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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931075/excitability-is-increased-in-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-cells-of-fmr1-knockout-mice
#1
M Angeles Luque, Pablo Beltran-Matas, M Carmen Marin, Blas Torres, Luis Herrero
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a failure of neuronal cells to express the gene encoding the fragile mental retardation protein (FMRP). Clinical features of the syndrome include intellectual disability, learning impairment, hyperactivity, seizures and anxiety. Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice do not express FMRP and, as a result, reproduce some FXS behavioral abnormalities. While intrinsic and synaptic properties of excitatory cells in various part of the brain have been studied in Fmr1 KO mice, a thorough analysis of action potential characteristics and input-output function of CA1 pyramidal cells in this model is lacking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930981/generation-of-prostate-cancer-cell-models-of-resistance-to-the-anti-mitotic-agent-docetaxel
#2
Lisa Mohr, Marc Carceles-Cordon, Jungreem Woo, Carlos Cordon-Cardo, Josep Domingo-Domenech, Veronica Rodriguez-Bravo
Microtubule targeting agents (MTAs) are a mainstay in the treatment of a wide range of tumors. However, acquired resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs is a common mechanism of disease progression and a prognostic-determinant feature of malignant tumors. In prostate cancer (PC), resistance to MTAs such as the taxane Docetaxel dictates treatment failure as well as progression towards lethal stages of disease that are defined by a poor prognosis and high mortality rates. Though studied for decades, the array of mechanisms contributing to acquired resistance are not completely understood, and thus pose a significant limitation to the development of new therapeutic strategies that could benefit patients in these advanced stages of disease...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930796/navigating-t-cell-immunometabolism-in-transplantation
#3
Naoki Tanimine, Laurence A Turka, Bhavana Priyadharshini
Recently, a new discipline termed "immunometabolism" has transformed the field of immunology. It encompasses the study of the intrinsic metabolic pathways of different immune subsets and their impact on cellular fate and function. For instance, broadly speaking, pro-inflammatory cells depend upon glycolysis and glutamine oxidation while cells involved in anti-inflammatory response such as Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) utilize predominantly fatty acid oxidation. However, while a useful paradigm, this actually is a reductionist view and the engagement of these metabolic pathways is not mutually exclusive between these subsets...
September 19, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930540/electrophysiological-evidence-for-long-axis-intrinsic-diversification-of-the-hippocampus
#4
Costas Papatheodoropoulos
The elongated structure of the hippocampus is critically involved in brain functions of profound importance. The segregation of functions along the longitudinal (septotemporal or dorsoventral) axis of the hippocampus is a slowly developed concept and currently is a widely accepted idea. The segregation of neuroanatomical connections along the hippocampal long axis can provide a basis for the interpretation of the functional segregation. However, an emerging and growing body of data strongly suggests the existence of endogenous diversification in the properties of the local neural network along the long axis of the hippocampus...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930353/interplay-between-bulk-self-assembly-interfacial-and-foaming-properties-in-a-catanionic-surfactant-mixture-of-varying-composition
#5
José Ferreira, Alesya Mikhailovskaya, Alexis Chenneviere, Frédéric Restagno, Fabrice Cousin, François Muller, Jéril Degrouard, Anniina Salonen, Eduardo F Marques
The self-aggregation, surface properties and foamability of the catanionic surfactant mixture cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/sodium octyl sulfonate (SOSo) have been investigated to obtain insight on the relation between bulk nanostructures, surfactant packing, and foam stability and aging. Light microscopy, SANS, cryo-TEM, DLS, surface tension, rheometry and direct photography were used to characterize mixtures with varying CTAB molar fraction, xCTAB. In the bulk, self-assembly is richer in the excess CTAB region than in the excess SOSo one...
September 20, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929772/bismuth-oxychalocogenides-a-new-class-of-ferroelectric-ferroelastic-materials-with-ultra-high-mobility
#6
Menghao Wu, Xiao Cheng Zeng
Atomically thin Bi2O2Se has been recently synthesized and it possesses ultra-high mobility (Nat Nanotech. 2017, 12, 530; Nano Lett. 2017, 17, 3021). Herein, we show first-principles evidence that Bi2O2Se and a related class of bismuth oxychalcogenides, such as Bi2O2S and Bi2O2Te, not only are novel semiconductors with ultra-high mobility but also possesses previously unreported ferroelectricity/ferroelasticity. Such a unique combination of semiconducting with ferroelectric/ferroelastic properties enables bismuth oxychalcogenides to potentially meet a great challenge, that is, integration of room-temperature functional non-volatile memories into future nanocircuits...
September 20, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929295/characterization-of-phenolic-pellets-for-esr-dosimetry-in-photon-beam-radiotherapy
#7
Salvatore Gallo, Giuseppina Iacoviello, Salvatore Panzeca, Ivan Veronese, Antonio Bartolotta, Daniele Dondi, Anna Maria Gueli, Gianfranco Loi, Anna Longo, Eleonora Mones, Maurizio Marrale
This work deals with the dosimetric features of a particular phenolic compound (IRGANOX 1076(®)) for dosimetry of clinical photon beams by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. After the optimization of the ESR readout parameters (namely modulation amplitude and microwave power) to maximise the signal without excessive spectrum distortions, basic dosimetric properties of laboratory-made phenolic dosimeters in pellet form, such as reproducibility, dose-response, sensitivity, linearity and dose rate dependence were investigated...
September 19, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929190/mining-the-complex-family-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatases-for-checkpoint-regulators-in-immunity
#8
Claudia Penafuerte, Luis Alberto Perez-Quintero, Valerie Vinette, Teri Hatzihristidis, Michel L Tremblay
The family of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) includes 107 genes in humans that are diverse in their structures and expression profiles. The majority are present in immune cells and play various roles in either inhibiting or promoting the duration and amplitude of signaling cascades. Several PTPs, including TC-PTP (PTPN2) and SHP-1 (PTPN6), have been recognized as being crucial for maintaining proper immune response and self-tolerance, and have gained recognition as true immune system checkpoint modulators...
September 20, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929054/prosthetic-rehabilitation-of-a-geriatric-patient-with-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-buccal-mucosa-a-report-of-clinical-challenges
#9
Raghavendra Adaki, Sarvesh Raikar, Kamal Shigli, Sivaranjani Gali
OBJECTIVE: This article aims to highlight the rehabilitation of a geriatric patient with an orofacial cheek defect by an extraoral silicone prosthesis. METHODOLOGY: Structured extra- and intra-oral examination of tissues coupled with a justified choice of impression materials, techniques, and prosthetic rehabilitation with a high-temperature vulcanizing silicone was done. RESULTS: The presence of compressible tissues, static appearance of the prosthesis during patient's facial movements, variability in complexion of the skin around the defect, and manipulating heat-vulcanized silicone were the challenges faced during clinical procedures...
April 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928907/adipose-derived-stromal-cell-in-regenerative-medicine-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Reza Tabatabaei Qomi, Mohsen Sheykhhasan
The application of appropriate cell origin for utilizing in regenerative medicine is the major issue. Various kinds of stem cells have been used for the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Such as, several stromal cells have been employed as treat option for regenerative medicine. For example, human bone marrow-derived stromal cells and adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) are used in cell-based therapy. Data relating to the stem cell therapy and processes associated with ADSC has developed remarkably in the past 10 years...
August 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928715/intrinsic-and-regulated-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-gene-transcription-in-mammalian-pituitary-gonadotrophs
#11
REVIEW
Marija M Janjic, Stanko S Stojilkovic, Ivana Bjelobaba
The hypothalamic decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), acting via its receptors (GnRHRs) expressed in pituitary gonadotrophs, represents a critical molecule in control of reproductive functions in all vertebrate species. GnRH-activated receptors regulate synthesis of gonadotropins in a frequency-dependent manner. The number of GnRHRs on the plasma membrane determines the responsiveness of gonadotrophs to GnRH and varies in relation to age, sex, and physiological status. This is achieved by a complex control that operates at transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928636/smn-deficiency-increases-the-intrinsic-excitability-of-motoneurons
#12
Saravanan Arumugam, Ana Garcera, Rosa M Soler, Lucía Tabares
During development, motoneurons experience significant changes in their size and in the number and strength of connections that they receive, which requires adaptive changes in their passive and active electrical properties. Even after reaching maturity, motoneurons continue to adjust their intrinsic excitability and synaptic activity for proper functioning of the sensorimotor circuit in accordance with physiological demands. Likewise, if some elements of the circuit become dysfunctional, the system tries to compensate for the alterations to maintain appropriate function...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927991/deciphering-cell-intrinsic-properties-a-key-issue-for-robust-organoid-production
#13
REVIEW
Nathalie Picollet-D'hahan, Monika E Dolega, Delphine Freida, Donald K Martin, Xavier Gidrol
We highlight the disposition of various cell types to self-organize into complex organ-like structures without necessarily the support of any stromal cells, provided they are placed into permissive 3D culture conditions. The goal of generating organoids reproducibly and efficiently has been hampered by poor understanding of the exact nature of the intrinsic cell properties at the origin of organoid generation, and of the signaling pathways governing their differentiation. Using microtechnologies like microfluidics to engineer organoids would create opportunities for single-cell genomics and high-throughput functional genomics to exhaustively characterize cell intrinsic properties...
September 16, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927925/optical-properties-of-zirconia-ceramics-for-esthetic-dental-restorations-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Reza Shahmiri, Owen Christopher Standard, Judy N Hart, Charles Christopher Sorrell
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal has been used as a dental biomaterial for several decades because the fracture toughness and bend strength are increased by a stress-induced transformation-toughening mechanism. However, its esthetics are compromised by its poor translucency and grayish-white appearance. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present systematic review was to assess information on the mechanical, chemical, and optical requirements of monolithic zirconia dental restorations...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927606/application-mode-of-action-and-in-vivo-activity-of-chitosan-and-its-micro-and-nanoparticles-as-antimicrobial-agents-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Zhengxin Ma, Alejandro Garrido-Maestu, Kwangcheol Casey Jeong
Chitosan is widely used as an antimicrobial agent due to its biodegradability, nontoxicity, and antimicrobial properties. Although in vitro antimicrobial activity of chitosan and its derivatives were reviewed recently, its in vivo activity is not recapitulated sufficiently. This review will focus on recent studies of in vivo antimicrobial activity of chitosan and its micro- and nanoparticles to enhance food safety and animal diseases treatment. Three major factors affecting the antimicrobial activity include microbial, intrinsic, and environmental factors are discussed...
November 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926706/structural-and-kinetic-characterization-of-the-intrinsically-disordered-protein-sev-ntail-through-enhanced-sampling-simulations
#16
Mattia Bernetti, Matteo Masetti, Fabio Pietrucci, Martin Blackledge, Malene Ringkjøbing Jensen, Maurizio Recanatini, Luca Mollica, Andrea Cavalli
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are emerging as an important class of the proteome. Being able to interact with different molecular targets, they participate in many physiological and pathological activities. However, due to their intrinsically heterogeneous nature, determining the equilibrium properties of IDPs is still a challenge for biophysics. Herein, we applied state-of-the-art enhanced sampling methods to Sev NTAIL, a test case of IDPs, and constructed a bin-based kinetic model to unveil the underlying kinetics...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925982/osmolyte-like-stabilizing-effects-of-low-gdnhcl-concentrations-on-d-glucose-d-galactose-binding-protein
#17
Alexander V Fonin, Alexandra D Golikova, Irina A Zvereva, Sabato D'Auria, Maria Staiano, Vladimir N Uversky, Irina M Kuznetsova, Konstantin K Turoverov
The ability of d-glucose/d-galactose-binding protein (GGBP) to reversibly interact with its ligands, glucose and galactose, makes this protein an attractive candidate for sensing elements of glucose biosensors. This potential is largely responsible for attracting researchers to study the conformational properties of this protein. Previously, we showed that an increase in the fluorescence intensity of the fluorescent dye 6-bromoacetyl-2-dimetylaminonaphtalene (BADAN) is linked to the holo-form of the GGBP/H152C mutant in solutions containing sub-denaturing concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl)...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925868/design-and-discovery-of-new-antibacterial-agents-advances-perspectives-challenges
#18
Josef Jampilek
Emerging resistance of bacterial pathogens to clinically used drugs, including not only first-choice but also second- and third-choice drugs, is alarming, but since the 1990s only a modest number of new, first in class, drugs for systemic administration have been marketed for the treatment of bacterial infections. This article provides a review of recently reported new antibacterial chemotherapeutics approved for clinical practice, antibacterial chemotherapeutics in clinical trials and antibacterial agents under development...
September 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925707/heterovalent-doping-in-colloidal-semiconductor-nanocrystals-cation-exchange-enabled-new-accesses-to-tuning-dopant-luminescence-and-electronic-impurities
#19
Jiatao Zhang, Qiumei Di, Jia Liu, Bing Bai, Jian Liu, Meng Xu, Jiajia Liu
Heterovalent doping in colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (CSNCs), with provisions of extra electrons (n-type doping) or extra holes (p-type doping), could enhance their performance of optical and electronical properties. In view of the challenges imposed by the intrinsic self-purification, self-quenching, and self-compensation effects of CSNCs, we outline the progresses on heterovalent doping in CSNCs, with particular focus on the cation exchange-enabled tuning of dopant luminescence and electronic impurities...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925092/the-ontogeny-of-developmental-buffering-in-lizard-head-shape
#20
Marko M Lazić, Dennis Rödder, Antigoni Kaliontzopoulou
Canalization and developmental stability (DS) are important organismal properties involved in determining the level of phenotypic variation. Ontogenetic patterns of phenotypic variance components can shed light on the mechanistic basis of developmental buffering (DB). Here, we analyze how individual FA and among-individual variation in head shape change in ontogenetic series of three lizard species raised in laboratory. The degree of asymmetry increased slightly with size, suggesting that developmental mechanisms hypothesized to correct for deviations either do not exist, or that their efficiency is truncated with increasing size...
September 19, 2017: Evolution & Development
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