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Co2 absorber

Timothy R Fennell, James M Mathews, Rodney W Snyder, Yang Hong, Scott L Watson, Sherry R Black, Barry S McIntyre, Suramya Waidyanatha
1. 2-Ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) is commonly used as an ingredient in sunscreens, resulting in potential oral and dermal exposure in humans. 2. Clearance and metabolism of EHMC in hepatocytes and disposition and metabolism of EHMC in rodents following oral (8 to 800 mg/kg) intravenous (IV) (8 mg/kg), or dermal (0.8 to 80 mg/kg representing 0.1 to 10% formulation concentration) exposure to [(14)C]EHMC were investigated in rats and mice. 3. EHMC was rapidly cleared from rat and mouse hepatocytes (half-life ≤ 3...
November 7, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Mingxing Sun, Yutao Wang, Lei Shi
Agricultural straw-based pulp making plays a vital role in pulp and paper industry, especially in forest deficient countries such as China. However, the environmental performance of straw-based pulp has scarcely been studied. A life cycle assessment on wheat straw-based pulp making in China was conducted to fill of the gaps in comprehensive environmental assessments of agricultural straw-based pulp making. On average, the global warming potential (GWP), GWP excluding biogenic carbon, acidification potential and eutrophication potential of wheat straw based pulp making are 2299kg CO2-eq, 4550kg CO2-eq, 16...
October 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Haiping Yang, Daqian Wang, Bin Li, Zhiwei Zeng, Lei Qu, Wennan Zhang, Hanping Chen
The effects of potassium (K) salts loading on CaO on the H2 production from pyrolysis-gasification of wheat straw were investigated. The loading of 0.25 wt% KCl could significantly enhance the CO2 absorption capability of CaO. The CO2 concentration in the product gas decreased sharply from 20.83 to 11.70 vol%, and the H2 concentration increased from 48.2 to 55.5 vol%. While the loading of 0.25 wt% K2CO3/K2SO4 inhibited the enhancing effect of CaO. Further increasing the loading of KCl on CaO, the CO2 absorption of CaO declined, but the catalytic effect of KCl on the gasification process was promoted...
October 24, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Nana L Christensen, Steen Jakobsen, Anna C Schacht, Ole L Munk, Aage K O Alstrup, Lars P Tolbod, Hendrik J Harms, Søren Nielsen, Lars C Gormsen
INTRODUCTION: Despite the decades long use of [(11)C]palmitate positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography in basic metabolism studies, only personal communications regarding dosimetry and biodistribution data have been published. METHODS: Dosimetry and biodistribution studies were performed in 2 pigs and 2 healthy volunteers by whole-body [(11)C]palmitate PET scans. Metabolite studies were performed in 40 participants (healthy and with type 2 diabetes) under basal and hyperinsulinemic conditions...
January 2017: Molecular Imaging
A Mashari, L Fedorko, J A Fisher, M Klein, M Wąsowicz, M Meineri
BACKGROUND: A volatile anaesthetic (VA) reflector can reduce VA consumption (VAC) at the cost of fine control of its delivery and CO2 accumulation. A digital in-line vaporizer and a second CO2 absorber circumvent both of these limitations. We hypothesized that the combination of a VA reflector with an in-line vaporizer would yield substantial VA conservation, independent of fresh gas flow (FGF) in a circle circuit, and provide fine control of inspired VA concentrations. METHOD: Prospective observational study on six Yorkshire pigs...
October 25, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Bin Quan, Xiaohui Liang, Guangbin Ji, Yanan Zhang, Guoyue Xu, Youwei Du
The magnet/dielectric composites with tunable structure and composition have drawn much attention because of their particular merits in magnetoelectric properties compared with the sole dielectric or magnetic composites. In addition, porous materials at the nanoscale can satisfy the growing requirements in many industries. Therefore, constructing porous metal alloy/carbon nanocomposites is to be an admirable option. Unfortunately, traditional synthesis methods involve multistep routes and complicated insert-and-remove templates approaches...
November 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Matthias Grünbacher, Thomas Götsch, Alexander Opitz, Bernhard Klötzer, Simon Penner
The activity of the pre-reduced perovskites La0.6Sr0.4FeO3-δ (LSF64) and SrTi0.7Fe0.3O3-δ (STF73) for the CO2 reduction to CO was investigated with special focus on the reactivity of oxide-dissolved hydrogen. This is of particular interest in hydrogen solid-oxide electrolysis cell (H-SOEC) technology, where proton-conducting ceramics are used and the reaction 2e- + 2H+ +CO_2 → CO + H_2 O is of central importance. To clarify if hydrogen dissolved in LSF64 and STF73 partakes in the CO2 reduction, temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) in H2, followed by temperature-programmed reoxidation (TPO) in CO2 and, moreover, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of ad- and absorbed species were utilized...
October 10, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Ru Wang, Zhidong Zeng, Hongxia Guo, Hao Tan, Ang Liu, Yan Zhao, Limei Chen
Over-expression of AtFDH controlled by the promoter of Rubisco small subunit in chloroplasts increases formaldehyde uptake and metabolism in tobacco leaves. Our previous study showed that formaldehyde (HCHO) uptake and resistance in tobacco are weaker than in Arabidopsis. Formate dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis (AtFDH) is a key enzyme in HCHO metabolism by oxidation of HCOOH to CO2, which enters the Calvin cycle to be assimilated into glucose. HCHO metabolic mechanism in tobacco differs from that in Arabidopsis...
October 7, 2017: Planta
Zhaoliang Song, Hongyan Liu, Caroline A E Strömberg, Hailong Wang, Peter James Strong, Xiaomin Yang, Yuntao Wu
During silicate weathering, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is consumed and base cations are released from silicate minerals to form carbonate and bicarbonate ions, which are finally deposited as carbonate complexes. Continental silicate weathering constitutes a stable carbon sink that is an important influence on long-term climate change, as it sequesters atmospheric carbon dioxide at a million-year time scale. Traditionally, CO2 sequestered through silicate weathering is estimated by measuring the flux of the base cations to watersheds...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Guanyong Ou, Hong Wang, Ranran Si, Wanchun Guan
Due to global climate change, marine phytoplankton will likely experience low pH (ocean acidification), high temperatures and high irradiance in the future. Here, this work report the results of a batch culture experiment conducted to study the interactive effects of elevated CO2, increased temperature and high irradiance on the harmful dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea, isolated at Dongtou Island, Eastern China Sea. The A. sanguinea cells were acclimated in high CO2 condition for about three months before testing the responses of cells to a full factorial matrix experimentation during a 7-day period...
September 2017: Harmful Algae
Muhammad Bilal Khan Niazi, Zaib Jahan, Sigrun Sofie Berg, Øyvind Weiby Gregersen
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) have strong reinforcing properties when incorporated in a compatible polymer matrix. This work reports the effect of the addition of phosphorylated nanocellulose (PCNF) on the mechanical, thermal and swelling properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposite membranes. The incorporation of nanocellulose in PVA reduced the crystallinity at 0%RH. However, when the films were exposed to higher humidities the crystallinity increased. No apparent trend is observed for mechanical properties for dry membranes (0% RH)...
December 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Md Faruque Hossain
BACKGROUND: Traditional transportation infrastructure built by heat trapping products and the transportation vehiles run by fossil fuel, both causing deadly climate change. Thus, a new technology of invisible Flying Transportation system has been proposed to mitigate energy and environmental crisis caused by traditional infrastructure system. METHODS: Underground Maglev system has been modeled to be constructed for all transportation systems to run the vehicle smoothly just over two feet over the earth surface by propulsive and impulsive force at flying stage...
2017: Energy, Sustainability and Society
Herbert T Schaef, Narasimhan Loganathan, Geoffrey M Bowers, R James Kirkpatrick, A Ozgur Yazaydin, Sarah D Burton, David W Hoyt, K Sahan Thanthiriwatte, David A Dixon, B Peter McGrail, Kevin M Rosso, Eugene S Ilton, John S Loring
Layered aluminosilicates play a dominant role in the mechanical and gas storage properties of the subsurface, are used in diverse industrial applications, and serve as model materials for understanding solvent-ion-support systems. Although expansion in the presence of H2O is well-known to be systematically correlated with the hydration free energy of the interlayer cation, particularly in environments dominated by nonpolar solvents (i.e., CO2), uptake into the interlayer is not well-understood. Using novel high-pressure capabilities, we investigated the interaction of dry supercritical CO2 with Na-, NH4-, and Cs-saturated montmorillonite, comparing results with predictions from molecular dynamics simulations...
October 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kun Yu, William A Mitch, Ning Dai
Amine-based absorption is the primary contender for postcombustion CO2 capture from fossil fuel-fired power plants. However, significant concerns have arisen regarding the formation and emission of toxic nitrosamine and nitramine byproducts from amine-based systems. This paper reviews the current knowledge regarding these byproducts in CO2 capture systems. In the absorber, flue gas NOx drives nitrosamine and nitramine formation after its dissolution into the amine solvent. The reaction mechanisms are reviewed based on CO2 capture literature as well as biological and atmospheric chemistry studies...
October 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Ziqian Tang, Linghong Lu, Zhongyang Dai, Wenlong Xie, Lili Shi, Xiaohua Lu
Based on our previous experimental research, we studied the absorption of CO2 in the ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([hmim][Tf2N]), immobilized on TiO2 [rutile (110) ] with different thickness by molecular dynamics simulation. The effects of the properties (hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity) of solid interfaces were also studied with IL immobilized on graphite and TiO2, respectively. We studied the influence of the thickness of IL immobilized on TiO2 on the absorption of CO2 via structural and dynamical properties...
October 3, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
H-P Dong, M-Z Tan, Q-J Liu, J Wang, S-B Zhong
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we adopted maternal diabetes model on rats, which induced by streptozotocin to explore the metabolism changes of rat adipose tissue during the neonatal period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The female rats were induced as diabetes models by streptozotocin (STZ), and mated with the normal male rats when they entered into adulthood. The chosen male offspring rats were executed at week 12 and the epididymis and subcutaneous fat pad were obtained...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Alejandro Morales, Xinyou Yin, Jeremy Harbinson, Steven Michiel Driever, Jaap Molenaar, David M Kramer, Paul Struik
We present a new simulation model of the reactions in the photosynthetic electron transport chain of C3 species. We show that including recent insights about the regulation of the thylakoid proton motive force, ATP/NADPH balancing mechanisms (cyclic and non-cyclic alternative electron transport), and regulation of Rubisco activity, leads to emergent behaviors that may affect the operation and regulation of photosynthesis under different dynamic environmental conditions. The model was parameterized with experimental results in the literature, with a focus on Arabidopsis thaliana...
September 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
Song Yu, Jiang Bo, Li Jiahong
The mechanism for the competitive adsorption of CH4 and CO2 on coal vitrinite (DV-8, maximum vitrinite reflectance R o,max = 0.58%) was revealed through simulation and experimental methods. A saturated state was reached after absorbing 17 CH4 or 22 CO2 molecules per DV-8 molecule. The functional groups (FGs) on the surface of the vitrinite can be ranked in order of decreasing CH4 and CO2 adsorption ability as follows: [-CH3] > [-C=O] > [-C-O-C-] > [-COOH] and [-C-O-C-] > [-C=O] > [-CH3] > [-COOH]...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Feiyue Xu, Xiaomei Feng, Xiao Sui, Hong Lin, Yuqian Han
The effects of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) treatments on Vibrio parahaemolyticus cells were determined using viable plate count method at different treatment times (10 and 40min), pressures (10-25MPa), and temperature (40°C). Using the changes in the physical (absorbance, transmission electron microscope and contents of fatty acids) and chemical indexes (pH value, activity of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, SDS-PAGE) were for further understand the mechanisms of bacterial inactivation under SC-CO2. The result showed that 25MPa treatment for 40min in 40°C could significantly (P<0...
October 2017: Food Research International
Nore Struyf, Jitka Laurent, Joran Verspreet, Kevin J Verstrepen, Christophe M Courtin
Fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) are small molecules that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine and rapidly fermented in the large intestine. There is evidence that a diet low in FODMAPs reduces abdominal symptoms in approximately 70% of the patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. Wheat contains relatively high fructan levels and is therefore a major source of FODMAPs in our diet. In this study, a yeast-based strategy was developed to reduce FODMAP levels in (whole wheat) bread...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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