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Amber Hilliard, Dara Leong, Amy O'Callaghan, Eamonn P Culligan, Ciara A Morgan, Niall DeLappe, Colin Hill, Kieran Jordan, Martin Cormican, Cormac G M Gahan
Listeria monocytogenes is a major human foodborne pathogen that is prevalent in the natural environment and has a high case fatality rate. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis has emerged as a valuable methodology for the classification of L. monocytogenes isolates and the identification of virulence islands that may influence infectivity. In this study, WGS was used to provide an insight into 25 L. monocytogenes isolates from cases of clinical infection in Ireland between 2013 and 2015. Clinical strains were either lineage I (14 isolates) or lineage II (11 isolates), with 12 clonal complexes (CC) represented, of which CC1 (6) and CC101 (4) were the most common...
March 20, 2018: Genes
Aine Cafferkey, Elizabeth Coyle, David Greaney, Sinead Harte, Niamh Hayes, Miriam Langdon, Birgitt Straub, Crina Burlacu
BACKGROUND: Simulation-based education is a modern training modality that allows healthcare professionals to develop knowledge and practice skills in a safe learning environment. The College of Anaesthetists of Ireland (CAI) was the first Irish postgraduate medical training body to introduce mandatory simulation training into its curriculum. Extensive quality assurance and improvement data has been collected on all simulation courses to date. AIMS: Describe The College of Anaesthetists of Ireland Simulation Training (CAST) programme and report the analysis of course participants' feedback...
March 20, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Gopal R Gopinath, Hannah R Chase, Jayanthi Gangiredla, Athmanya Eshwar, Hyein Jang, Isha Patel, Flavia Negrete, Samantha Finkelstein, Eunbi Park, TaeJung Chung, YeonJoo Yoo, JungHa Woo, YouYoung Lee, Jihyeon Park, Hyerim Choi, Seungeun Jeong, Soyoung Jun, Mijeong Kim, Chaeyoon Lee, HyeJin Jeong, Séamus Fanning, Roger Stephan, Carol Iversen, Felix Reich, Günter Klein, Angelika Lehner, Ben D Tall
Background: Malonate utilization, an important differential trait, well recognized as being possessed by six of the seven Cronobacter species is thought to be largely absent in Cronobacter sakazakii (Csak). The current study provides experimental evidence that confirms the presence of a malonate utilization operon in 24 strains of sequence type (ST) 64, obtained from Europe, Middle East, China, and USA; it offers explanations regarding the genomic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness among these strains, and that of other C...
2018: Gut Pathogens
O Naughton, A Donnelly, P Nolan, F Pilla, B D Misstear, B Broderick
Estimating pollutant concentrations at a local and regional scale is essential in environmental and health policy decision making. Here we present a novel land use regression (LUR) modelling methodology that exploits the high temporal resolution of fixed-site monitoring (FSM) to produce a national-scale air quality model for the key pollutant NO2 . The methodology partitions concentration time series from a national FSM network into wind-dependent sectors or "wedges". A LUR model is derived using predictor variables calculated within the directional wind sectors, and compared against the long-term average concentrations within each sector...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kai Lehtimäki, Volker A Coenen, Antonio Gonçalves Ferreira, Paul Boon, Christian Elger, Rod S Taylor, Philippe Ryvlin, Antonio Gil-Nagel, Frans Gielen, Thomas C Brionne, Abdallah Abouihia, Grégory Beth
BACKGROUND: The Medtronic Registry for Epilepsy (MORE; Medtronic Inc, Dublin, Ireland) is an open label observational study evaluating the long-term effectiveness, safety, and performance of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of thalamus (ANT) for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. OBJECTIVE: To compare the difference in success rate of placing contacts at ANT-target region (ANT-TR) between transventricular (TV) and extraventricular (EV) lead trajectories in 73 ANT-DBS implants in 17 European centers participating in the MORE registry...
March 15, 2018: Neurosurgery
Therese M Lynn, Ena Lynn, Eamon Keenan, Suzi Lyons
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to provide trend analysis on all deaths among drug users who injected at or around the time of their death in Ireland between 1998 and 2014. METHOD: A review of the data recorded by the National Drug-Related Deaths Index (NDRDI) was conducted to identify individuals who were known to be injecting at or around the time of their death, from 1998 to 2014. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2014, 16,500 deaths were recorded by the NDRDI...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Seraphim Dempsey, Seán Lyons, Anne Nolan
We examine the association between living in an urban area with more or less green space and the probability of being obese. This work involves the creation of a new dataset which combines geo-coded data at the individual level from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing with green space data from the European Urban Atlas 2012. We find evidence suggestive of a u-shaped relationship between green space in urban areas and obesity; those living in areas with the lowest and highest shares of green space within a 1...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
Peter Greaves
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of regional diets on the health of the poor in mid-Victorian Britain. Contemporary surveys of regional diets and living condition were reviewed. This information was compared with mortality data from Britain over the same period. Although there was an overall improvement in life expectancy during the latter part of the 19th century, there were large regional differences in lifestyle, diet and mortality rates. Dietary surveys showed that the poor labouring population in isolated rural areas of England, in the mainland and islands of Scotland and in the west of Ireland enjoyed the most nutritious diets...
March 2018: JRSM Open
Robert W McConkey, Catherine Holborn
PURPOSE: Gay men with prostate cancer are an 'invisible species' in the research literature despite concerns that the impact of treatment may be more profound and in some ways unique compared to heterosexual men. The aim of this research is to explore the lived experience of gay men with prostate cancer. METHOD: In-depth interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim from a purposive sample of eight gay men treated for prostate cancer in Ireland. A qualitative methodological approach employing Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological method was used to collect and analyse data...
April 2018: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
Ronan L McDermott, John G Armstrong, Pierre Thirion, Mary Dunne, Marie Finn, Cormac Small, Mary Byrne, Carmel O'Shea, Lydia O'Sullivan, Aoife Shannon, Emma Kelly, Dayle J Hacking
TITLE: Cancer Trials Ireland (ICORG) 06-34: A multi-centre clinical trial using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy to reduce the toxicity of palliative radiation for lung cancer. NCT01176487. BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: Trials of radiation therapy for the palliation of intra-thoracic symptoms from locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have concentrated on optimising fractionation and dose schedules. In these trials, the rates of oesophagitis induced by this "palliative" therapy have been unacceptably high...
March 13, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Emmanuel Umama-Agada, Muhammad Asghar, Aoife Curley, Jane Gilhooley, Richard M Duffy, Brendan D Kelly
Involuntary psychiatric admission is an established practice for patients who are acutely or severely mentally ill but the factors contributing to involuntary (as opposed to voluntary) admission are not fully clear. Nor is it clear why rates of involuntary admission often vary between hospitals within the same jurisdiction. We studied all admissions, voluntary and involuntary, in three inpatient psychiatry units in Dublin, Ireland, which cover a population of 552,019 people, over a one-year period (1 July 2014 until 30 June 2015, inclusive), as part of the Dublin Involuntary Admission Study (DIAS)...
March 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Honor Young, Lorraine Burke, Saoirse Nic Gabhainn
BACKGROUND: The need to tackle sexual health problems and promote positive sexual health has been acknowledged in Irish health policy. Young people's sexual behaviour however remains under-researched with limited national data available. METHODS: This study presents the first nationally representative and internationally comparable data on young people's sexual health behaviours in Ireland. Self-complete questionnaire data were collected from 4494 schoolchildren aged 15-18 years as part of a broader examination of health behaviour and their context...
March 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
Aileen V Ireland, Jennifer Finnegan-John, Gill Hubbard, Karen Scanlon, Richard G Kyle
Walking is widely accepted as a safe and effective method of promoting rehabilitation and a return to physical activity after a cancer diagnosis. Little research has considered the therapeutic qualities of landscape in relation to understanding women's recovery from breast cancer, and no study has considered the supportive and therapeutic benefits that walking groups might contribute to their wellbeing. Through a study of a volunteer-led walking group intervention for women living with and beyond breast cancer (Best Foot Forward) we address this gap...
March 8, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Stephen Noblett, Jane Beenstock, James Noblett, Joanne Ireland, Sarah Ormiston
Aims and method The increased rates of smoking in people with mental illness is well documented, and establishing smoke-free mental health environments has been emphasised over recent years. This article examines the financial costs of implementing smoke free guidance and assesses the cost associated with patients who were prescribed clozapine and who committed to stopping smoking cigarettes for the duration of the study period. RESULTS: Patients (38) who were prescribed clozapine were included in the study...
April 2018: BJPsych Bulletin
Sarah Donnelly, Emer Begley, Marita O'Brien
In recent years, there have been national and international policy advances around capacity and decision-making and an apparent burgeoning rights-based approach to the issue, all of which have the potential to impact on the experience for people with dementia in Ireland. There is little evidence however on whether these policies and principles are being translated into practice and whether traditional paternalistic approaches to decision-making are being challenged. To gain insight into current practice, research was undertaken with social workers working with older people in Ireland; reporting on the involvement of people living with dementia in care-planning processes...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Jean Mooney, Mark R Lynch, Colin V Prescott, Tracy Clegg, Michael Loughlin, Bernard Hannon, Colm Moore, Richard Faulkner
While resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides is known to occur in many European populations of Norway rat and house mouse, to-date no data is available on the occurrence in Ireland of such resistance. No genetic evidence for the occurrence of resistance was found in 65 Norway rat samples analysed, indicative of an absence, or low prevalence, of resistance in rats in at least the Eastern region of the island of Ireland. The presence of two of the most commonly found amino acid substitutions Leu128Ser and Tyr139Cys associated with house mouse resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides was confirmed...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Caroline Daly, Eve Griffin, Darren M Ashcroft, Roger T Webb, Ivan J Perry, Ella Arensman
Background: Intentional drug overdose (IDO) is the most common form of hospital-treated self-harm, yet no national study has systematically classified the range of drugs involved using a validated system. We aimed to determine the profile of patients engaging in overdose, to identify drugs frequently used and to quantify the contributions of multiple drug use and alcohol involvement. Methods: Between 2012 and 2014, the National Self-Harm Registry, Ireland recorded 18 329 presentations of non-fatal IDO to Irish emergency departments...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Paul Dillon, L Alison Phillips, Paul Gallagher, Susan M Smith, Derek Stewart, Gráinne Cousins
Background: The Necessity-Concerns Framework (NCF) is a multidimensional theory describing the relationship between patients' positive and negative evaluations of their medication which interplay to influence adherence. Most studies evaluating the NCF have failed to account for the multidimensional nature of the theory, placing the separate dimensions of medication "necessity beliefs" and "concerns" onto a single dimension (e.g., the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire-difference score model)...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
A McKinley, M Stevenson, K Steele
The United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) was introduced to assist in identification of applicants from all levels of society with the appropriate characteristics to become good doctors. Evidence that the UKCAT has achieved such widened participation (WP) in applicants to medical school remains elusive. One of the limitations to WP investigation has been that data on socioeconomic status of applicants to medical schools has been obtained through voluntary submission on application to UKCAT and up to 30% of applications offered either none or only limited information...
May 2017: Ulster Medical Journal
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