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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091642/robust-double-shelled-znga2o4-hollow-spheres-for-photocatalytic-reduction-of-co2-to-methane
#1
Yuan Zhang, Ping Li, Lan-Qin Tang, Yong-Qiang Li, Yong Zhou, Jun-Ming Liu, Zhi-Gang Zou
Robust, double-shelled ZnGa2O4 hollow spheres were successfully fabricated by hydrothermally treating an aqueous solution containing Zn(ii), Ga(iii), and citric acid, followed by annealing at 600 °C, 700 °C, or 800 °C in air to remove the carbon species. The hollow structure is expected to trap incident photons to enhance the light absorbance. The sample annealed at 700 °C exhibited the optimized photocatalytic performance in the reduction of CO2 in the presence of water vapor to methane. This property is ascribed to the improved crystallinity of the sample, which has fewer defect centers for the recombination of electron-hole pairs compared with that annealed at 600 °C...
January 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088000/efficient-degradation-of-butylparaben-by-gamma-radiolysis
#2
Jhimli Paul Guin, Y K Bhardwaj, Lalit Varshney
Gamma radiolysis and ozonolysis are two competitive advanced oxidation processes for degradation of organic pollutants present in the ground water. In this paper, the gamma radiolytic degradation of an emerging organic pollutant Butylparaben (BP) in aqueous solution has been investigated for the first time at different absorbed doses. The effect of the absorbed dose rate in the degradation and mineralization of BP has been investigated. About 65% mineralization of BP was observed at absorbed dose of 70kGy and dose rate of 0...
December 24, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062946/upregulated-absorption-of-dietary-palmitic-acids-with-changes-in-intestinal-transporters-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash
#3
Hiroki Utsunomiya, Yasunori Yamamoto, Eiji Takeshita, Yoshio Tokumoto, Fujimasa Tada, Teruki Miyake, Masashi Hirooka, Masanori Abe, Teru Kumagi, Bunzo Matsuura, Yoshio Ikeda, Yoichi Hiasa
BACKGROUND: Palmitic acid is an important risk factor for the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but changes in palmitic acid intestinal absorption in NASH are unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify changes in palmitic acid intestinal absorption and their association with the pathogenesis of NASH. METHODS: A total of 106 participants were recruited to the study, of whom 33 were control subjects (control group), 32 were patients with NASH Brunt stage 1-2 [early NASH (e-NASH)], and 41 were patients with NASH Brunt stage 3-4 [advanced NASH (a-NASH)]...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049858/high-throughput-phenotyping-of-maize-leaf-physiological-and-biochemical-traits-using-hyperspectral-reflectance
#4
Craig R Yendrek, Tiago Tomaz, Christopher M Montes, Youyuan Cao, Alison M Morse, Patrick J Brown, Lauren M McIntyre, Andrew D B Leakey, Elizabeth A Ainsworth
High-throughput, noninvasive field phenotyping has revealed genetic variation in crop morphological, developmental, and agronomic traits, but rapid measurements of the underlying physiological and biochemical traits are needed to fully understand genetic variation in plant-environment interactions. This study tested the application of leaf hyperspectral reflectance (λ = 500-2,400 nm) as a high-throughput phenotyping approach for rapid and accurate assessment of leaf photosynthetic and biochemical traits in maize (Zea mays)...
January 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977174/carbon-dots-as-versatile-photosensitizers-for-solar-driven-catalysis-with-redox-enzymes
#5
Georgina A M Hutton, Bertrand Reuillard, Benjamin C M Martindale, Christine A Caputo, Colin W J Lockwood, Julea N Butt, Erwin Reisner
Light-driven enzymatic catalysis is enabled by the productive coupling of a protein to a photosensitizer. Photosensitizers used in such hybrid systems are typically costly, toxic, and/or fragile, with limited chemical versatility. Carbon dots (CDs) are low-cost, nanosized light-harvesters that are attractive photosensitizers for biological systems as they are water-soluble, photostable, nontoxic, and their surface chemistry can be easily modified. We demonstrate here that CDs act as excellent light-absorbers in two semibiological photosynthetic systems utilizing either a fumarate reductase (FccA) for the solar-driven hydrogenation of fumarate to succinate or a hydrogenase (H2ase) for reduction of protons to H2...
December 28, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973595/ecologically-different-fungi-affect-arabidopsis-development-contribution-of-soluble-and-volatile-compounds
#6
Salvatore Casarrubia, Sara Sapienza, Héma Fritz, Stefania Daghino, Maaria Rosenkranz, Jörg-Peter Schnitzler, Francis Martin, Silvia Perotto, Elena Martino
Plant growth and development can be influenced by mutualistic and non-mutualistic microorganisms. We investigated the ability of the ericoid endomycorrhizal fungus Oidiodendron maius to influence growth and development of the non-host plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Different experimental setups (non-compartmented and compartmented co-culture plates) were used to investigate the influence of both soluble and volatile fungal molecules on the plant phenotype. O. maius promoted growth of A. thaliana in all experimental setups...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956591/novel-molecular-spectroscopic-multimethod-approach-for-monitoring-water-absorption-desorption-kinetics-of-cad-cam-poly-methyl-methacrylate-prosthodontics
#7
Verena Wiedemair, Sophia Mayr, Daniel S Wimmer, Eva Maria Köck, Simon Penner, Andreas Kerstan, Patricia-Anca Steinmassl, Herbert Dumfahrt, Christian W Huck
Water absorbed to poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based CAD/CAM (computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing) prosthodontics can alter their properties including hardness and stability. In the present contribution, water absorption and desorption kinetics under defined experimental conditions were monitored employing several supplementary and advanced Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic techniques in combination with multivariate analysis (MVA). In this synergistic vibrational spectroscopic multimethod approach, first a novel near-infrared (NIR) diffuse fiber optic probe reflection spectroscopic method was established for time-resolved analysis of water uptake within seven days under controlled conditions...
December 12, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943309/monoterpene-thermometer-of-tropical-forest-atmosphere-response-to-climate-warming
#8
Kolby J Jardine, Angela B Jardine, Jennifer A Holm, Danica L Lombardozzi, Robinson I Negron-Juarez, Scot T Martin, Harry R Beller, Bruno O Gimenez, Niro Higuchi, Jeffrey Q Chambers
Tropical forests absorb large amounts of atmospheric CO2 through photosynthesis but elevated temperatures suppress this absorption and promote monoterpene emissions. Using (13) CO2 labeling, here we show that monoterpene emissions from tropical leaves derive from recent photosynthesis and demonstrate distinct temperature optima for five groups (Groups 1-5), potentially corresponding to different enzymatic temperature-dependent reaction mechanisms within β-ocimene synthases. As diurnal and seasonal leaf temperatures increased during the Amazonian 2015 El Niño event, leaf and landscape monoterpene emissions showed strong linear enrichments of β-ocimenes (+4...
December 11, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934987/electric-field-controlled-co2-capture-and-co2-n2-separation-on-mos2-monolayers
#9
Qiao Sun, Gangqiang Qin, Yingying Ma, Weihua Wang, Ping Li, Aijun Du, Zhen Li
Developing new materials and technologies for efficient CO2 capture, particularly for separation of CO2 post-combustion, will significantly reduce the CO2 concentration and its impacts on the environment. A challenge for CO2 capture is to obtain high performance adsorbents with both high selectivity and easy regeneration. Here, CO2 capture/regeneration on MoS2 monolayers controlled by turning on/off external electric fields is comprehensively investigated through a density functional theory calculation. The calculated results indicate that CO2 forms a weak interaction with MoS2 monolayers in the absence of an electric field, but strongly interacts with MoS2 monolayers when an electric field of 0...
January 7, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889545/comparison-of-carbon-dioxide-and-air-insufflation-during-consecutive-esophagogastroduodenoscopy-and-colonoscopy-in-moderate-sedation-patients-a-prospective-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Su Young Kim, Jun-Won Chung, Dong Kyun Park, Kwang An Kwon, Kyoung Oh Kim, Yoon Jae Kim, Jung Ho Kim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endoscopy is performed with air insufflation and is usually associated with abdominal pain. It is well recognized that carbon dioxide (CO2) is absorbed more quickly into the body than air; however, to date, few studies have investigated the use of CO2 insufflation during consecutive esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy (CEC). Thus, this study evaluated the efficacy of CO2 insufflation compared with air insufflation in CEC. METHODS: From March 2014 to April 2016, a total of 215 consecutive patients were randomly assigned to receive CO2 insufflation (CO2 group, n=108) or air insufflation (air group, n=107)...
November 23, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886216/drought-rapidly-diminishes-the-large-net-co2-uptake-in-2011-over-semi-arid-australia
#11
Xuanlong Ma, Alfredo Huete, James Cleverly, Derek Eamus, Frédéric Chevallier, Joanna Joiner, Benjamin Poulter, Yongguang Zhang, Luis Guanter, Wayne Meyer, Zunyi Xie, Guillermo Ponce-Campos
Each year, terrestrial ecosystems absorb more than a quarter of the anthropogenic carbon emissions, termed as land carbon sink. An exceptionally large land carbon sink anomaly was recorded in 2011, of which more than half was attributed to Australia. However, the persistence and spatially attribution of this carbon sink remain largely unknown. Here we conducted an observation-based study to characterize the Australian land carbon sink through the novel coupling of satellite retrievals of atmospheric CO2 and photosynthesis and in-situ flux tower measures...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881991/dissecting-long-term-adjustments-of-photoprotective-and-photo-oxidative-stress-acclimation-occurring-in-dynamic-light-environments
#12
Shizue Matsubara, Trang Schneider, Veronica G Maurino
Changes in light intensity directly affect the performance of the photosynthetic apparatus. Light energy absorbed in excess of cells' needs leads to production of reactive oxygen species and photo-oxidative damage. Excess light in both constant and dynamic environments induces photoprotective acclimation in plants. Distinct sets of signals and regulatory mechanisms are involved in acclimatory adjustment of photoprotection and photosynthesis under constant and dynamic (fluctuating) light conditions. We are still far away from drawing a comprehensive picture of acclimatory signal transduction pathways, particularly in dynamic environments...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862763/modelling-a-linker-mix-and-match-approach-for-controlling-the-optical-excitation-gaps-and-band-alignment-of-zeolitic-imidazolate-frameworks
#13
Ricardo Grau-Crespo, Alex Aziz, Angus W Collins, Rachel Crespo-Otero, Norge C Hernández, L Marleny Rodriguez-Albelo, A Rabdel Ruiz-Salvador, Sofia Calero, Said Hamad
Tuning the electronic structure of metal-organic frameworks is the key to extending their functionality to the photocatalytic conversion of absorbed gases. Herein we discuss how the band edge positions in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) can be tuned by mixing different imidazole-based linkers within the same structure. We present the band alignment for a number of known and hypothetical Zn-based ZIFs with respect to the vacuum level. Structures with a single type of linker exhibit relatively wide band gaps; however, by mixing linkers of a low-lying conduction edge with linkers of a high-lying valence edge, we can predict materials with ideal band positions for visible-light water splitting and CO2 reduction photocatalysis...
December 23, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846239/high-throughput-accurate-single-cell-screening-of-euglena-gracilis-with-fluorescence-assisted-optofluidic-time-stretch-microscopy
#14
Baoshan Guo, Cheng Lei, Takuro Ito, Yiyue Jiang, Yasuyuki Ozeki, Keisuke Goda
The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels is an important, but challenging goal for the world. As an alternative to liquid fossil fuels, algal biofuel is expected to play a key role in alleviating global warming since algae absorb atmospheric CO2 via photosynthesis. Among various algae for fuel production, Euglena gracilis is an attractive microalgal species as it is known to produce wax ester (good for biodiesel and aviation fuel) within lipid droplets. To date, while there exist many techniques for inducing microalgal cells to produce and accumulate lipid with high efficiency, few analytical methods are available for characterizing a population of such lipid-accumulated microalgae including E...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836274/nitric-oxide-removal-by-combined-urea-and-fe-ii-edta-reaction-systems
#15
Feiqiang He, Xianhe Deng, Min Chen
(NH2)2CO as well as Fe(II)EDTA is an absorbent for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification. However, they have their own drawbacks, like the oxidation of Fe(II)EDTA and the low solubility of NO in urea solution. To overcome these defects, A mixed absorbent containing both (NH2)2CO and Fe(II)EDTA was employed. The effects of various operating parameters (urea and Fe(II)EDTA concentration, temperature, inlet oxygen concentration, pH value) on NO removal were examined in the packed tower. The results indicated that the NO removal efficiency increased with the decrease of oxygen concentration as well as the increase of Fe(II)EDTA concentration...
February 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769947/chemical-composition-antibacterial-activity-and-related-mechanism-of-the-essential-oil-from-the-leaves-of-juniperus-rigida-sieb-et-zucc-against-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#16
Xiaxia Meng, Dengwu Li, Dan Zhou, Dongmei Wang, Qiaoxiao Liu, Sufang Fan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Juniperus rigida is used as Tibetan and Mongolian medicine in China for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, nephritis, brucellosis and other various inflammatory diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate antibacterial potential of essential oils from J. rigida leaves against Klebsiella pneumoniae and to examine its possible related mechanisms. The study was undertaken in order to scientifically validate the traditional use of J. rigida...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769405/proof-of-concept-study-for-different-sized-chitosan-nanoparticles-as-carbon-dioxide-co2-indicators-in-food-quality-monitoring
#17
Seokjin Suh, Xiangpeng Meng, Sanghoon Ko
The objective of this study was to develop different-sized chitosan nanoparticles as CO2-based food quality indicators. Chitosan nanoparticles were fabricated with different sizes (small, 300nm; medium, 500nm; and large, 1000nm) by ionic gelation. To investigate the performance of chitosan nanoparticles as CO2 indicators, they were suspended in aqueous solution at pH 8.0. Changes in the pH and absorbance of the suspension were measured over time, the absorbance at the transition appearance time being calculated using the inverse-Hill function...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768807/a-new-method-to-estimate-photosynthetic-parameters-through-net-assimilation-rate-intercellular-space-co2-concentration-a-ci-curve-and-chlorophyll-fluorescence-measurements
#18
Dany P Moualeu-Ngangue, Tsu-Wei Chen, Hartmut Stützel
Gas exchange (GE) and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) measurements are widely used to noninvasively study photosynthetic parameters, for example the rates of maximum Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax ), electron transport rate (J), daytime respiration (Rd ) and mesophyll conductance (gm ). Existing methods for fitting GE data (net assimilation rate-intercellular space CO2 concentration (A-Ci ) curve) are based on two assumptions: gm is unvaried with CO2 concentration in the intercellular space (Ci ); and light absorption (α) and the proportion of quanta absorbed by photosystem II (β) are constant in the data set...
October 21, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723300/mixed-matrix-membranes-containing-carbon-nanotubes-composite-with-hydrogel-for-efficient-co2-separation
#19
Haiyang Zhang, Ruili Guo, Jinpeng Hou, Zhong Wei, Xueqin Li
In this study, a carbon nanotubes composite coated with N-isopropylacrylamide hydrogel (NIPAM-CNTs) has been synthesized. Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) were fabricated by incorporating NIPAM-CNTs composite filler into poly(ether-block-amide) (Pebax® MH 1657) matrix for efficient CO2 separation. The as-prepared NIPAM-CNTs composite filler mainly plays two roles: i) The extraordinary smooth one-dimensional nanochannels of CNTs act as the highways to accelerate CO2 transport through membranes, increasing CO2 permeability; ii) The NIPAM hydrogel layer coated on the outer walls of CNTs acts as the super water absorbent to increase water content of membranes, appealing both CO2 permeability and CO2/gas selectivity...
October 10, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682149/elevated-co2-increases-energetic-cost-and-ion-movement-in-the-marine-fish-intestine
#20
Rachael M Heuer, Martin Grosell
Energetic costs associated with ion and acid-base regulation in response to ocean acidification have been predicted to decrease the energy available to fish for basic life processes. However, the low cost of ion regulation (6-15% of standard metabolic rate) and inherent variation associated with whole-animal metabolic rate measurements have made it difficult to consistently demonstrate such a cost. Here we aimed to gain resolution in assessing the energetic demand associated with acid-base regulation by examining ion movement and O2 consumption rates of isolated intestinal tissue from Gulf toadfish acclimated to control or 1900 μatm CO2 (projected for year 2300)...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
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