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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731765/critical-role-of-monoclinic-polarization-rotation-in-high-performance-perovskite-piezoelectric-materials
#1
Hui Liu, Jun Chen, Longlong Fan, Yang Ren, Zhao Pan, K V Lalitha, Jürgen Rödel, Xianran Xing
High-performance piezoelectric materials constantly attract interest for both technological applications and fundamental research. The understanding of the origin of the high-performance piezoelectric property remains a challenge mainly due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. We perform in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction combined with 2D geometry scattering technology to reveal the underlying mechanism for the perovskite-type lead-based high-performance piezoelectric materials. The direct structural evidence reveals that the electric-field-driven continuous polarization rotation within the monoclinic plane plays a critical role to achieve the giant piezoelectric response...
July 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731327/donor-acceptor-properties-of-a-single-molecule-altered-by-on-surface-complex-formation
#2
Tobias Meier, Rémy Pawlak, Shigeki Kawai, Yan Geng, Xunshan Liu, Silvio Decurtins, Prokop Hapala, Alexis Baratoff, Shi-Xia Liu, Pavel Jelinek, Ernst Meyer, Thilo Glatzel
Electron donor-acceptor molecules are of outstanding interest in molecular electronics and organic solar cells for their intramolecular charge transfer controlled via electrical or optical excitation. The preservation of their electronic character in the ground state upon adsorption on a surface is cardinal for their implementation in such single-molecule devices. Here, we investigate by atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy a prototypical system consisting of a π-conjugated tetrathiafulvalene-fused dipyridophenazine molecule adsorbed on thin NaCl films on Cu(111)...
July 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731119/non-invasively-improving-the-schottky-barriers-of-metal-mos2-interfaces-effects-of-atomic-vacancies-in-a-bn-buffer-layer
#3
Jie Su, Liping Feng, Siyang Liu, Zhengtang Liu
Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, vacancies in the BN buffer layer have been predicted to improve the Schottky barrier of the metal-MoS2 interface without deteriorating the intrinsic properties of the MoS2 layer. Here, the effects of concentrations, sizes and types of vacancies on the contact properties of metal/BN-MoS2 sandwich interfaces are comparatively studied. The results show that vacancies in the BN buffer layer not only don't deteriorate the charge scatterings and electronic properties of the MoS2 layer at the metal/BN-MoS2 interface, but also improve the charge density and contact resistance between the metal surface and the BN layer...
July 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731083/mutable-polyelectrolyte-tube-arrays-mesoscale-modeling-and-lateral-force-microscopy
#4
Steven W Cranford, Lin Han, Christine Ortiz, Markus J Buehler
In this study, the pH-dependent friction of layer-by-layer assemblies of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAH/PAA) are quantified for microtube array structures via experimental and simulated lateral force microscopy (LFM). A novel coarse-grain tube model is developed, utilizing a molecular dynamics (MD) framework with a Hertzian soft contact potential (such that F ∼ δ(3/2)) to allow the efficient dynamic simulation of 3D arrays consisting of hundreds of tubes at micrometer length scales...
July 21, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730194/covalent-hybrids-based-on-re-i-tricarbonyl-complexes-and-polypyridine-functionalized-polyoxometalate-synthesis-characterization-and-electronic-properties
#5
Thomas Auvray, Marie-Pierre Santoni, Bernold Hasenknopf, Garry S Hanan
A series of [Re(CO)3Br(N^N)] (N^N = substituted 2,2'-bipyridine ligand) complexes based on polypyridine-functionalized Dawson polyoxometalate (1-3) has been synthesized. The new hybrids (4-6) were characterized by various analytical techniques, including absorption, vibrational and luminescence spectroscopies as well as electrochemistry. Both units, the polyoxometalate and the transition metal complex, retain their intrinsic properties. Their combination in the newly prepared hybrids results in improved photosensitization in the high-energy visible region...
July 21, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729681/multiomics-analysis-of-the-giant-triton-snail-salivary-gland-a-crown-of-thorns-starfish-predator
#6
U Bose, T Wang, M Zhao, C A Motti, M R Hall, S F Cummins
The giant triton snail (Charonia tritonis) is one of the few natural predators of the adult Crown-of-Thorns starfish (COTS), a corallivore that has been damaging to many reefs in the Indo-Pacific. Charonia species have large salivary glands (SGs) that are suspected to produce either a venom and/or sulphuric acid which can immobilize their prey and neutralize the intrinsic toxic properties of COTS. To date, there is little information on the types of toxins produced by tritons. In this paper, the predatory behaviour of the C...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728818/mechanosensitive-piezo-channels-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#7
C Alcaino, G Farrugia, A Beyder
Sensation of mechanical forces is critical for normal function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and abnormalities in mechanosensation are linked to GI pathologies. In the GI tract there are several mechanosensitive cell types-epithelial enterochromaffin cells, intrinsic and extrinsic enteric neurons, smooth muscle cells and interstitial cells of Cajal. These cells use mechanosensitive ion channels that respond to mechanical forces by altering transmembrane ionic currents in a process called mechanoelectrical coupling...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728814/a-tour-de-force-the-discovery-properties-and-function-of-piezo-channels
#8
P A Gottlieb
Mechanical transducers appear throughout cell biology and are used to convert mechanical stress into chemical or electrical signals that allow the cell to respond to environmental changes. In the past six years, a eukaryotic mechanical channel family with two members, Piezo1 and Piezo2, has been identified. Piezo1 was shown to be a cation-selective channel that does not require ancillary proteins for activity. Mouse Piezo1 is large, with over 2500 amino acids, and is not homologous to other ion channels. Both piezo channels have rapid voltage-dependent inactivation with a reversal potential near 0mV...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728024/origins-of-cell-type-specific-olfactory-processing-in-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-circuit
#9
Kengo Inada, Yoshiko Tsuchimoto, Hokto Kazama
How cell-type-specific physiological properties shape neuronal functions in a circuit remains poorly understood. We addressed this issue in the Drosophila mushroom body (MB), a higher olfactory circuit, where neurons belonging to distinct glomeruli in the antennal lobe feed excitation to three types of intrinsic neurons, α/β, α'/β', and γ Kenyon cells (KCs). Two-photon optogenetics and intracellular recording revealed that whereas glomerular inputs add similarly in all KCs, spikes were generated most readily in α'/β' KCs...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727182/probing-anisotropic-thermal-conductivity-of-transition-metal-dichalcogenides-mx2-m-mo-w-and-x-s-se-using-time-domain-thermoreflectance
#10
Puqing Jiang, Xin Qian, Xiaokun Gu, Ronggui Yang
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are a group of layered 2D semiconductors that have shown many intriguing electrical and optical properties. However, the thermal transport properties in TMDs are not well understood due to the challenges in characterizing anisotropic thermal conductivity. Here, a variable-spot-size time-domain thermoreflectance approach is developed to simultaneously measure both the in-plane and the through-plane thermal conductivity of four kinds of layered TMDs (MoS2 , WS2 , MoSe2 , and WSe2 ) over a wide temperature range, 80-300 K...
July 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726832/three-dimensional-magnetization-structures-revealed-with-x-ray-vector-nanotomography
#11
Claire Donnelly, Manuel Guizar-Sicairos, Valerio Scagnoli, Sebastian Gliga, Mirko Holler, Jörg Raabe, Laura J Heyderman
In soft ferromagnetic materials, the smoothly varying magnetization leads to the formation of fundamental patterns such as domains, vortices and domain walls. These have been studied extensively in thin films of thicknesses up to around 200 nanometres, in which the magnetization is accessible with current transmission imaging methods that make use of electrons or soft X-rays. In thicker samples, however, in which the magnetization structure varies throughout the thickness and is intrinsically three dimensional, determining the complex magnetic structure directly still represents a challenge...
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724961/coherence-properties-of-different-light-sources-and-their-effect-on-the-image-sharpness-and-speckle-of-holographic-displays
#12
Yuanbo Deng, Daping Chu
Coherence properties of different light sources and how they affect the image quality of holographic display are investigated. Temporal coherence is related to the intrinsic spectrum bandwidth of the light source, while spatial coherence can be affected by the size of the light source and propagation distance in use. These two coherence properties are measured for various light sources of diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser, laser diode (LD), light emitting diode (LED), super luminescent light emitting diode (sLED) and micro light emitting diode (mLED) in different settings, together with the quality of the holographic reconstructed images...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724899/carrier-dynamics-of-mn-induced-states-in-gan-thin-films
#13
Yu-Ting Chen, Chi-Yuan Yang, Po-Cheng Chen, Jinn-Kong Sheu, Kung-Hsuan Lin
GaN-based materials are widely used for light emission devices, but the intrinsic property of wide bandgap makes it improper for photovoltaic applications. Recently, manganese was doped into GaN for absorption of visible light, and the conversion efficiency of GaN-based solar cells has been greatly improved. We conducted transient optical measurements to study the carrier dynamics of Mn-doped GaN. The lifetime of carriers in the Mn-related intermediate bands (at 1.5 eV above the valence band edge) is around 1...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723908/sorting-cells-by-their-density
#14
Nazila Norouzi, Heran C Bhakta, William H Grover
Sorting cells by their type is an important capability in biological research and medical diagnostics. However, most cell sorting techniques rely on labels or tags, which may have limited availability and specificity. Sorting different cell types by their different physical properties is an attractive alternative to labels because all cells intrinsically have these physical properties. But some physical properties, like cell size, vary significantly from cell to cell within a cell type; this makes it difficult to identify and sort cells based on their sizes alone...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723889/distinct-timescales-of-population-coding-across-cortex
#15
Caroline A Runyan, Eugenio Piasini, Stefano Panzeri, Christopher D Harvey
The cortex represents information across widely varying timescales. For instance, sensory cortex encodes stimuli that fluctuate over few tens of milliseconds, whereas in association cortex behavioural choices can require the maintenance of information over seconds. However, it remains poorly understood whether diverse timescales result mostly from features intrinsic to individual neurons or from neuronal population activity. This question remains unanswered, because the timescales of coding in populations of neurons have not been studied extensively, and population codes have not been compared systematically across cortical regions...
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723654/disrupted-small-world-brain-network-topology-in-pure-conduct-disorder
#16
Feng-Mei Lu, Jian-Song Zhou, Jiang Zhang, Xiao-Ping Wang, Zhen Yuan
OBJECTIVES: Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by the violation of the rights of others or basic social rules and a repetitive, persistent pattern of antisocial and aggressive behaviors. A large number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have identified widely abnormalities in specific brain regions in CD, but the alterations in the topological organization of functional networks among them remain largely unknown. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was applied to investigate the intrinsic functional connectivity in 18 pure CD patients and eighteen typically developing healthy controls...
July 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722446/hierarchical-morphology-dependent-gas-sensing-performances-of-three-dimensional-sno2-nanostructures
#17
Yi-Xiang Li, Zheng Guo, Yao Su, Xiao-Bo Jin, Xiang-Hu Tang, Jia-Rui Huang, Xing-Jiu Huang, Min-Qiang Li, Jin-Huai Liu
Hierarchical morphology-dependent gas-sensing performances have been demonstrated for three-dimensional SnO2 nanostructures. First, hierarchical SnO2 nanostructures assembled with ultrathin shuttle-shaped nanosheets have been synthesized via a facile and one-step hydrothermal approach. Due to thermal instability of hierarchical nanosheets, they are gradually shrunk into cone-shaped nanostructures and finally deduced into rod-shaped ones under a thermal treatment. Given the intrinsic advantages of three-dimensional hierarchical nanostructures, their gas-sensing properties have been further explored...
January 27, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721943/stability-electronic-and-phononic-properties-of-%C3%AE-and-1t-structures-of-site-sub-x-sub-i-x-i-1-2-and-their-vertical-heterostructures
#18
Ali Kandemir, Fadıl Iyikanat, Hasan Sahin
By performing first-principles calculations, we predict a novel, stable single layer phase of silicon ditelluride, 1T-SiTe<sub>2</sub>, and its possible vertical heterostructures with single layer β-SiTe. Structural optimization and phonon calculations reveal that 1T-SiTe<sub>2</sub> structure has a dynamically stable ground state. Further analysis of the vibrational spectrum at the Γ point shows that single layer 1T-SiTe<sub>2</sub> has characteristic phonon modes at 80, 149, 191 and 294 cm<sup>-1</sup>...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721683/mesenchymal-stem-progenitor-cells-derived-from-articular-cartilage-synovial-membrane-and-synovial-fluid-for-cartilage-regeneration-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Yi-Zhou Huang, Hui-Qi Xie, Antonietta Silini, Ornella Parolini, Yi Zhang, Li Deng, Yong-Can Huang
Large articular cartilage defects remain an immense challenge in the field of regenerative medicine because of their poor intrinsic repair capacity. Currently, the available medical interventions can relieve clinical symptoms to some extent, but fail to repair the cartilaginous injuries with authentic hyaline cartilage. There has been a surge of interest in developing cell-based therapies, focused particularly on the use of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells with or without scaffolds. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells are promising graft cells for tissue regeneration, but the most suitable source of cells for cartilage repair remains controversial...
July 18, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720850/energy-dissipation-pathways-in-few-layer-mos2-nanoelectromechanical-systems
#20
Bernard R Matis, Brian H Houston, Jeffrey W Baldwin
Free standing, atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides are a new class of ultralightweight nanoelectromechanical systems with potentially game-changing electro- and opto-mechanical properties, however, the energy dissipation pathways that fundamentally limit the performance of these systems is still poorly understood. Here, we identify the dominant energy dissipation pathways in few-layer MoS2 nanoelectromechanical systems. The low temperature quality factors and resonant frequencies are shown to significantly decrease upon heating to 293 K, and we find the temperature dependence of the energy dissipation can be explained when accounting for both intrinsic and extrinsic damping sources...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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