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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141158/the-combined-effect-of-cold-and-moisture-on-manual-performance
#1
Matthew Ray, Elizabeth Sanli, Robert Brown, Kerri Ann Ennis, Heather Carnahan
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of cold and moisture on manual performance and tactile sensitivity. Background People working in the ocean environment often perform manual work in cold and wet conditions. Although the independent effects of cold and moisture on hand function are known, their combined effect has not been investigated. Method Participants completed sensory (Touch-Test, two-point discrimination) and motor (Purdue Pegboard, Grooved Pegboard, reef knot untying) tests in the following conditions: dry hand, wet hand, cold hand, and cold and wet hand...
November 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141024/quantifying-indices-of-short-and-long-range-white-matter-connectivity-at-each-cortical-vertex
#2
Maria Carmela Padula, Marie Schaer, Elisa Scariati, A Kadir Mutlu, Daniela Zöller, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez
Several neurodevelopmental diseases are characterized by impairments in cortical morphology along with altered white matter connectivity. However, the relationship between these two measures is not yet clear. In this study, we propose a novel methodology to compute and display metrics of white matter connectivity at each cortical point. After co-registering the extremities of the tractography streamlines with the cortical surface, we computed two measures of connectivity at each cortical vertex: the mean tracts' length, and the proportion of short- and long-range connections...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140973/a-coupled-oscillator-model-of-olfactory-bulb-gamma-oscillations
#3
Guoshi Li, Thomas A Cleland
The olfactory bulb transforms not only the information content of the primary sensory representation, but also its underlying coding metric. High-variance, slow-timescale primary odor representations are transformed by bulbar circuitry into secondary representations based on principal neuron spike patterns that are tightly regulated in time. This emergent fast timescale for signaling is reflected in gamma-band local field potentials, presumably serving to efficiently integrate olfactory sensory information into the temporally regulated information networks of the central nervous system...
November 15, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140070/effect-of-amidogen-functionalization-on-quantum-spin-hall-effect-in-bi-sb-111-films
#4
Sheng-Shi Li, Wei-Xiao Ji, Shu-Jun Hu, Chang-Wen Zhang, Shi-Shen Yan
Knowledge about chemical functionalization is of fundamental importance to design novel two-dimensional topological insulators. Despite theoretical predictions of quantum spin Hall effect (QSH) insulator via chemical functionalization, it is quite challenging to obtain a high-quality sample, in which the toxicity is also an important factor that cannot be ignored. Herein, using first-principles calculations, we predict an intrinsic QSH effect in amidogen-functionalized Bi/Sb(111) films (SbNH2 and BiNH2), characterized by nontrivial Z2 invariant and helical edge states...
November 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139486/simple-and-rapid-colorimetric-detection-of-melanoma-circulating-tumor-cells-using-bifunctional-magnetic-nanoparticles
#5
Junrong Li, Jing Wang, Yuling Wang, Matt Trau
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a promising biomarker for monitoring cancer metastasis and therapy response. However, the rarity and inherent fragility of CTCs pose great challenges for CTC detection. Currently, CTC detection requires advanced instruments that might be inaccessible in most hospitals or labs. To allow simple and rapid CTC detection, we propose a sensor platform that relies only on the intrinsic properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) including rapid separation as well as nanozyme activity...
November 15, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139182/deep-level-defect-enhanced-photothermal-performance-of-bismuth-sulfide-gold-heterojunction-nanorods-for-ct-imaging-guided-photothermal-therapy-of-cancer
#6
Yan Cheng, Yun Chang, Yanlin Feng, Hui Jian, Zhaohui Tang, Haiyuan Zhang
Bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) nanomaterials are emerging as a promising theranostic platform for CT imaging and photothermal therapy of cancer. Herein, the photothermal property of Bi2S3 nanorods (NRs) was unveiled to intensely correlate to their intrinsic deep level defects (DLDs) that potentially could work as electron-hole nonradiative recombination centers to promote phonon production, ultimately leading to photothermal performance. Bi2S3-Au heterojunction NRs were designed to hold more significant DLD property, exhibiting more potent photothermal performance than Bi2S3 NRs...
November 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138045/cyclodextrins-structure-physicochemical-properties-and-pharmaceutical-applications
#7
Phatsawee Jansook, Noriko Ogawa, Thorsteinn Loftsson
Since their discovery over 100 years ago cyclodextrins (CDs) have been the subject of numerous scientific publications. In 2016 alone CDs were the subject of over 2200 research articles published in peer-reviewed journals and mentioned in over 2300 patents and patent applications, many of which were on pharmaceutical applications. Natural CDs and their derivatives are used as enabling pharmaceutical excipients that enhance aqueous solubility of poorly soluble drugs, increase drug permeability through biological membranes and improve drug bioavailability...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137998/effect-of-temperature-and-selected-sugars-on-dilute-solution-properties-of-two-hairless-canary-seed-starches-compared-with-wheat-starch
#8
Ali Heydari, Seyed Mohammad Ali Razavi, Mahdi Irani
In this paper, influence of temperature (25, 35, 45 and 55°C) and sugars (sucrose and lactose) at different concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15%) on some molecular parameters of starches from two canary seed varieties (C05041 and CDC Maria) in the dilute regime were investigated in comparison to wheat starch (WS). The results indicated that the intrinsic viscosity ([η]) values of C05041, CDC Maria and WS samples were 1.42, 1.46 and 1.70 dl/g at 25°C, respectively. Intrinsic viscosity of selected starches decreased with an increase in temperature, but the effect of high temperatures were somewhat unnoticeable...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137914/orthogonal-potency-analysis-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-function-during-ex-vivo-expansion
#9
Danika Khong, Matthew Li, Amy Singleton, Ling-Yee Chin, Shilpaa Munkundan, Biju Parekkadan
Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have cross-functional, intrinsic potency that is of therapeutic interest. Their ability to regenerate bone, fat, and cartilage, modulate the immune system, and nurture the growth and function of other bone marrow hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells have all been evaluated by transplant applications of MSCs. These applications require the isolation and expansion scaled cell production. To investigate biophysical properties of MSCs that can be feasibly utilized as predictors of bioactivity during biomanufacturing, we used a low-density seeding model to drive MSCs into proliferative stress and exhibit the hallmark characteristics of in vitro aging...
November 11, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134798/hierarchical-self-assembly-of-a-copolymer-stabilized-coacervate-protocell
#10
Alexander F Mason, Bastiaan C Buddingh', David S Williams, Jan C M van Hest
Complex coacervate microdroplets are finding increased utility in synthetic cell applications due to their cytomimetic proper-ties. However, their intrinsic membrane-free nature results in instability that limits their application in protocell research. Herein, we present the development of a new protocell model through the spontaneous interfacial self-assembly of copolymer molecules on biopolymer coacervate microdroplets. This hierarchical protocell model not only incorporates the favorable properties of coacervates (such as spontaneous assembly and macromolecular condensation) but also assimilates the essential features of a semi-permeable copolymeric membrane (such as discretization and stabilization)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133455/how-causal-analysis-can-reveal-autonomy-in-models-of-biological-systems
#11
William Marshall, Hyunju Kim, Sara I Walker, Giulio Tononi, Larissa Albantakis
Standard techniques for studying biological systems largely focus on their dynamical or, more recently, their informational properties, usually taking either a reductionist or holistic perspective. Yet, studying only individual system elements or the dynamics of the system as a whole disregards the organizational structure of the system-whether there are subsets of elements with joint causes or effects, and whether the system is strongly integrated or composed of several loosely interacting components. Integrated information theory offers a theoretical framework to (1) investigate the compositional cause-effect structure of a system and to (2) identify causal borders of highly integrated elements comprising local maxima of intrinsic cause-effect power...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133418/normalized-value-coding-explains-dynamic-adaptation-in-the-human-valuation-process
#12
Mel W Khaw, Paul W Glimcher, Kenway Louie
The notion of subjective value is central to choice theories in ecology, economics, and psychology, serving as an integrated decision variable by which options are compared. Subjective value is often assumed to be an absolute quantity, determined in a static manner by the properties of an individual option. Recent neurobiological studies, however, have shown that neural value coding dynamically adapts to the statistics of the recent reward environment, introducing an intrinsic temporal context dependence into the neural representation of value...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133058/design-and-synthesis-of-thienopyrimidine-urea-derivatives-with-potential-cytotoxic-and-pro-apoptotic-activity-against-breast-cancer-cell-line-mcf-7
#13
Eman F Abdelhaleem, Mohammed K Abdelhameid, Asmaa E Kassab, Manal M Kandeel
A series of novel tetrahydrobenzothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine urea derivatives was synthesized according to fragment-based design strategy. They were evaluated for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 cell line. Three compounds 9c, 9d and 11b showed 1.5-1.03 folds more potent anticancer activity than doxorubicin. In this study, a promising multi-sited enzyme small molecule inhibitor 9c, which showed the most potent anti-proliferative activity, was identified. The anti-proliferative activity of this compound appears to correlate well with its ability to inhibit topoisomerase II (IC50 = 9...
October 28, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132102/atomic-scale-investigation-of-physical-adsorption-of-water-molecules-and-aggressive-ions-to-ettringite-s-surfaces
#14
Shahin Hajilar, Behrouz Shafei
The strength and durability of cementitious composite materials are adversely affected by the ingress of water molecules and aggressive ions into their intrinsic meso- and nano-pore spaces. Among various phases of hydrated cement paste (HCP), aluminum-rich phases play an important role in controlling the diffusivity of aqueous solutions, which can contain aggressive ions. To this date, however, there has been no systematic study to understand the adsorption mechanisms and chloride binding capacity of the aluminum-rich phases of HCP...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131589/using-tryptophan-mutants-to-probe-the-structural-and-functional-status-of-bssco-a-copper-binding-cytochrome-c-oxidase-assembly-protein-from-bacillus-subtilis
#15
Shina Hussain, Diann Andrews, Bruce Charles Hill
The Synthesis of Cytochrome Oxidase protein from Bacillus subtilis (i.e., BsSCO) binds copper with pM affinity, which increases the protein's melting temperature (i.e., TM) by 20 oC. Here two native tryptophans (i.e., W36 and W101) are identified as major contributors to BsSCO's structural form and their contributions to stability, intrinsic fluorescence and copper binding properties of BsSCO are explored. Single mutations of tryptophan to phenylalanine decrease TM by 10 oC and folding free energy by 3-4 kcal/mol...
November 13, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131588/kinetic-isotope-effects-and-transition-state-structure-for-hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine-phosphoribosyltransferase-from-plasmodium-falciparum
#16
Rodrigo G Ducati, Ross S Firestone, Vern L Schramm
Plasmodium falciparum parasites are purine auxotrophs that rely exclusively on the salvage of preformed purines from their human hosts to supply the requirement for purine nucleotides. Hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGXPRT) catalyzes the freely reversible Mg2+-dependent conversion of 6-oxopurine bases to their respective nucleotides and inorganic pyrophosphate. The phosphoribosyl group is derived from 5-phospho--D-ribosyl 1-pyrophosphate (PRPP). The enzyme from malaria parasites (PfHGXPRT) is essential as hypoxanthine is the major precursor in purine metabolism...
November 13, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131171/application-of-spatially-modulated-near-infrared-structured-light-to-study-changes-in-optical-properties-of-mouse-brain-tissue-during-heatstress
#17
Oren Shaul, Michal Fanrazi-Kahana, Omri Meitav, Gad A Pinhasi, David Abookasis
Heat stress (HS) is a medical emergency defined by abnormally elevated body temperature that causes biochemical, physiological, and hematological changes. The goal of the present research was to detect variations in optical properties (absorption, reduced scattering, and refractive index coefficients) of mouse brain tissue during HS by using near-infrared (NIR) spatial light modulation. NIR spatial patterns with different spatial phases were used to differentiate the effects of tissue scattering from those of absorption...
November 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130085/c-h-nickellation-of-phenol-derived-phosphinites-regioselectivity-and-structures-of-cyclonickellated-complexes
#18
Loïc P Mangin, Davit Zargarian
This report describes the results of a study on the ortho-C-H nickellation of the aryl phosphinites i-Pr2P(OAr) derived from the following four groups of substituted phenols: 3-R-C6H4OH (R = F (b), Me (c), MeO (d), Cl (e)); 3,5-R2-C6H3OH (R = F (f), Me (g), Cl (h), OMe (i)); 2-R-C6H4OH (R = Me (j), Ph(k)); and 2,6-R2-C6H3OH (R = Me (l), Ph (m)). No nickellation was observed with the phosphinites derived from the 3,5-disubstituted phenols g and h, and the 2,6-disubstituted phenols l and m; in all other cases nickellation occurred at an ortho-C-H to generate either the Br-bridged dimers [{κ(P),κ(C)-(i-Pr)2POAr}Ni(μ-Br)]2 (1b-1f, 1j, and 1k) or the monomeric acetonitrile adduct {κ(P),κ(C)-ArOP(i-Pr)2}Ni(Br)(NCMe) (1i-NCMe)...
November 13, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130060/models-of-spatial-and-temporal-dimensions-of-memory
#19
Michael E Hasselmo, James R Hinman, Holger Dannenberg, Chantal E Stern
Episodic memory involves coding of the spatial location and time of individual events. Coding of space and time is also relevant to working memory, spatial navigation, and the disambiguation of overlapping memory representations. Neurophysiological data demonstrate that neuronal activity codes the current, past and future location of an animal as well as temporal intervals within a task. Models have addressed how neural coding of space and time for memory function could arise, with both dimensions coded by the same neurons...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129832/multiphoton-minimal-inertia-scanning-for-fast-acquisition-of-neural-activity-signals
#20
Renaud Schuck, Mary Ann Go, Stefania Garasto, Stephanie Reynolds, Pier Luigi Dragotti, Simon Schultz
OBJECTIVE: Multi-photon laser scanning microscopy provides a powerful tool for monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of neural circuit activity. It is, however, intrinsically a point scanning technique. Standard raster scanning enables imaging at subcellular resolution; however, acquisition rates are limited by the size of the field of view to be scanned. Recently developed scanning strategies such as Travelling Salesman Scanning (TSS) have been developed to maximize cellular sampling rate by scanning only select regions in the field of view corresponding to locations of interest such as somata...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
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