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Injury prevention, athlete

Geoffrey D Abrams, David Feldman, Marc R Safran
Vitamin D is known to be important for calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. It also has important direct effects on skeletal muscle. Unlike authentic vitamins, which cannot be synthesized in the body, vitamin D is produced in the skin using sunlight. Through its nuclear receptor (ie, vitamin D receptor) located throughout the body, including skeletal muscle, vitamin D initiates genomic and nongenomic pathways regulating multiple actions, including myocyte proliferation and growth. In some studies, vitamin D supplementation has been shown to increase muscle strength, particularly in people who are vitamin D deficient...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
William R Johnson, Ajmal Mian, Cyril J Donnelly, David Lloyd, Jacqueline Alderson
An understanding of athlete ground reaction forces and moments (GRF/Ms) facilitates the biomechanist's downstream calculation of net joint forces and moments, and associated injury risk. Historically, force platforms used to collect kinetic data are housed within laboratory settings and are not suitable for field-based installation. Given that Newton's Second Law clearly describes the relationship between a body's mass, acceleration, and resultant force, is it possible that marker-based motion capture can represent these parameters sufficiently enough to estimate GRF/Ms, and thereby minimize our reliance on surface embedded force platforms? Specifically, can we successfully use partial least squares (PLS) regression to learn the relationship between motion capture and GRF/Ms data? In total, we analyzed 11 PLS methods and achieved average correlation coefficients of 0...
March 17, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Jahan Heidari, Jürgen Beckmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Michel Brink, Wolfgang Kallus, Claudio Robazza, Michael Kellmann
Monitoring of recovery in the context of athletic performance has gained significant importance during recent years. As a systematic process of data collection and evaluation, the monitoring of recovery can be implemented for various purposes. It may aid to prevent negative outcomes of training or competition, such as underrecovery, overtraining, or injuries. Further, it aims at establishing routines and strategies necessary to guarantee athletes' readiness for performance by restoring their depleted resources...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Alireza Esmaeili, Andrew M Stewart, William G Hopkins, George P Elias, Brendan H Lazarus, Amber E Rowell, Robert J Aughey
Aim: The sit and reach test (S&R), dorsiflexion lunge test (DLT), and adductor squeeze test (AST) are commonly used in weekly musculoskeletal screening for athlete monitoring and injury prevention purposes. The aim of this study was to determine the normal week to week variability of the test scores, individual differences in variability, and the effects of training load on the scores. Methods: Forty-four elite Australian rules footballers from one club completed the weekly screening tests on day 2 or 3 post-main training (pre-season) or post-match (in-season) over a 10 month season...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Roger Fielding, Linda Riede, James P Lugo, Aouatef Bellamine
Given its pivotal role in fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism, l-carnitine has been investigated as ergogenic aid for enhancing exercise capacity in the healthy athletic population. Early research indicates its beneficial effects on acute physical performance, such as increased maximum oxygen consumption and higher power output. Later studies point to the positive impact of dietary supplementation with l-carnitine on the recovery process after exercise. It is demonstrated that l-carnitine alleviates muscle injury and reduces markers of cellular damage and free radical formation accompanied by attenuation of muscle soreness...
March 13, 2018: Nutrients
Gary B Wilkerson, Ashish Gupta, Marisa A Colston
Sport injuries restrict participation, impose a substantial economic burden, and can have persisting adverse effects on health-related quality of life. The effective use of Internet of Things (IoT), when combined with analytics approaches, can improve player safety through identification of injury risk factors that can be addressed by targeted risk reduction training activities. Use of IoT devices can facilitate highly efficient quantification of relevant functional capabilities prior to sport participation, which could substantially advance the prevailing sport injury management paradigm...
March 12, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Tea Galic, Domagoj Kuncic, Tina Poklepovic Pericic, Ivan Galic, Frane Mihanovic, Josko Bozic, Mark Herceg
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The increasing popularity of participating in sports activities among children and adolescents has increased the risk of sports-retaled orofacial and dental injuries. Therefore, it is important to establish efficient preventive strategies regarding sports-related dental trauma The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of sports-related dental injuries in young athletes and to compare the frequency of such injuries between high-risk and medium-risk sports, along with assessing athletes' attitudes and habits regarding mouthguard use...
March 11, 2018: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
Julianne D Schmidt, Katherine Rizzone, Nicole L Hoffman, Michelle L Weber, Courtney Jones, Jeff Bazarian, Steven P Broglio, Michael McCrea, Thomas W McAllister
BACKGROUND: Individuals who sustain their first concussion during childhood may be at greater risk of sustaining multiple concussions throughout their lifetime because of a longer window of vulnerability. This article aims to estimate the association between age at first concussion and number of subsequent concussions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 23,582 collegiate athletes from 26 universities and military cadets from three military academies completed a concussion history questionnaire (65% males, age 19...
January 31, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Samuel L Buckner, Matthew B Jessee, Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Takashi Abe, Jeremy P Loenneke
Resistance exercise is typically performed to increase both muscle size and strength and is regularly incorporated into training programs for sports performance. Presumably, the exercise would be expected to increase the force producing capabilities of skeletal muscle, which may have subsequent influence on various sports related abilities. Interestingly, few studies are designed to examine sports related benefits of resistance exercise while including a proper control group to account for adaptations to simply performing the sports related task...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
S Raghavan, P Dayal, K Philip, M S Gahlot
Objectives (Background): Risk of dental injury from contact sports can be prevented by the use of mouthguards. Dentists provide excellent information regarding mouthguards. Thus, the aim was to assess the awareness among dentists regarding the same, the level of training in fabricating a mouthguard and whether they regularly recommend one for their athletically active patients. Materials and Methods: This institutional cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Department of Orthodontics, Government Dental College, Kottayam, and Kerala, India...
March 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Brett S Pexa, Eric D Ryan, Joseph B Myers
BACKGROUND: Previous research indicates that the amount of valgus torque placed on the elbow joint during overhead throwing is higher than the medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) can tolerate. Wrist and finger flexor muscle activity is hypothesized to make up for this difference, and in vitro studies that simulated activity of upper extremity musculature, specifically the flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi ulnaris, support this hypothesis. PURPOSE: To assess the medial elbow joint space at rest, under valgus stress, and under valgus stress with finger and forearm flexor contraction by use of ultrasonography in vivo...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
William M Adams, Samantha E Scarneo, Douglas J Casa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Michael C Koester, Samuel T Johnson, Marc F Norcross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Jayishni N Maharaj, Andrew G Cresswell, Glen A Lichtwark
PURPOSE: Foot orthoses maybe used in the management of musculoskeletal disorders related to abnormal subtalar joint (STJ) pronation. However, the precise mechanical benefits of foot orthoses for preventing injuries associated with the STJ are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effect of foot orthoses on the energy absorption requirements of the STJ and subsequently tibialis posterior (TP) muscle function. METHODS: Eighteen asymptomatic subjects with a pes planus foot posture were prescribed custom-made foot orthoses made from a plaster cast impression...
March 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Kerry Peek, Don Gatherer, Kyle J M Bennett, Job Fransen, Mark Watsford
The objective of this study was to investigate knee muscle strength characteristics in players from a high-level youth football Academy. In total, 110 players (aged 8-15 years) underwent muscle strength assessments carried out by a research physiotherapist using a computer-linked hand-held dynamometer. Results indicated that isometric hamstrings and quadriceps strength increased with age, whereas the isometric hamstring to quadriceps (H/Q) ratio decreased with age. A number of youth football players (n = 20; 18%; 95% CI: 11-27%) demonstrated isometric H/Q ratios of less than 0...
March 5, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Paula C Charlton, Benjamin Raysmith, Martin Wollin, Simon Rice, Craig Purdam, Ross A Clark, Michael K Drew
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate strength and flexibility measures pre- and post- Australian Football (AF) competition to determine their potential utility as secondary prevention measures. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Semi-professional AF club. PARTICIPANTS: Ten male AF athletes (mean ± SD; age, 21.3 ± 2.2 years; height, 186.1 ± 6.3 cm; weight, 83.5 ± 8.6 kg). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maximal unilateral isometric knee flexion strength performed in 45 degrees of hip flexion and 30 degrees of knee flexion, flexibility measures of hip and knee extension and ankle dorsiflexion...
February 2, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
Takashi Nagai, Nathan D Schilaty, Jeffrey D Strauss, Eric M Crowley, Timothy E Hewett
Lower extremity musculoskeletal injuries-such as ACL injury-are common, and the majority of those injuries occur without external player contact. In order to prevent non-contact musculoskeletal injuries, athletes must rely on accurate sensory information (such as visual, vestibular, and somatosensory) and stabilize joints during athletic tasks. Previously, proprioception tests (the senses of joint position, movement, tension or force) have been examined using static tests. Due to the role of proprioception in achievement of joint stability, it is essential to explore the development of dynamic proprioception tests...
February 27, 2018: Sports Medicine
Rasmus S Husted, Jesper Bencke, Per Hölmich, Lars L Andersen, Kristian Thorborg, Thomas Bandholm, Bjørn Gliese, Hanne B Lauridsen, Grethe Myklebust, Per Aagaard, Mette K Zebis
Background: Reduced lower extremity muscle strength as well as reduced lower extremity muscle pre-activity (defined as muscular activity just prior to initial ground contact) during high-risk movements are factors related to increased risk of non-contact ACL injury in adolescent female athletes. A strong relationship exists between muscle strength and muscle activity obtained during an isometric contraction, however, whether these two measures are related when muscle activity is obtained during a movement associated with a high risk of non-contact ACL injury is not known...
February 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
V Moreno-Pérez, Jll Elvira, J Fernandez-Fernandez, F J Vera-Garcia
Background: Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and external rotation strength have been associated with the development of shoulder pain in overhead athletes. Objective: To examine the bilateral passive shoulder rotational range of motion (ROM), the isometric rotational strength and unilateral serve speed in elite tennis players with and without shoulder pain history (PH and NPH, respectively) and compare between dominant and non-dominant limbs and between groups...
February 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Katrin Bart, Holger Steinberg
This study is the first to provide research on the East-German (GDR) sports physician and neurologist Bernhard Schwarz. It summarises Schwarz's publications from 1953 to 1966 regarding the impact of boxing on health, particularly craniocerebral injury. Also, the study analyses his work in the context of current discussions. It shows that Schwarz, who was a tenured professor and director of the Department of Psychiatry at the University Hospital of Leipzig and the physician of the GDR national boxing team, conducted systematic clinical surveys and pointed to the health impacts of boxing at an early point in time...
February 26, 2018: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
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