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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108647/effects-of-early-life-exposure-to-thip-on-brainstem-neuronal-excitability-in-the-mecp2-null-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome-before-and-after-drug-withdrawal
#1
Weiwei Zhong, Christopher M Johnson, Ningren Cui, Max F Oginsky, Yang Wu, Chun Jiang
Rett syndrome (RTT) is mostly caused by mutations of the X-linked MECP2 gene. Although the causal neuronal mechanisms are still unclear, accumulating experimental evidence obtained from Mecp2(-/Y) mice suggests that imbalanced excitation/inhibition in central neurons plays a major role. Several approaches may help to rebalance the excitation/inhibition, including agonists of GABAA receptors (GABAAR). Indeed, our previous studies have shown that early-life exposure of Mecp2-null mice to the extrasynaptic GABAAR agonist THIP alleviates several RTT-like symptoms including breathing disorders, motor dysfunction, social behaviors, and lifespan...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108487/transition-zone-migration-a-mechanism-for-cytoplasmic-ciliogenesis-and-postaxonemal-centriole-elongation
#2
Tomer Avidor-Reiss, Andrew Ha, Marcus L Basiri
The cilium is an elongated and continuous structure that spans two major subcellular domains. The cytoplasmic domain contains a short centriole, which serves to nucleate the main projection of the cilium. This projection, known as the axoneme, remains separated from the cytoplasm by a specialized gatekeeping complex within a ciliary subdomain called the transition zone. In this way, the axoneme is compartmentalized. Intriguingly, however, this general principle of cilium biology is altered in the sperm cells of many animals, which instead contain a cytoplasmic axoneme domain...
January 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107901/high-peroxidase-like-activity-of-iron-and-nitrogen-co-doped-carbon-dots-and-its-application-in-immunosorbent-assay
#3
Weiqiang Yang, TingTing Huang, Mengmeng Zhao, Fang Luo, Wen Weng, Qiaohua Wei, Zhenyu Lin, Guonan Chen
Herein, iron and nitrogen co-doped carbon dots (Fe-N-CDs) were synthesized through a solvothermal method assisting with the microwave synthesis system for the first time. Multiple techniques were employed to characterize the properties of the obtained particles. The emphasis of current work was the confirmation of their intrinsic peroxidase activity due to the Fe doping, which is similar to natural ferriporphyrin. Through catalyzing the oxidization of 3,3',5,5'-Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of H2O2, the Fe-N-CDs exhibited a superior catalytic performance over horseradish peroxidase (HRP), suggesting their potential applications in catalytic area...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107705/incorporation-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-nanostructured-lipid-membrane-mimetic-bilayer-cubosomes
#4
Thomas G Meikle, Alexandru Zabara, Lynne J Waddington, Frances Separovic, Calum J Drummond, Charlotte E Conn
The inverse bicontinuous lipidic cubic phase offers a simple and robust membrane mimetic with the ability to encapsulate peptides, potentially increasing bioavailability, while also offering a platform from which functionalized, targeted nanoparticles can be developed. Herein we have investigated the use of a number of cubic phase nanoparticle systems with encapsulated antimicrobial peptides gramicidin A', melittin, and alamethicin. The optimal peptide loading ranges, over which cubic symmetry was retained, were determined using small angle X-ray scattering...
January 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106897/transition-metal-co-ni-nanoparticles-wrapped-with-carbon-and-their-superior-catalytic-activities-for-the-reversible-hydrogen-storage-of-magnesium-hydride
#5
Xu Huang, Xuezhang Xiao, Wei Zhang, Xiulin Fan, Liuting Zhang, Changjun Cheng, Shouquan Li, Hongwei Ge, Qidong Wang, Lixin Chen
Magnesium hydride (MgH2) exhibits long-term stability and has recently been developed as a safe alternative to store hydrogen in the solid state, due to its high capacity of 7.6 wt% H2 and low cost compared to other metal hydrides. However, the high activation energy and poor kinetics of MgH2 lead to inadequate hydrogen storage properties, resulting in low energy efficiency. Nano-catalysis is deemed to be the most effective strategy in improving the kinetics performance of hydrogen storage materials. In this work, robust and efficient architectures of carbon-wrapped transition metal (Co/C, Ni/C) nanoparticles (8-16 nm) were prepared and used as catalysts in the MgH2 system via ball milling to improve its de/rehydrogenation kinetics...
January 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106390/tubulin-binding-and-polymerization-promoting-properties-of-tppp-proteins-are-evolutionarily-conserved
#6
Judit Oláh, Tibor Szénási, Adél Szabó, Kinga Kovács, Péter Lőw, Mauro Stifanic, Ferenc Orosz
Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Proteins (TPPPs) constitute a new eukaryotic protein family. There are three TPPP paralogs in the human genome; denoted as TPPP1, TPPP2 and TPPP3. TPPP1 and TPPP3 are intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs) that bind and polymerize tubulin and stabilize microtubules but TPPP2 does not. Vertebrate TPPPs originated from the ancient invertebrate TPPP by two-round whole-genome-duplication thus it was an open question whether the tubulin/microtubule binding function of TPPP1 and TPPP3 is a newly acquired property or it was present in the invertebrate orthologs (generally one TPPP/species)...
January 20, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106350/thermally-adjustable-dynamic-disulfide-linkages-mediated-by-highly-air-stable-2-2-6-6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-sulfanyl-temps-radicals
#7
Akira Takahashi, Raita Goseki, Hideyuki Otsuka
Intrinsically exchangeable dynamic covalent bonds that can be triggered by readily usable stimuli offer easy incorporation of their dynamic properties in various molecular systems, but the library of such bonds is still being developed. Herein, we report the dynamic covalent chemistry of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-sulfanyl (TEMPS) dimers derived from thermally reversible homolytic dissociation of disulfide linkages. High air stability of TEMPS was observed even at 100 °C, affording facile employment of thermal dissociation-association equilibria and adjustable bond exchange properties under atmospheric conditions...
January 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106209/sub-100-nm-wrinkling-of-polydimethylsiloxane-by-double-frontal-oxidation
#8
Manuela Nania, Fabrizia Foglia, Omar K Matar, João T Cabral
We demonstrate nanoscale wrinkling on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) at sub-100 nm length scales via a (double) frontal surface oxidation coupled with a mechanical compression. The kinetics of the glassy skin propagation is resolved by neutron and X-ray reflectivity, and atomic force microscopy, combined with mechanical wrinkling experiments to evaluate the resulting pattern formation. In conventional PDMS surface oxidation, the smallest wrinkling patterns attainable have an intrinsic lower wavelength limit due to the coupling of skin formation and front propagation at fixed strain εprestrain, whose maximum is, in turn, set by material failure...
January 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104899/amino-acid-based-material-for-the-complementary-therapy-of-decubitus-ulcers
#9
Frederico Nogueira, Isabel C Gouveia
Chronic wounds, pressure sores, lesions and infections of microbial origin in bedridden, paralyzed or malnutrition patients remain the object of study of many researchers. There are several intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved in the development of these disorders, which are related to the patient's immune system, making it unable to respond effectively to the treatment of the wound. These factors can be properly controlled, giving particular importance to the ethiology and stage of the wound, as well as the time periods corresponding to the replacement of the dressings...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104374/spectroscopic-characterisation-of-interaction-of-ferulic-acid-with-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-aldh
#10
Ayodele O Kolawole, Ruth J Agaba, Matthew O Oluwole
Interaction of pharmacological important phenolic, ferulic acid, with Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) at the simulative pH condition, was studied using spectroscopic approach. Ferulic acid caused a decrease in the fluorescence intensity formed from ALDH-ferulic acid complex resulting in mixed inhibition of ALDH activity (IC50=30.65μM). The intrinsic quenching was dynamic and induced altered conformation of ALDH and makes the protein less compact but might not unfold it. ALDH has two binding sites for ferulic acid at saturating concentrations having association constant of 1...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103557/data-dependent-label-distribution-learning-for-age-estimation
#11
Zhouzhou He, Xi Li, Zhongfei Zhang, Fei Wu, Xin Geng, Yaqing Zhang, Ming-Hsuan Yang, Yueting Zhuang
As an important and challenging problem in computer vision, face age estimation is typically cast as a classification or regression problem over a set of face samples with respect to several ordinal age labels, which have intrinsically cross-age correlations across adjacent age dimensions. As a result, such correlations usually lead to the age label ambiguities of the face samples. Namely, each face sample is associated with a latent label distribution that encodes the cross-age correlation information on label ambiguities...
January 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102402/brillouin-flow-cytometry-for-label-free-mechanical-phenotyping-of-the-nucleus
#12
Jitao Zhang, Xuefei A Nou, Hanyoup Kim, Giuliano Scarcelli
The mechanical properties of the nucleus are closely related to many cellular functions; thus, measuring nuclear mechanical properties is crucial to our understanding of cell biomechanics and could lead to intrinsic biophysical contrast mechanisms to classify cells. Although many technologies have been developed to characterize cell stiffness, they generally require contact with the cell and thus cannot provide direct information on nuclear mechanical properties. In this work, we developed a flow cytometry technique based on an all-optical measurement to measure nuclear mechanical properties by integrating Brillouin spectroscopy with microfluidics...
January 19, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101403/quantitative-assessment-of-hemodynamic-and-structural-characteristics-of-in-vivo-brain-tissue-using-total-diffuse-reflectance-spectrum-measured-in-a-non-contact-fashion
#13
Yinchen Song, Sarahy Garcia, Yisel Frometa, Jessica C Ramella-Roman, Mohammad Soltani, Mohamed Almadi, Jorge J Riera, Wei-Chiang Lin
Here we present a new methodology that investigates the intrinsic structural and hemodynamic characteristics of in vivo brain tissue, in a non-contact fashion, and can be easily incorporated in an intra-operative environment. Within this methodology, relative total diffuse reflectance spectra (RTD(λ)) were acquired from targets using a hybrid spectroscopy imaging system. A spectral interpretation algorithm was subsequently applied to RTD(λ) to retrieve optical properties related to the compositional and structural characteristics of each target...
January 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100740/epilepsy-associated-kcnq2-channels-regulate-multiple-intrinsic-properties-of-layer-2-3-pyramidal-neurons
#14
Zachary Niday, Virginia E Hawkins, Heun Soh, Daniel K Mulkey, Anastasios V Tzingounis
: KCNQ2 potassium channels are critical for normal brain function, as both loss-of-function and gain-of-function KCNQ2 variants can lead to various forms of neonatal epilepsy. Despite recent progress, the full spectrum of consequences as a result of KCNQ2 dysfunction in neocortical pyramidal neurons is still unknown. Here, we report that conditional ablation of Kcnq2 from mouse neocortex leads to hyperexcitability of layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal neurons, exhibiting an increased input resistance and action potential frequency, as well as a reduced medium afterhyperpolarization (mAHP), a conductance partly mediated by KCNQ2 channels...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100652/correlation-between-discharge-timings-of-pairs-of-motor-units-reveals-the-presence-but-not-the-proportion-of-common-synaptic-input-to-motor-neurons
#15
Javier Rodriguez-Falces, Francesco Negro, Dario Farina
We investigated whether correlation measures derived from pairs of motor unit (MU) spike trains are reliable indicators of the degree of common synaptic input to motor neurons. Several 50-s isometric contractions of the biceps brachii muscle were performed at different target forces ranging from 10 to 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) relying on force feedback. 48 pairs of MUs were examined at various force levels. Motor unit synchrony was assessed by cross-correlation analysis using three indices: the output correlation as the peak of the cross-histogram (ρ), the number of synchronous spikes per second (CIS), and per trigger (E)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098572/metastatic-organotropism-an-intrinsic-property-of-breast-cancer-molecular-subtypes
#16
Shi Wei, Gene P Siegal
It has long been known that some cancers have the propensity to metastasize to certain organs thus creating a nonrandom distribution of sites for distant relapse, a phenomenon known as "metastatic organotropism." Some of these examples include ovary primary to abdominal cavity, prostate primary to bone, and pancreas primary to liver. In contrast, other tumor types, such as mammary and renal cell carcinoma, can relapse in multiple organs although approximately half of advanced breast cancers metastasize to bone...
January 16, 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098280/single-lithium-ion-conducting-solid-polymer-electrolytes-advances-and-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Heng Zhang, Chunmei Li, Michal Piszcz, Estibaliz Coya, Teofilo Rojo, Lide M Rodriguez-Martinez, Michel Armand, Zhibin Zhou
Electrochemical energy storage is one of the main societal challenges to humankind in this century. The performances of classical Li-ion batteries (LIBs) with non-aqueous liquid electrolytes have made great advances in the past two decades, but the intrinsic instability of liquid electrolytes results in safety issues, and the energy density of the state-of-the-art LIBs cannot satisfy the practical requirement. Therefore, rechargeable lithium metal batteries (LMBs) have been intensively investigated considering the high theoretical capacity of lithium metal and its low negative potential...
January 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098210/intrinsic-defects-and-h-doping-in-wo3
#18
Jiajie Zhu, Maria Vasilopoulou, Dimitris Davazoglou, Stella Kennou, Alexander Chroneos, Udo Schwingenschlögl
WO3 is widely used as industrial catalyst. Intrinsic and/or extrinsic defects can tune the electronic properties and extend applications to gas sensors and optoelectonics. However, H doping is a challenge to WO3, the relevant mechanisms being hardly understood. In this context, we investigate intrinsic defects and H doping by density functional theory and experiments. Formation energies are calculated to determine the lowest energy defect states. O vacancies turn out to be stable in O-poor environment, in agreement with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and O-H bond formation of H interstitial defects is predicted and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095698/evaluation-of-the-coupled-two-dimensional-main-chain-torsional-potential-in-modeling-intrinsically-disordered-proteins
#19
Ya Gao, Chaomin Zhang, John Z H Zhang, Ye Mei
Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs) carry out crucial biological functions in essential biological processes of life. Due to the highly dynamic and conformationally heterogeneous nature of the disordered states of IDPs, molecular dynamics simulations are becoming an indispensable tool for the investigation of the conformational ensembles and dynamic properties of IDPs. Nevertheless, there is still no consensus on the most reliable force field in molecular dynamics simulations for IDPs hitherto. In this work, a recently proposed AMBER99SB2D force field is evaluated in modeling some disordered polypeptides and proteins by checking its ability in reproducing NMR experimental data...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095690/fluorinated-and-charged-hydrogenated-alkanethiolates-grafted-on-gold-expanding-the-diversity-of-mixed-monolayer-nanoparticles-for-biological-applications
#20
Silvia Bidoggia, Francesca Milocco, Stefano Polizzi, Patrizia Canton, Alessandra Saccani, Barbara Sanavio, Silke Krol, Francesco Stellacci, Paolo Pengo, Lucia Pasquato
Low intrinsic toxicity, high solubility, and stability are important and necessary features of gold nanoparticles to be used in the biomedical field. In this context, charged nanoparticles proved to be very versatile, and among them charged mixed-monolayer gold nanoparticles, displaying monolayers with well-defined morphologies, represent a paradigm. By using mixtures of hydrogenated and fluorinated thiols, the formation of monolayer domains may be brought to an extreme because of the immiscibility of fluorinated and hydrogenated chains...
January 18, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
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