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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222922/biomass-production-and-carbon-sequestration-of-a-short-rotation-forest-with-different-poplar-clones-in-northwest-china
#1
Yan Meifang, Wang Lu, Ren Honghui, Zhang Xinshi
Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) is of interest as producers of biomass for bio-energy, but also as carbon (C) sinks to mitigate CO2 emission. To investigate biomass production and C sequestration of SRF, ecosystem C stock (including C stored in tree biomass, litter and soil), NPP (net primary productivity), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and NEP (net ecosystem productivity) of three poplar clone plantations were estimated by repeated field sampling in northwest China. Ecosystem C stock (105.62MgCha(-1)) was significantly lower in PB (P...
February 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221940/development-of-multifunctional-active-film-and-its-application-in-modified-atmosphere-packaging-of-shiitake-mushrooms
#2
Hong Jiang Wang, Duck Soon An, Dong Sun Lee
Agar-based films with multiple functions (CO2 absorption, water vapor absorption, and antimicrobial activity) were developed, tested for their properties, and then applied to the packaging of fresh shiitake mushrooms as an insert label. The films were cast from an agar-based aqueous solution containing a dissolving plasticizer (glycerol), a CO2 absorbent (sodium carbonate [SC] alone or a combination of SC and sodium glycinate [SC-SG]), and a volatile antimicrobial agent (carvacrol [CRV]). The agar of the film matrix is designed to serve as a water vapor absorbent...
September 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195289/mechanisms-of-absorption-and-desorption-of-co2-by-molten-nano3-promoted-mgo
#3
Seung-Ik Jo, Young-In An, Kang-Yeong Kim, Seo-Yeong Choi, Jin-Su Kwak, Kyung-Ryul Oh, Young-Uk Kwon
In order to realize carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), a technology proposed to circumvent the global warming problem while maintaining the present level of economic activity, the development of efficient carbon-capturing agents is of prime importance. In addition to the prevailing amine-based agents that operate at temperatures lower than 200 °C, agents that can operate at higher temperatures are being considered to reduce the cost of CCS. For the mid-temperature (200-500 °C) operation, alkali nitrate-promoted MgO is a promising candidate; whose detailed reaction mechanisms are not yet fully understood, however...
February 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194677/carbonation-of-gypsum-from-wet-flue-gas-desulfurization-process-experiments-and-modeling
#4
Wenyi Tan, Zixin Zhang, Hongyi Li, Youxu Li, Zewen Shen
In this paper, waste gypsum from wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) mixed with NH3·H2O was applied for CO2 absorption in the solid-liquid-gas phase system. The effects of operation temperature, CO2 flow rates, and ammonia-to-gypsum ratio on carbonation process were discussed. Meanwhile, a model for CO2 absorption in the suspension of WFGD gypsum and ammonia was established. The results indicate that higher temperature favors the reaction, and WFGD gypsum conversion can be achieved above 90% even at lower ammonia-to-gypsum ratio, while CO2 conversion reaches 90% and ammonia utilization is up to 83...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179663/recent-increase-in-oceanic-carbon-uptake-driven-by-weaker-upper-ocean-overturning
#5
Tim DeVries, Mark Holzer, Francois Primeau
The ocean is the largest sink for anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2), having absorbed roughly 40 per cent of CO2 emissions since the beginning of the industrial era. Recent data show that oceanic CO2 uptake rates have been growing over the past decade, reversing a trend of stagnant or declining carbon uptake during the 1990s. Here we show that ocean circulation variability is the primary driver of these changes in oceanic CO2 uptake over the past several decades. We use a global inverse model to quantify the mean ocean circulation during the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, and then estimate the impact of decadal circulation changes on the oceanic CO2 sink using a carbon cycling model...
February 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162763/sedum-dominated-green-roofs-in-a-semi-arid-region-increase-co2-concentrations-during-the-dry-season
#6
Har'el Agra, Tamir Klein, Amiel Vasl, Hadar Shalom, Gyongyver Kadas, Leon Blaustein
Green roofs are expected to absorb and store carbon in plants and soils and thereby reduce the high CO2 concentration levels in big cities. Sedum species, which are succulent perennials, are commonly used in extensive green roofs due to their shallow root system and ability to withstand long water deficiencies. Here we examined CO2 fixation and emission rates for Mediterranean Sedum sediforme on green-roof experimental plots. During late winter to early spring, we monitored CO2 concentrations inside transparent tents placed over 1m(2) plots and followed gas exchange at the leaf level using a portable gas-exchange system...
February 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152668/evaluation-of-the-antioxidant-activity-of-betula-pendula-leaves-extract-and-its-effects-on-model-foods
#7
Nurul Aini Mohd Azman, Monika Skowyra, Kwestan Muhammad, María Gabriela Gallego, Maria Pilar Almajano
CONTEXT: Betula pendula Roth (Betulaceae) exhibits many pharmacological activities in humans including anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral effects. However, the antioxidant activity of BP towards lipid degradation has not been fully determined. OBJECTIVE: The BP ethanol and methanol extracts were evaluated to determine antioxidant activity by an in vitro method and lyophilized extract of BP was added to beef patties to study oxidative stability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antioxidant activities of extracts of BP were determined by measuring scavenging radical activity against methoxy radical generated by Fenton reaction 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (TEAC) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151764/increased-resistance-to-flow-and-ventilator-failure-secondary-to-faulty-co2-absorbent-insert-not-detected-during-automated-anesthesia-machine-check-a-case-report
#8
Ingrid Moreno-Duarte, Julio Montenegro, Konstantin Balonov, Roman Schumann
Most modern anesthesia workstations provide automated checkout, which indicates the readiness of the anesthesia machine. In this case report, an anesthesia machine passed the automated machine checkout. Minutes after the induction of general anesthesia, we observed a mismatch between the selected and delivered tidal volumes in the volume auto flow mode with increased inspiratory resistance during manual ventilation. Endotracheal tube kinking, circuit obstruction, leaks, and patient-related factors were ruled out...
February 1, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142196/absence-of-os%C3%AE-ca1-causes-co2-deficit-and-affects-leaf-photosynthesis-and-stomatal-response-to-co2-in-rice
#9
Taiyu Chen, Huan Wu, Jiemin Wu, Xiaolei Fan, Xianghua Li, Yongjun Lin
Plants always adjust the opening of stomatal pores to adapt to the environments, such as [CO2 ], humidity and temperature. Low [CO2 ] will trigger the opening of stomatal pores to absorb extra CO2 . However, little is known about how CO2 supply affects the carbon fixation and opening of stomatal pores in rice. Here, a chloroplast-located β-carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) coding gene was found to be involved in carbon assimilation and CO2 -mediated stomatal pore response in rice. OsβCA1 was constitutively expressed in all tissues and its transcripts were induced by high [CO2 ] in leaves...
January 31, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113067/fate-of-h2s-during-the-cultivation-of-chlorella-sp-deployed-for-biogas-upgrading
#10
Armando González-Sánchez, Clemens Posten
The H2S may play a key role in the sulfur cycle among the biogas production by the anaerobic digestion of wastes and the biogas upgrading by a microalgae based technology. The biogas is upgraded by contacting with slightly alkaline aqueous microalgae culture, then CO2 and H2S are absorbed. The dissolved H2S could limit or inhibit the microalgae growth. This paper evaluated the role of dissolved H2S and other sulfured byproducts under prevailing biogas upgrading conditions using a microalgal technology. At initial stages of batch cultivation the growth of Chlorella sp...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110277/loss-of-photosynthetic-efficiency-in-the-shade-an-achilles-heel-for-the-dense-modern-stands-of-our-most-productive-c4-crops
#11
Charles P Pignon, Deepak Jaiswal, Justin M McGrath, Stephen P Long
The wild progenitors of major C4 crops grew as individuals subjected to little shading. Today they are grown in dense stands where most leaves are shaded. Do they maintain photosynthetic efficiency in these low light conditions produced by modern cultivation? The apparent maximum quantum yield of CO2 assimilation (ΦCO2max,app), a key determinant of light-limited photosynthesis, has not been systematically studied in field stands of C4 crops. ΦCO2max,app was derived from the initial slope of the response of leaf CO2 uptake (A) to photon flux (Q)...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098455/angular-dependence-of-ionization-by-circularly-polarized-light-calculated-with-time-dependent-configuration-interaction-with-an-absorbing-potential
#12
Paul Hoerner, H Bernhard Schlegel
The angular dependence of ionization by linear and circularly polarized light has been examined for N2, NH3, H2O, CO2, CH2O, pyrazine, methyloxirane, and vinyloxirane. Time-dependent configuration interaction with single excitations and a complex absorbing potential was used to simulate ionization by a seven cycle 800 nm cosine squared pulse with intensities ranging from 0.56 × 10(14) to 5.05 × 10(14) W cm(-2). The shapes of the ionization yield for linearly polarized light can be understood primarily in terms of the nodal structure of the highest occupied orbitals...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091642/robust-double-shelled-znga2o4-hollow-spheres-for-photocatalytic-reduction-of-co2-to-methane
#13
Yuan Zhang, Ping Li, Lan-Qin Tang, Yong-Qiang Li, Yong Zhou, Jun-Ming Liu, Zhi-Gang Zou
Robust, double-shelled ZnGa2O4 hollow spheres were successfully fabricated by hydrothermally treating an aqueous solution containing Zn(ii), Ga(iii), and citric acid, followed by annealing at 600 °C, 700 °C, or 800 °C in air to remove the carbon species. The hollow structure is expected to trap incident photons to enhance the light absorbance. The sample annealed at 700 °C exhibited the optimized photocatalytic performance in the reduction of CO2 in the presence of water vapor to methane. This property is ascribed to the improved crystallinity of the sample, which has fewer defect centers for the recombination of electron-hole pairs compared with that annealed at 600 °C...
January 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088000/efficient-degradation-of-butylparaben-by-gamma-radiolysis
#14
Jhimli Paul Guin, Y K Bhardwaj, Lalit Varshney
Gamma radiolysis and ozonolysis are two competitive advanced oxidation processes for degradation of organic pollutants present in the ground water. In this paper, the gamma radiolytic degradation of an emerging organic pollutant Butylparaben (BP) in aqueous solution has been investigated for the first time at different absorbed doses. The effect of the absorbed dose rate in the degradation and mineralization of BP has been investigated. About 65% mineralization of BP was observed at absorbed dose of 70kGy and dose rate of 0...
December 24, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062946/upregulated-absorption-of-dietary-palmitic-acids-with-changes-in-intestinal-transporters-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash
#15
Hiroki Utsunomiya, Yasunori Yamamoto, Eiji Takeshita, Yoshio Tokumoto, Fujimasa Tada, Teruki Miyake, Masashi Hirooka, Masanori Abe, Teru Kumagi, Bunzo Matsuura, Yoshio Ikeda, Yoichi Hiasa
BACKGROUND: Palmitic acid is an important risk factor for the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but changes in palmitic acid intestinal absorption in NASH are unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify changes in palmitic acid intestinal absorption and their association with the pathogenesis of NASH. METHODS: A total of 106 participants were recruited to the study, of whom 33 were control subjects (control group), 32 were patients with NASH Brunt stage 1-2 [early NASH (e-NASH)], and 41 were patients with NASH Brunt stage 3-4 [advanced NASH (a-NASH)]...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049858/high-throughput-phenotyping-of-maize-leaf-physiological-and-biochemical-traits-using-hyperspectral-reflectance
#16
Craig R Yendrek, Tiago Tomaz, Christopher M Montes, Youyuan Cao, Alison M Morse, Patrick J Brown, Lauren M McIntyre, Andrew D B Leakey, Elizabeth A Ainsworth
High-throughput, noninvasive field phenotyping has revealed genetic variation in crop morphological, developmental, and agronomic traits, but rapid measurements of the underlying physiological and biochemical traits are needed to fully understand genetic variation in plant-environment interactions. This study tested the application of leaf hyperspectral reflectance (λ = 500-2,400 nm) as a high-throughput phenotyping approach for rapid and accurate assessment of leaf photosynthetic and biochemical traits in maize (Zea mays)...
January 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977174/carbon-dots-as-versatile-photosensitizers-for-solar-driven-catalysis-with-redox-enzymes
#17
Georgina A M Hutton, Bertrand Reuillard, Benjamin C M Martindale, Christine A Caputo, Colin W J Lockwood, Julea N Butt, Erwin Reisner
Light-driven enzymatic catalysis is enabled by the productive coupling of a protein to a photosensitizer. Photosensitizers used in such hybrid systems are typically costly, toxic, and/or fragile, with limited chemical versatility. Carbon dots (CDs) are low-cost, nanosized light-harvesters that are attractive photosensitizers for biological systems as they are water-soluble, photostable, nontoxic, and their surface chemistry can be easily modified. We demonstrate here that CDs act as excellent light-absorbers in two semibiological photosynthetic systems utilizing either a fumarate reductase (FccA) for the solar-driven hydrogenation of fumarate to succinate or a hydrogenase (H2ase) for reduction of protons to H2...
December 28, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973595/ecologically-different-fungi-affect-arabidopsis-development-contribution-of-soluble-and-volatile-compounds
#18
Salvatore Casarrubia, Sara Sapienza, Héma Fritz, Stefania Daghino, Maaria Rosenkranz, Jörg-Peter Schnitzler, Francis Martin, Silvia Perotto, Elena Martino
Plant growth and development can be influenced by mutualistic and non-mutualistic microorganisms. We investigated the ability of the ericoid endomycorrhizal fungus Oidiodendron maius to influence growth and development of the non-host plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Different experimental setups (non-compartmented and compartmented co-culture plates) were used to investigate the influence of both soluble and volatile fungal molecules on the plant phenotype. O. maius promoted growth of A. thaliana in all experimental setups...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956591/novel-molecular-spectroscopic-multimethod-approach-for-monitoring-water-absorption-desorption-kinetics-of-cad-cam-poly-methyl-methacrylate-prosthodontics
#19
Verena Wiedemair, Sophia Mayr, Daniel S Wimmer, Eva Maria Köck, Simon Penner, Andreas Kerstan, Patricia-Anca Steinmassl, Herbert Dumfahrt, Christian W Huck
Water absorbed to poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based CAD/CAM (computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing) prosthodontics can alter their properties including hardness and stability. In the present contribution, water absorption and desorption kinetics under defined experimental conditions were monitored employing several supplementary and advanced Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic techniques in combination with multivariate analysis (MVA). In this synergistic vibrational spectroscopic multimethod approach, first a novel near-infrared (NIR) diffuse fiber optic probe reflection spectroscopic method was established for time-resolved analysis of water uptake within seven days under controlled conditions...
December 12, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943309/monoterpene-thermometer-of-tropical-forest-atmosphere-response-to-climate-warming
#20
Kolby J Jardine, Angela B Jardine, Jennifer A Holm, Danica L Lombardozzi, Robinson I Negron-Juarez, Scot T Martin, Harry R Beller, Bruno O Gimenez, Niro Higuchi, Jeffrey Q Chambers
Tropical forests absorb large amounts of atmospheric CO2 through photosynthesis but elevated temperatures suppress this absorption and promote monoterpene emissions. Using (13) CO2 labeling, here we show that monoterpene emissions from tropical leaves derive from recent photosynthesis and demonstrate distinct temperature optima for five groups (Groups 1-5), potentially corresponding to different enzymatic temperature-dependent reaction mechanisms within β-ocimene synthases. As diurnal and seasonal leaf temperatures increased during the Amazonian 2015 El Niño event, leaf and landscape monoterpene emissions showed strong linear enrichments of β-ocimenes (+4...
December 11, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
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