMNs in brainstem slices from control and DNE rat pups of either sex, 1-5 days old, at baseline and following acute stimulation of nAChRs with nicotine...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352463/temperature-dependency-of-intraguild-predation-between-native-and-invasive-crabs
#3
Tanya L Rogers, Tarik C Gouhier, David L Kimbro
Environmental factors such as temperature can affect the geographical distribution of species directly by exceeding physiological tolerances, or indirectly by altering physiological rates that dictate the sign and strength of species interactions. Although the direct effects of environmental conditions are relatively well studied, the effects of environmentally-mediated species interactions have garnered less attention. In this study, we examined the temperature-dependency of size-structured intraguild predation (IGP) between native blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus, the IG predator) and invasive green crabs (Carcinus maenas, the IG prey) to evaluate how the effect of temperature on competitive and predatory rates may influence the latitudinal distribution of these species...
January 20, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352260/effect-of-in-vitro-storage-duration-on-measured-mechanical-properties-of-brain-tissue
#4
Wei Zhang, Li-Fu Liu, Yue-Jiao Xiong, Yi-Fan Liu, Sheng-Bo Yu, Cheng-Wei Wu, Weihong Guo
Accurate characterization of the mechanical properties of brain tissue is essential for understanding the mechanisms of traumatic brain injuries and developing protective gears or facilities. However, how storage conditions might affect the mechanical properties of brain tissue remains unclear. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of in vitro storage duration on the mechanical performance of brain tissue since measurements are usually carried out in vitro. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements and uniaxial compression mechanical experiments are carried out...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351895/a-tailored-web-based-intervention-to-improve-parenting-risk-and-protective-factors-for-adolescent-depression-and-anxiety-problems-postintervention-findings-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Marie Bee Hui Yap, Shireen Mahtani, Ronald M Rapee, Claire Nicolas, Katherine A Lawrence, Andrew Mackinnon, Anthony F Jorm
BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders in young people are a global health concern. Parents have an important role in reducing the risk of these disorders, but cost-effective, evidence-based interventions for parents that can be widely disseminated are lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the postintervention effects of the Partners in Parenting (PiP) program on parenting risk and protective factors for adolescent depression and anxiety, and on adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351167/can-caffeine-intake-improve-neuromuscular-and-technical-tactical-performance-during-judo-matches
#6
Marina Saldanha da Silva Athayde, Rafael Lima Kons, Daniele Detanico
This study aimed to verify the effect of caffeine intake on blood lactate concentrations and neuromuscular and technical-tactical performance during simulated judo matches. Fourteen male judo athletes received capsules containing caffeine or placebo and were evaluated in both conditions. Before the baseline and 1 hour after the caffeine/placebo intake, athletes performed the countermovement jump test (CMJ), handgrip strength, judogi grip strength test (JGST), and blood samples were collected. Subsequently, the athletes were submitted to three 5 minute matches with 15 minute intervals...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351165/the-relationship-between-maximum-pull-up-repetitions-and-first-repetition-mean-concentric-velocity
#7
George K Beckham, Joshua J Olmeda, Alexandra J Flores, Julian A Echeverry, Alexus F Campos, Steven B Kim
Mean concentric velocity (MCV) of exercise execution has been used by strength and conditioning professionals to improve exercise technique, provide accurate feedback, and predict exercise one repetition maximum. There is still limited research on velocity based training and currently only one research study on the pull-up exercise. The primary purpose of this research was to determine if the maximum number of pull-ups an individual can perform can be predicted by the MCV of a single pull-up repetition. Forty-nine healthy men and women were recruited who reported they could do at least two pull-ups...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351164/body-mass-index-versus-body-fat-percentage-in-prospective-nfl-athletes-overestimation-of-obesity-rate-in-athletes-at-the-nfl-scouting-combine
#8
Capt Matthew T Provencher, Jorge Chahla, George Sanchez, Mark E Cinque, Nicholas I Kennedy, Jim Whalen, Mark D Price, Gilbert Moatshe, Robert F LaPrade
Obesity has been previously noted as a major issue in the National Football League (NFL), where it has been shown that 97% of all players demonstrate a body mass index (BMI) of ≥25.0 with a reported obesity rate of 56% (BMI ≥30.0). However, BMI does not take into account body composition by mass, and may overestimate prevalence of obesity. The purposes of this study were to (1) determine the validity of BMI as a measure of body fat percentage and obesity in athletes at the NFL Combine, to define the obesity rate based on body fat percentage compared to BMI...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351161/effects-of-contrast-strength-vs-plyometric-training-on-lower-limb-explosive-performance-ability-to-change-direction-and-neuromuscular-adaptation-in-soccer-players
#9
Mehrez Hammami, Nawel Gaamouri, Roy J Shephard, Mohamed Souhaiel Chelly
The aim was to compare the effects of two differing 8-week in-season strength training programs (contrast strength training [CST] vs. plyometric training [PT]) on selected performance tests (5 and 40m sprints, S 4 X 5 m change of direction test, squat (SJ) and countermovement (CMJ) jumps , leg peak power on a cycle ergometer force-velocity test, 1-repetition maximal (1-RM) half squat, and electromyographic [EMG] activity of the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and rectus femoris muscles during vertical jump tests)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351031/strengths-and-difficulties-questionnaire-sdq-informant-agreement-between-children-born-with-cleft-lip-and-or-palate-and-their-parents
#10
Susanna Memmen Bjerke, Kristin Billaud Feragen, Svein Bergvik
OBJECTIVE: Informant discrepancies on psychological measures may affect the assessment, classification, and treatment of children's mental health. Concordance between different informants has been shown to be low to moderately correlated. The present study examined the agreement between children with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) and their parents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from 7 consecutive birth cohorts based on routine psychological assessments at age 10 with comparisons to national reference groups...
February 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350945/controlled-phase-gate-for-photons-based-on-stationary-light
#11
Ivan Iakoupov, Johannes Borregaard, Anders S Sørensen
We propose a method to induce strong effective interactions between photons mediated by an atomic ensemble. To achieve this, we use the so-called stationary light effect to enhance the interaction. Regardless of the single-atom coupling to light, the interaction strength between the photons can be enhanced by increasing the total number of atoms. For sufficiently many atoms, the setup can be viable as a controlled-phase gate for photons. We derive analytical expressions for the fidelities for two modes of gate operation: deterministic and heralded conditioned on the presence of two photons at the output...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350731/the-oxidation-of-sulfur-iv-by-reaction-with-iron-iii-a-critical-review-and-data-analysis
#12
Peter Warneck
The dependences on ionic strength of the hydrolysis constants of Fe3+ and of the first dissociation constant of sulfurous acid are briefly reviewed. The data are needed to derive from apparent stability constants reported in the literature the stability constants for the three iron-sulfito complexes defined by the equilibria (c1) FeOH2+ + HSO3- = FeSO3+ + H2O, (c2) FeSO3+ + HSO3- = Fe(SO3)2- + H+, (c3a) Fe(SO3)2- + HSO3- = Fe(SO3)3H2-, where Kc1 = 1982 ± 518 dm3 mol-1, Kc2 = 0.72 ± 0.08, Kc3a = 189 ± 9 dm3 mol-1 (ionic strength μ = 0...
January 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350629/conductive-films-of-silver-nanoparticles-as-novel-susceptors-for-induction-welding-of-thermoplastic-composites
#13
Rouhollah Dermanaki Farahani, Mathieu Janier, Martine Dubé
In the present work, a conductive film of silver nanoparticles (nAg) as a novel heating element type, called susceptor was developed and tested for induction welding of carbon fiber/polyphenylene sulfide (CF/PPS) thermoplastic composites, i.e., unidirectional pre-impregnated16 plies of CF/PPS compression-molded in a quasi-isotropic stacking sequence. The nAg were synthesized, dispersed in deionized (DI) water and casted onto a pure PPS film, resulting in a conductive film upon the evaporation of DI water and thermal post-annealing...
January 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349990/-experimentation-of-the-relationship-between-medial-or-lateral-patellar-stabilizer-and-patellofemoral-stabilization
#14
Xing-Sen Liang, Zheng-Hong Yu, Yi-Kai Li, Ying-Ping Jiang, Xian-Wu Chen, Min Huang
OBJECTIVE: To study the contribution of medial or lateral stabilizer to the stability of the patella, to explore the function and effect of releasing the LPR clinically and to provide a biomechanical basis for the clinical treatment of patellar instability(PI). METHODS: The quadriceps femoris of 6 fresh human cadaver knees were loaded to simulate a normal condition of muscle strength. First the loading force was measured and recorded, which subluxated the patella with the different degrees of knee flexion...
April 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349467/lysine-derived-ph-sensitive-and-biodegradable-poly-beta-aminoester-urethane-networks-and-their-local-drug-delivery-behaviour
#15
Yasemin Tamer, Biqiong Chen
In this study, a series of covalently crosslinked, l-lysine based poly(beta-aminoester urethane) (LPBAEU) networks with good biodegradability and pH sensitivity was reported. The effect of hydrophilic/hydrophobic characteristics and diacrylate/amine molar ratio on the structure, swelling and degradation behaviour of the networks was investigated. The water transport mechanism and dynamic swelling behavior of the LPBAEU networks were strongly affected by medium pH, and swelling amounts up to 252.2% and 148.7% were observed at pH 5...
January 19, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348047/effects-of-inorganic-ions-and-natural-organic-matter-on-the-aggregation-of-nanoplastics
#16
Li Cai, Lingling Hu, Huahong Shi, Junwei Ye, Yunfei Zhang, Hyunjung Kim
The aggregation of nanoplastics (NPs) is a key issue in understanding the dynamic nature of NPs in the environment. The aggregation of NPs under various environmental conditions has not yet been studied. We investigated the influences of inorganic ions and natural organic matter (NOM) on polystyrene (PS) NPs aggregation in solutions. Results showed that PS NPs remained stable in wide ionic strength solutions of NaCl (1-100 mM) and CaCl2 (0.1-15 mM), and only in low ionic strength FeCl3 solutions (0.01 mM)...
January 12, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347749/confined-sandpile-in-two-dimensions-percolation-and-singular-diffusion
#17
R S Pires, A A Moreira, H A Carmona, J S Andrade
We investigate the properties of a two-state sandpile model subjected to a confining potential in two dimensions. From the microdynamical description, we derive a diffusion equation, and find a stationary solution for the case of a parabolic confining potential. By studying the systems at different confining conditions, we observe two scale-invariant regimes. At a given confining potential strength, the cluster size distribution takes the form of a power law. This regime corresponds to the situation in which the density at the center of the system approaches the critical percolation threshold...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347748/asymmetric-couplings-enhance-the-transition-from-chimera-state-to-synchronization
#18
Changhai Tian, Hongjie Bi, Xiyun Zhang, Shuguang Guan, Zonghua Liu
Chimera state has been well studied recently, but little attention has been paid to its transition to synchronization. We study this topic here by considering two groups of adaptively coupled Kuramoto oscillators. By searching the final states of different initial conditions, we find that the system can easily show a chimera state with robustness to initial conditions, in contrast to the sensitive dependence of chimera state on initial conditions in previous studies. Further, we show that, in the case of symmetric couplings, the behaviors of the two groups are always complementary to each other, i...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347610/relaxation-time-of-the-global-order-parameter-on-multiplex-networks-the-role-of-interlayer-coupling-in-kuramoto-oscillators
#19
Alfonso Allen-Perkins, Thiago Albuquerque de Assis, Juan Manuel Pastor, Roberto F S Andrade
This work considers the time scales associated with the global order parameter and the interlayer synchronization of coupled Kuramoto oscillators on multiplexes. For two-layer multiplexes with an initially high degree of synchronization in each layer, the difference between the average phases in each layer is analyzed from two different perspectives: the spectral analysis and the nonlinear Kuramoto model. Both viewpoints confirm that the prior time scales are inversely proportional to the interlayer coupling strength...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347549/multiscale-permutation-entropy-analysis-of-laser-beam-wandering-in-isotropic-turbulence
#20
Felipe Olivares, Luciano Zunino, Damián Gulich, Darío G Pérez, Osvaldo A Rosso
We have experimentally quantified the temporal structural diversity from the coordinate fluctuations of a laser beam propagating through isotropic optical turbulence. The main focus here is on the characterization of the long-range correlations in the wandering of a thin Gaussian laser beam over a screen after propagating through a turbulent medium. To fulfill this goal, a laboratory-controlled experiment was conducted in which coordinate fluctuations of the laser beam were recorded at a sufficiently high sampling rate for a wide range of turbulent conditions...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
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