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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895900/nutritional-implications-for-ultra-endurance-walking-and-running-events
#1
REVIEW
Eric Williamson
This paper examines the various nutritional challenges which athletes encounter in preparing for and participating in ultra-endurance walking and running events. Special attention is paid to energy level, performance, and recovery within the context of athletes' intake of carbohydrate, protein, fat, and various vitamins and minerals. It outlines, by way of a review of literature, those factors which promote optimal performance for the ultra-endurance athlete and provides recommendations from multiple researchers concerned with the nutrition and performance of ultra-endurance athletes...
2016: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770784/effects-of-two-neuromuscular-training-programs-on-running-biomechanics-with-load-carriage-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Bernard X W Liew, Susan Morris, Justin W L Keogh, Brendyn Appleby, Kevin Netto
BACKGROUND: In recent years, athletes have ventured into ultra-endurance and adventure racing events, which tests their ability to race, navigate, and survive. These events often require race participants to carry some form of load, to bear equipment for navigation and survival purposes. Previous studies have reported specific alterations in biomechanics when running with load which potentially influence running performance and injury risk. We hypothesize that a biomechanically informed neuromuscular training program would optimize running mechanics during load carriage to a greater extent than a generic strength training program...
October 22, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703854/sex-differences-in-pacing-during-ultraman-hawaii
#3
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
BACKGROUND: To date, little is known for pacing in ultra-endurance athletes competing in a non-stop event and in a multi-stage event, and especially, about pacing in a multi-stage event with different disciplines during the stages. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of age, sex and calendar year on triathlon performance and variation of performance by events (i.e., swimming, cycling 1, cycling 2 and running) in 'Ultraman Hawaii' held between 1983 and 2015...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662761/turbulence-in-microfluidics-cleanroom-free-fast-solventless-and-bondless-fabrication-and-application-in-high-throughput-liquid-liquid-extraction
#4
Camila L de Camargo, Letícia S Shiroma, Gabriela F Giordano, Angelo L Gobbi, Luis C S Vieira, Renato S Lima
This paper addresses an important breakthrough in the deployment of ultra-high adhesion strength microfluidic technologies to provide turbulence at harsh flow rate conditions. This paper is only, to our knowledge, the second reporting on the generation of high flow rate-assisted turbulence in microchannels. This flow solves a crucial bottleneck in microfluidics: the generation of high throughput homogeneous mixings. We focused on the fabrication of bulky polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchips (without any interfaces) rather than the laborious surface modifications that were employed in the first reporting about turbulence-assisted microfluidics...
October 12, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373587/alterations-in-cardiac-mechanics-following-ultra-endurance-exercise-insights-from-left-and-right-ventricular-area-deformation-loops
#5
Rachel Lord, Keith George, John Somauroo, Mike Stembridge, Nikhil Jain, Martin D Hoffman, Rob Shave, Francois Haddad, Euan Ashley, Helen Jones, David Oxborough
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to use novel area-deformation (ε) loops to interrogate the interaction between the right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) mechanics following a 100-mile endurance run. METHODS: Fifteen participants (mean body mass, 70.1 ± 8.8 kg; mean age, 40 ± 8 years) were recruited for the study. Echocardiography was performed before the race, after the race, and 6 hours into recovery. RV and LV area and longitudinal ε were assessed using standard and speckle-tracking echocardiography...
September 2016: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27027796/exploratory-insights-from-the-right-sided-electrocardiogram-following-prolonged-endurance-exercise
#6
Rachel Lord, Keith George, John Somauroo, Nikhil Jain, Kristin Reese, Martin D Hoffman, Francois Haddad, Euan Ashley, Helen Jones, David Oxborough
BACKGROUND: Prolonged strenuous exercise has a profound effect on cardiac function. The right heart may be more susceptible to this imposition; yet, right-sided chest leads have not been utilised in this setting. METHODS: Thirty highly trained athletes at the 2014 Western States 100-mile Endurance Run from Squaw Valley to Auburn, California (body mass 68 ± 12 kg, age 45 ± 10 years, 57 ± 15 miles per week) were recruited for the study. Pre- and post-race, a right-sided 12-lead ECG was obtained and data were extracted for P, R and S waves, J point, ST segment and T wave amplitude...
November 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26892521/metabolic-characteristics-of-keto-adapted-ultra-endurance-runners
#7
Jeff S Volek, Daniel J Freidenreich, Catherine Saenz, Laura J Kunces, Brent C Creighton, Jenna M Bartley, Patrick M Davitt, Colleen X Munoz, Jeffrey M Anderson, Carl M Maresh, Elaine C Lee, Mark D Schuenke, Giselle Aerni, William J Kraemer, Stephen D Phinney
BACKGROUND: Many successful ultra-endurance athletes have switched from a high-carbohydrate to a low-carbohydrate diet, but they have not previously been studied to determine the extent of metabolic adaptations. METHODS: Twenty elite ultra-marathoners and ironman distance triathletes performed a maximal graded exercise test and a 180 min submaximal run at 64% VO2max on a treadmill to determine metabolic responses. One group habitually consumed a traditional high-carbohydrate (HC: n=10, %carbohydrate:protein:fat=59:14:25) diet, and the other a low-carbohydrate (LC; n=10, 10:19:70) diet for an average of 20 months (range 9 to 36 months)...
March 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26853451/changes-in-the-markers-of-cardiac-damage-in-men-following-long-distance-and-ultra-long-distance-running-races
#8
Jin H Yoon, Yongbum Park, Jaeki Ahn, Kyung A Shin, Young J Kim
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare pre- and postcompetition markers of cardiac damage in ultraendurance athletes. METHODS: All the subjects had blood samples collected before starting and immediately after completing the running race, in order to analyze CK, hs-CRP, cTnI, and NT-proBNP. RESULTS: Before starting the marathon, there were no differences between the groups for all of the tests. CK was significantly higher after the 308 km ultra-marathon than after the marathon and the 100 km ultra-marathon (P<0...
March 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26553491/innovative-operations-measures-and-nutritional-support-for-mass-endurance-events
#9
REVIEW
George T Chiampas, Anita V Goyal
Endurance and sporting events have increased in popularity and participation in recent years worldwide, and with this comes the need for medical directors to apply innovative operational strategies and nutritional support to meet such demands. Mass endurance events include sports such as cycling and running half, full and ultra-marathons with over 1000 participants. Athletes, trainers and health care providers can all agree that both participant outcomes and safety are of the utmost importance for any race or sporting event...
November 2015: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26480477/the-interconnectedness-of-diet-choice-and-distance-running-results-of-the-research-understanding-the-nutrition-of-endurance-runners-runner-study
#10
Gabrielle M Turner-McGrievy, Wendy J Moore, Daheia Barr-Anderson
This study examined differences in diet, particularly vegetarian and vegan, among ultramarathon and other long distance runners. Participants who had completed a half- (HALF), full- (FULL), or ultramarathon (ULTRA) in the past 12 months were recruited to complete an online survey assessing current diet, reason for diet, and other dietary behaviors. A total of 422 participants completed the survey (n=125 ULTRA, n=152 FULL, n=145 HALF). More ULTRA participants were men (63%) (vs. FULL (37%) and HALF (23%)) and ULTRA participants reported significantly more years of running (16...
October 19, 2015: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26184692/fenitrothion-an-organophosphorous-insecticide-impairs-locomotory-function-and-alters-body-temperatures-in-sminthopsis-macroura-gould-1845-without-reducing-metabolic-rates-during-running-endurance-and-thermogenic-performance-tests
#11
Paul G Story, Kris French, Lee B Astheimer, William A Buttemer
Endemic Australian mammal species are exposed to pesticides used for locust control as they occupy the same habitat as the target insect. The authors examined the impact of an ultra-low volume formulation of the organophosphorous insecticide fenitrothion (O,O-dimethyl-O-[3-methyl-4-nitrophenol]-phosphorothioate) on a suite of physiological measures that affect the ability of animals to survive in free-living conditions: locomotory and thermogenic functions, metabolic performance, body mass, and hematocrit and hemoglobin levels...
January 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26113805/rhabdomyolysis-and-exercise-associated-hyponatremia-in-ultra-bikers-and-ultra-runners
#12
Daniela Chlíbková, Beat Knechtle, Thomas Rosemann, Ivana Tomášková, Jan Novotný, Alena Žákovská, Tomáš Uher
BACKGROUND: Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH), rhabdomyolysis and renal failure appear to be a unique problem in ultra-endurance racers. METHODS: We investigated the combined occurrence of EAH and rhabdomyolysis in seven different ultra-endurance races and disciplines (i.e. multi-stage mountain biking, 24-h mountain biking, 24-h ultra-running and 100-km ultra-running). RESULTS: Two (15.4%) ultra-runners (man and woman) from hyponatremic ultra-athletes (n = 13) and four (4%) ultra-runners (four men) from the normonatremic group (n = 100) showed rhabdomyolysis following elevated blood creatine kinase (CK) levels > 10,000 U/L without the development of renal failure and the necessity of a medical treatment...
2015: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26101730/the-aspect-of-experience-in-ultra-triathlon-races
#13
Beat Knechtle, Matthias Alexander Zingg, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph Alexander Rüst
Previous experience seems to be an important predictor for endurance and ultra-endurance performance. The present study investigated whether the number of previously completed races and/or the personal best times in shorter races is more predictive for performance in longer non-stop ultra-triathlons such as a Deca Iron ultra-triathlon. All female and male ultra-triathletes who had finished between 1985 and 2014 at least one Double Iron ultra-triathlon (i.e. 7.6 km swimming, 360 km cycling and 84.4 km running), one Triple Iron ultra-triathlon (i...
2015: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26061831/competition-nutrition-practices-of-elite-ultramarathon-runners
#14
Trent Stellingwerff
Anecdotal claims have suggested that an increasing number of ultramarathoners purposely undertake chronic low-carbohydrate (CHO) ketogenic diets while training, and race with very low CHO intakes, as a way to maximize fat oxidation and improve performance. However, very little empirical evidence exists on specific fueling strategies that elite ultramarathoners undertake to maximize race performance. The study's purpose was to characterize race nutrition habits of elite ultramarathon runners. Three veteran male ultrarunners (M ± SD; age 35 ± 2 years; mass 59...
February 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25941980/saccharide-composition-of-carbohydrates-consumed-during-an-ultra-endurance-triathlon
#15
Patrick B Wilson, Gregory S Rhodes, Stacy J Ingraham
OBJECTIVE: Ingesting a mix of glucose and fructose during exercise increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation while minimizing gastrointestinal (GI) distress. Several studies have suggested that a glucose-to-fructose ratio of 1.2:1 to 1:1 is optimal. No studies have quantified saccharides consumed during a nonsimulated endurance event. The aim of this investigation was to quantify saccharide sources used during an ultra-endurance triathlon and provide a resource for athletes desiring to manipulate the saccharide content of carbohydrate consumed during training and competition...
2015: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25848839/sarcomere-disruptions-of-slow-fiber-resulting-from-mountain-ultramarathon
#16
Gerard Carmona, Emma Roca, Mario Guerrero, Roser Cussó, Alfredo Irurtia, Lexa Nescolarde, Daniel Brotons, Josep L Bedini, Joan A Cadefau
OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes after a mountain ultramarathon (MUM) in the serum concentration of fast (FM) and slow (SM) myosin isoforms, which are fiber-type-specific sarcomere proteins. The changes were compared against creatine kinase (CK), a widely used fiber-sarcolemma-damage biomarker, and cardiac troponin I (cTnI), a widely used cardiac biomarker. METHODS: Observational comparison of response in a single group of 8 endurance-trained amateur athletes. Time-related changes in serum levels of CK, cTnI, SM, and FM from competitors were analyzed before, 1 h after the MUM, and 24 and 48 h after the start of the MUM by 1-way ANOVA for repeated measures or Friedman and Wilcoxon tests...
November 2015: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25558906/energy-balance-of-triathletes-during-an-ultra-endurance-event
#17
Anna Barrero, Pau Erola, Raúl Bescós
UNLABELLED: The nutritional strategy during an ultra-endurance triathlon (UET) is one of the main concerns of athletes competing in such events. The purpose of this study is to provide a proper characterization of the energy and fluid intake during real competition in male triathletes during a complete UET and to estimate the energy expenditure (EE) and the fluid balance through the race. METHODS: Eleven triathletes performed a UET. All food and drinks ingested during the race were weighed and recorded in order to assess the energy intake (EI) during the race...
January 2015: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25304334/are-females-more-resistant-to-extreme-neuromuscular-fatigue
#18
John Temesi, Pierrick J Arnal, Thomas Rupp, Léonard Féasson, Régine Cartier, Laurent Gergelé, Samuel Verges, Vincent Martin, Guillaume Y Millet
PURPOSE: Despite interest in the possibility of females outperforming males in ultraendurance sporting events, little is known about the sex differences in fatigue during prolonged locomotor exercise. This study investigated possible sex differences in central and peripheral fatigue in the knee extensors and plantar flexors resulting from a 110-km ultra-trail-running race. METHODS: Neuromuscular function of the knee extensors and plantar flexors was evaluated via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electrical nerve stimulation before and after an ultra-trail-running race in 20 experienced ultraendurance trail runners (10 females and 10 males matched by percent of the winning time by sex) during maximal and submaximal voluntary contractions and in relaxed muscle...
July 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25210791/intensity-profile-during-an-ultra-endurance-triathlon-in-relation-to-testing-and-performance
#19
A Barrero, D Chaverri, P Erola, X Iglesias, F A Rodríguez
We examined the heart rate (HR)-based intensity profile during an ultra-endurance triathlon (UET) estimated from the individual HR-oxygen uptake (˙VO2) relationship during specific graded tests, relating it to race performance. 9 male ultra-endurance triathletes completed the study. Before racing, subjects performed graded exercise tests involving cycle (C) ergometry, treadmill running (R) and free swimming (S) for peak ˙VO2 and HR at ventilatory thresholds (VT). Exercise-specific HR-˙VO2 regression equations were developed...
December 2014: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25204280/the-right-ventricle-following-ultra-endurance-exercise-insights-from-novel-echocardiography-and-12-lead-electrocardiography
#20
Rachel Lord, John Somauroo, Mike Stembridge, Nikhil Jain, Martin D Hoffman, Keith George, Helen Jones, Rob Shave, Francois Haddad, Euan Ashley, David Oxborough
PURPOSE: There is contradictory evidence related to the impact of ultra-marathon running on right ventricular (RV) structure and function. Consequently, the aims of this study were to: (1) comprehensively assess RV structure and function before and immediately following a 100-mile ultra-marathon in highly trained runners, (2) determine the nature of RV recovery 6 h post-race, and (3) document 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) changes post-exercise. METHODS: Echocardiography and 12-lead ECG were assessed in 15 competitors in a repeated measures design before and immediately after completion of the 2013 Western States Endurance Race...
January 2015: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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