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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432993/chemical-biological-and-dna-markers-for-tracing-slaughterhouse-effluent
#1
P J Harvey, M P Taylor, H K Handley, S Foster, M R Gillings, A J Asher
Agricultural practices, if not managed correctly, can have a negative impact on receiving environments via waste disposal and discharge. In this study, a chicken slaughter facility on the rural outskirts of Sydney, Australia, has been identified as a possible source of persistent effluent discharge into a peri-urban catchment. Questions surrounding the facility's environmental management practices go back more than four decades. Despite there having never been a definitive determination of the facility's impact on local stream water quality, the New South Wales Environment Protection Authority (NSW EPA) has implemented numerous pollution reduction requirements to manage noise and water pollution at the slaughter facility...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432976/cuticular-wax-coverage-and-composition-differ-among-organs-of-taraxacum-officinale
#2
Yanjun Guo, Lucas Busta, Reinhard Jetter
Primary plant surfaces are coated with hydrophobic cuticular waxes to minimize non-stomatal water loss. Wax compositions differ greatly between plant species and, in the few species studied systematically so far, also between organs, tissues, and developmental stages. However, the wax mixtures of more species in diverse plant families must be investigated to assess overall wax variability, and ultimately to correlate organ-specific composition with local water barrier properties. Here, we present comprehensive analyses of the waxes covering five organs of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion), to help close a gap in our understanding of wax chemistry in the Asteraceae family...
April 6, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432968/applicability-of-light-sources-and-the-inner-filter-effect-in-uv-acetylacetone-and-uv-h2o2-processes
#3
Bingdang Wu, Minghui Yang, Ran Yin, Shujuan Zhang
Light source is a crucial factor in the application of a photochemical process, which determines the energy efficiency. The performances of acetylacetone (AA) in conversion of aqueous contaminants under irradiation with a low-pressure mercury lamp, a medium-pressure mercury lamp, a xenon lamp, and natural sunlight were investigated and compared with those of H2O2 as reference. In all cases, AA was superior to H2O2 in the degradation of Acid Orange 7. Using combinations of the different light sources with various cut-off and band-pass filters, the spectra responses of the absorbed photons in the UV/AA and UV/H2O2 processes were determined for two colored and two colorless compounds...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432965/spatiotemporal-description-of-btex-volatile-organic-compounds-in-a-middle-eastern-megacity-tehran-study-of-exposure-prediction-for-environmental-health-research-tehran-sepehr
#4
Heresh Amini, Vahid Hosseini, Christian Schindler, Hossein Hassankhany, Masud Yunesian, Sarah B Henderson, Nino Künzli
The spatiotemporal variability of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Tehran, Iran, is not well understood. Here we present the design, methods, and results of the Tehran Study of Exposure Prediction for Environmental Health Research (Tehran SEPEHR) on ambient concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene, o-xylene (BTEX), and total BTEX. To date, this is the largest study of its kind in a low- and middle-income country and one of the largest globally. We measured BTEX concentrations at five reference sites and 174 distributed sites identified by a cluster analytic method...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432960/molecular-dynamic-simulations-on-tkx-50-rdx-cocrystal
#5
Shuling Xiong, Shusen Chen, Shaohua Jin
Dihydroxylammonium 5,5'-bistetrazole-1,1'-diolate (TKX-50) is a newly synthesized energetic material with excellent comprehensive properties. Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) is currently one of the most widely used energetic materials in the world. TKX-50 and RDX supercell models and TKX-50/RDX cocrystal model were constructed based on their crystal cell parameters and the formation mechanism of cocrystal, respectively, then they were simulated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The maximum trigger bond (NNO2) length(Lmax), binding energy (Ebind), radial distribution function (RDF), cohesive energy density(CED) and mechanical properties were simulated at different temperatures based on the simulated equilibrium structures of the models...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432958/membrane-fusion-between-baculovirus-budded-virus-enveloped-particles-and-giant-liposomes-generated-using-a-droplet-transfer-method-for-the-incorporation-of-recombinant-membrane-proteins
#6
Misako Nishigami, Takaaki Mori, Masahiro Tomita, Kingo Takiguchi, Kanta Tsumoto
Giant proteoliposomes are generally useful as artificial cell membranes in biochemical and biophysical studies, and various procedures for their preparation have been reported. We present here a novel preparation technique that involves the combination of i) cell-sized lipid vesicles (giant unilamellar vesicles, GUVs) that are generated using the droplet-transfer method, where lipid monolayer-coated water-in-oil microemulsion droplets interact with oil/water interfaces to form enclosed bilayer vesicles, and ii) budded viruses (BVs) of baculovirus (Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus) that express recombinant transmembrane proteins on their envelopes...
April 13, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432957/nanoencapsulation-strategies-for-the-delivery-of-novel-bifunctional-antioxidant-%C3%AF-1-selective-ligands
#7
Claudia Carbone, Emanuela Arena, Veronica Pepe, Orazio Prezzavento, Ivana Cacciatore, Hasan Turkez, Agostino Marrazzo, Antonio Di Stefano, Giovanni Puglisi
Nowadays sigma-1 receptors are considered as new therapeutic objectives for central nervous system neurodegenerative diseases. Among different molecules, alpha lipoic acid has been identified as a natural potent antioxidant drug, whose therapeutic efficacy is limited by its many drawbacks, such as fast metabolism, poor bioavailability and high physico-chemical instability. Alfa-lipoic acid derivatives have been recently developed demonstrating their neuroprotective activity and effectiveness in different types of oxidative stress...
April 12, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432946/design-and-synthesis-of-sulfonamide-substituted-diphenylpyrimidines-sfa-dppys-as-potent-bruton-s-tyrosine-kinase-btk-inhibitors-with-improved-activity-toward-b-cell-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#8
He Liu, Menghua Qu, Lina Xu, Xu Han, Changyuan Wang, Xiaohong Shu, Jihong Yao, Kexin Liu, Jinyong Peng, Yanxia Li, Xiaodong Ma
A new series of diphenylpyrimidine derivatives (SFA-DPPYs) were synthesized by introducing a functional sulfonamide into the C-2 aniline moiety of pyrimidine template, and then were biologically evaluated as potent Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors. Among these molecules, inhibitors 10c, 10i, 10j and 10k displayed high potency against the BTK enzyme, with IC50 values of 1.18 nM, 0.92 nM, 0.42 nM and 1.05 nM, respectively. In particular, compound 10c could remarkably inhibit the proliferation of the B lymphoma cell lines at concentrations of 6...
April 14, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432943/exploration-of-flexible-phenylpropylurea-scaffold-as-novel-cardiac-myosin-activators-for-the-treatment-of-systolic-heart-failure
#9
Manoj Manickam, Hitesh B Jalani, Thanigaimalai Pillaiyar, Niti Sharma, Pulla Reddy Boggu, Eeda Venkateswararao, You-Jung Lee, Eun-Seok Jeon, Sang-Hun Jung
A series of flexible urea derivatives have been synthesized and demonstrated as selective cardiac myosin ATPase activator. Among them 1-phenethyl-3-(3-phenylpropyl)urea (1, cardiac myosin ATPase activation at 10 μM = 51.1%; FS = 18.90; EF = 12.15) and 1-benzyl-3-(3-phenylpropyl)urea (9, cardiac myosin ATPase activation = 53.3%; FS = 30.04; EF = 18.27) showed significant activity in vitro and in vivo. The change of phenyl ring with tetrahydropyran-4-yl moiety viz., 1-(3-phenylpropyl)-3-((tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)methyl)urea (14, cardiac myosin ATPase activation = 81...
April 7, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432923/triterpenoid-saponins-from-the-roots-of-spergularia-marginata
#10
David Pertuit, Mustafa Larshini, Malika Aitsidi Brahim, Mohamed Markouk, Anne-Claire Mitaine-Offer, Thomas Paululat, Stéphanie Delemasure, Patrick Dutartre, Marie-Aleth Lacaille-Dubois
Phytochemical investigations of the roots of Spergularia marginata had led to the isolation of four previously undescribed triterpenoid saponins, a known one and one spinasterol glycoside. Their structures were established by extensive NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques as 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl echinocystic acid 28-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L- arabinopyranosyl ester, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl echinocystic acid 28-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)- α-L-arabinopyranosyl ester, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-3-O-sulfate-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl echinocystic acid 28-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ester, and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl 21-O-acetyl acacic acid...
April 19, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432919/synthesis-fluorescence-sensing-and-molecular-logic-of-two-water-soluble-1-8-naphthalimides
#11
Nikolai I Georgiev, Margarita D Dimitrova, Anelia Ts Mavrova, Vladimir B Bojinov
Two novel highly water-soluble fluorescence sensing 1,8-naphthalimides are synthesized and investigated. The novel compounds are designed on the "fluorophore-receptor1-spacer-receptor2" model as a molecular fluorescence probe for determination of cations and anions in 100% aqueous media. The novel probes comprising N-imide and N-phenylpiperazine or morpholine substituents are capable to operate simultaneously via ICT and PET signaling mechanism as a function of pH and to recognize selectively Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) over the other representative metal ions...
April 18, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432906/hydrophobic-and-hydrophilic-properties-of-pollutants-as-a-factor-influencing-their-redistribution-during-snowpack-melt
#12
Krystyna Kozioł, Katarzyna Kozak, Żaneta Polkowska
Glaciers accumulate organic pollutants delivered by snow. However, our understanding of the exact dynamics of organic pollutants in the snowpack relies primarily on laboratory experiments and mathematical models. To fill the gap related to the detailed field data, we have conducted observations of melting snow profiles in two locations and three different stages of melting on one High Arctic glacier, as well as in superimposed ice. We monitored the chemical concentrations of formaldehyde, phenols, short-chain carboxylic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and snow water equivalents to derive chemical loads...
April 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432885/from-laboratory-to-field-studies-the-assessment-of-biscutella-laevigata-suitability-to-biological-reclamation-of-areas-contaminated-with-lead-and-cadmium
#13
Ewa Muszyńska, Ewa Hanus-Fajerska, Barbara Piwowarczyk, Joanna Augustynowicz, Krystyna Ciarkowska, Tomasz Czech
The aim of the work was to evaluate the usefulness of the in vitro multiplication of Biscutella laevigata calamine ecotype for in situ reclamation of post-flotation wastes polluted with Pb and Cd. The experiment was conducted on three steps: (i) plant shoots' production under in vitro condition, (ii) establishment of the material in greenhouse experiment, and finally (iii) field cultivation directly on the mining-waste heap of Olkusz Ore-Bearing Region, Poland. This region is known to be one of the most chemically-degraded area in central Europe...
April 19, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432874/delayed-changes-in-auditory-status-in-cochlear-implant-users-with-preserved-acoustic-hearing
#14
Rachel A Scheperle, Viral D Tejani, Julia K Omtvedt, Carolyn J Brown, Paul J Abbas, Marlan R Hansen, Bruce J Gantz, Jacob J Oleson, Marie V Ozanne
This retrospective review explores delayed-onset hearing loss in 85 individuals receiving cochlear implants designed to preserve acoustic hearing at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics between 2001 and 2015. Repeated measures of unaided behavioral audiometric thresholds, electrode impedance, and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) amplitude growth functions were used to characterize longitudinal changes in auditory status. Participants were grouped into two primary categories according to changes in unaided behavioral thresholds: (1) stable hearing or symmetrical hearing loss and (2) delayed loss of hearing in the implanted ear...
April 12, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432843/vitamin-b1-in-critically-ill-patients-needs-and-challenges
#15
REVIEW
Jake T B Collie, Ronda F Greaves, Oliver A H Jones, Que Lam, Glenn M Eastwood, Rinaldo Bellomo
BACKGROUND: Thiamine has a crucial role in energy production, and consequently thiamine deficiency (TD) has been associated with cardiac failure, neurological disorders, oxidative stress (lactic acidosis and sepsis) and refeeding syndrome (RFS). This review aims to explore analytical methodologies of thiamine compound quantification and highlight similarities, variances and limitations of current techniques and how they may be relevant to patients. CONTENT: An electronic search of Medline, PubMed and Embase databases for original articles published in peer-reviewed journals was conducted...
April 22, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432819/identification-of-bioactive-compounds-in-shaoyao-gancao-decoction-using-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-affinity-chromatography
#16
Zehua Li, Haiyang Gao, Jiangying Li, Yajun Zhang
Shaoyao-Gancao decoction, a Chinese herbal formula, is composed of Paeoniae Radix alba and Glycyrrhiza Radix et rhizoma. It has been widely used to treat muscle spasms and asthma. However, little is known about the bioactive components of Shaoyao-Gancao decoction. In the present study, the bioactive compounds in water-extract of Shaoyao-Gancao decoction were separated by the immobilized β2 -adrenoceptor affinity column and identified using quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The affinity constants of the separated compounds that bound to β2 -adrenoceptor were determined by frontal analysis...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432815/immunoassays-for-the-quantification-of-alk-and-phosphorylated-alk-support-the-evaluation-of-on-target-alk-inhibitors-in-neuroblastoma
#17
Elizabeth R Tucker, Jennifer R Tall, Laura S Danielson, Sharon Gowan, Yann Jamin, Simon P Robinson, Udai Banerji, Louis Chesler
Targeted inhibition of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) is a successful approach for the treatment of many ALK-aberrant malignancies, however the presence of resistant mutations necessitates both the development of more potent compounds and pharmacodynamic methods with which to determine their efficacy. We describe immunoassays designed to quantitate phosphorylation of ALK, and their use in preclinical models of neuroblastoma, a pediatric malignancy in which gain-of-function ALK mutations predict a poor overall outcome to conventional treatment...
April 22, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432813/targeting-on-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-activity-with-dna-damaging-hybrid-lactam-steroid-alkylators-in-wild-type-and-brca1-mutated-ovarian-cancer-cells
#18
Dimitrios T Trafalis, Aikaterini Polonifi, Panayiotis Dalezis, Nikolaos Nikoleousakos, Sotirios Katsamakas, Vassiliki Sarli
Conjugated lactam-steroid alkylators (LSA), have been shown to exhibit superior activity at controlling cancer models and overlap drug resistance to conventional chemotherapy. Hybrid LSAs combine two active compounds in a single molecule and incorporate modified steroids bearing lactam moiety in one or more steroid rings functioning as vectors for cytotoxic agents. We first describe a novel class of LSAs that generate excellent anticancer activity against UWB1.289 and UWB1.289+BRCA1 human ovarian cancer cell lines...
April 22, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432800/effect-of-n-methyl-deuteration-on-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-enzalutamide
#19
Xuehai Pang, Lingling Peng, Yuanwei Chen
Enzalutamide, a 2nd generation antiandrogen, has been developed for the treatment of CRPC. We synthesized the deuterated analogues 6 and found that it showed higher drug exposure and thus stronger anti-tumor potency in preclinical settings. Compound 6 is being developed clinically for the potential to be differentiated from enzalutamide through reduced dosages and a higher safety margin.
April 22, 2017: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432774/comprehensive-two-dimensional-pc-3-prostate-cancer-cell-membrane-chromatography-for-screening-anti-tumor-components-from-radix-sophorae-flavescentis
#20
Qiang Wang, Junnan Xu, Xiang Li, Dawei Zhang, Yong Han, Xu Zhang
Radix Sophorae flavescentis is generally used for the treatments of different stages of prostate cancer in China. It has ideal effects when combined with surgical treatment and chemotherapy. However, its active components are still ambiguous. We devised a comprehensive two-dimensional PC-3 prostate cancer cell membrane chromatography system for screening anti-prostate cancer components in Radix Sophorae flavescentis. Gefitinib and dexamethasone were chosen as positive and negative drugs respectively for validation and optimization the selectivity and suitability of the comprehensive two-dimensional chromatographic system...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
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