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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432640/osteoporosis-bone-mineral-density-and-ckd-mbd-treatment-considerations
#1
REVIEW
Jordi Bover, Lucía Bailone, Víctor López-Báez, Silvia Benito, Paola Ciceri, Andrea Galassi, Mario Cozzolino
Osteoporosis and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have both independently important potential impact on bone health. A significant number of patients with CKD stages 3a-5D have been shown to have low bone mineral density (BMD), leading to a strikingly elevated risk of fractures (mainly hip fractures) and higher associated morbidity and mortality. Mechanical properties of bone beyond age and menopausal status are additionally affected by intrinsic uremic factors. Therefore, we review in this article not only general concepts of osteoporosis and related consequences, but also the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of low BMD and bone fractures in CKD, beyond increased vascular calcification...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431779/propranolol
#2
Abdulrahman A Al-Majed, Ahmed H H Bakheit, Hatem A Abdel Aziz, Fahad M Alajmi, Haitham AlRabiah
Propranolol is a noncardioselective β-blocker. It is reported to have membrane-stabilizing properties, but it does not own intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. Propranolol hydrochloride is used to control hypertension, pheochromocytoma, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. It is also used to control symptoms of sympathetic overactivity in the management of hyperthyroidism, anxiety disorders, and tremor. Other indications cover the prophylaxis of migraine and of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension...
2017: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430560/database-centric-method-for-automated-high-throughput-deconvolution-and-analysis-of-kinetic-antibody-screening-data
#3
R Paul Nobrega, Michael Brown, Cody Williams, Chris Sumner, Patricia Estep, Isabelle Caffry, Yao Yu, Heather Lynaugh, Irina Burnina, Asparouh Lilov, Jordan Desroches, John Bukowski, Tingwan Sun, Jonathan P Belk, Kirt Johnson, Yingda Xu
The state-of-the-art industrial drug discovery approach is the empirical interrogation of a library of drug candidates against a target molecule. The advantage of high-throughput kinetic measurements over equilibrium assessments is the ability to measure each of the kinetic components of binding affinity. Although high-throughput capabilities have improved with advances in instrument hardware, three bottlenecks in data processing remain: (1) intrinsic molecular properties that lead to poor biophysical quality in vitro are not accounted for in commercially available analysis models, (2) processing data through a user interface is time-consuming and not amenable to parallelized data collection, and (3) a commercial solution that includes historical kinetic data in the analysis of kinetic competition data does not exist...
April 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430475/amplitude-mode-in-three-dimensional-dimerized-antiferromagnets
#4
Yan Qi Qin, B Normand, Anders W Sandvik, Zi Yang Meng
The amplitude ("Higgs") mode is a ubiquitous collective excitation related to spontaneous breaking of a continuous symmetry. We combine quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations with stochastic analytic continuation to investigate the dynamics of the amplitude mode in a three-dimensional dimerized quantum spin system. We characterize this mode by calculating the spin and dimer spectral functions on both sides of the quantum critical point, finding that both the energies and the intrinsic widths of the excitations satisfy field-theoretical scaling predictions...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429739/a-large-scale-benchmark-of-gene-prioritization-methods
#5
Dimitri Guala, Erik L L Sonnhammer
In order to maximize the use of results from high-throughput experimental studies, e.g. GWAS, for identification and diagnostics of new disease-associated genes, it is important to have properly analyzed and benchmarked gene prioritization tools. While prospective benchmarks are underpowered to provide statistically significant results in their attempt to differentiate the performance of gene prioritization tools, a strategy for retrospective benchmarking has been missing, and new tools usually only provide internal validations...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429388/layered-double-hydroxide-nanosheets-with-multiple-vacancies-obtained-by-dry-exfoliation-as-highly-efficient-oxygen-evolution-electrocatalysts
#6
Yanyong Wang, Yiqiong Zhang, Zhijuan Liu, Chao Xie, Shi Feng, Dongdong Liu, Mingfei Shao, Shuangyin Wang
Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with two-dimensional lamellar structures show excellent electrocatalytic properties. However, the catalytic activity of LDHs needs to be further improved as the large lateral size and thickness of the bulk material limit the number of exposed active sites. However, the development of efficient strategies to exfoliate bulk LDHs into stable monolayer LDH nanosheets with more exposed active sites is very challenging. On the other hand, the intrinsic activity of monolayer LDH nanosheets can be tuned by surface engineering...
April 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428623/paper-strip-embedded-graphene-quantum-dots-a-screening-device-with-a-smartphone-readout
#7
Ruslan Álvarez-Diduk, Jahir Orozco, Arben Merkoçi
Simple, inexpensive and rapid sensing systems are very demanded for a myriad of uses. Intrinsic properties of emerging paper-based analytical devices have demonstrated considerable potential to fulfill such demand. This work reports an easy-to-use, low cost, and disposable paper-based sensing device for rapid chemical screening with a smartphone readout. The device comprises luminescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) sensing probes embedded into a nitrocellulose matrix where the resonance energy transfer phenomenon seems to be the sensing mechanism...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427017/aromatase-inhibitors-and-apoptotic-inducers-design-synthesis-anticancer-activity-and-molecular-modeling-studies-of-novel-phenothiazine-derivatives-carrying-sulfonamide-moiety-as-hybrid-molecules
#8
Mostafa M Ghorab, Mansour S Alsaid, Nermin Samir, Ghada A Abdel-Latif, Aiten M Soliman, Fatma A Ragab, Dalal A Abou El Ella
Hybrid molecules are used as anticancer agents to improve effectiveness and diminish drug resistance. So, the current study aimed to introduce twenty novel phenothiazine sulfonamide hybrids 5-22, 24 and 25 of promising anticancer activity. Compounds 11 and 13 revealed more potent anticancer properties (IC50 8.1 and 8.8 μM) than that of the reference drug (doxorubicin, IC50 = 9.8 μM) against human breast cancer cell line (T47D). To determine the mechanism of their anticancer activity, compounds 5, 6, 7, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 19 and 22 that showed promising activity on T47D, were evaluated for their aromatase inhibitory effect...
April 15, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426961/endogenous-piezo1-can-confound-mechanically-activated-channel-identification-and-characterization
#9
Adrienne E Dubin, Swetha Murthy, Amanda H Lewis, Lucie Brosse, Stuart M Cahalan, Jörg Grandl, Bertrand Coste, Ardem Patapoutian
A gold standard for characterizing mechanically activated (MA) currents is via heterologous expression of candidate channels in naive cells. Two recent studies described MA channels using this paradigm. TMEM150c was proposed to be a component of an MA channel partly based on a heterologous expression approach (Hong et al., 2016). In another study, Piezo1's N-terminal "propeller" domain was proposed to constitute an intrinsic mechanosensitive module based on expression of a chimera between a pore-forming domain of the mechanically insensitive ASIC1 channel and Piezo1 (Zhao et al...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426939/high-throughput-agonist-shift-assay-development-for-the-analysis-of-m1-positive-allosteric-modulators
#10
Michelle F Homsher, Douglas C Beshore, Jason Cassaday, Brian Squadroni, Elizabeth Mohammed, Michelle Hartnett, Stephen Day, Lei Ma, David Pechter, Michelle D Smith, Fredrick Monsma, Paul Zuck, Michael F Finley, Victor N Uebele, Jeffrey D Hermes
Agonist shift assays feature cross-titrations of allosteric modulators and orthosteric ligands. Information generated in agonist shift assays can include a modulator's effect on the orthosteric agonist's potency (alpha) and efficacy (beta), as well as direct agonist activity of the allosteric ligand (tauB) and the intrinsic binding affinity of the modulator to the unoccupied receptor (KB). Because of the heavy resource demand and complex data handling, these allosteric parameters are determined infrequently during the course of a drug discovery program and on a relatively small subset of compounds...
April 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425122/mean-intercept-anisotropy-analysis-of-porous-media-ii-conceptual-shortcomings-of-the-mil-tensor-definition-and-minkowski-tensors-as-an-alternative
#11
Michael A Klatt, Gerd E Schröder-Turk, Klaus Mecke
PURPOSE: Structure-property relations, which relate the shape of the microstructure to physical properties such as transport or mechanical properties, need sensitive measures of structure. What are suitable fabric tensors to quantify the shape of anisotropic heterogeneous materials? The mean intercept length is among the most commonly used characteristics of anisotropy in porous media, e. g., of trabecular bone in medical physics. Yet, in this series of two papers we demonstrate that it has conceptual shortcomings that limit the validity of its results...
April 20, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422688/person-reidentification-based-on-elastic-projections
#12
Xuelong Li, Lina Liu, Xiaoqiang Lu
Person reidentification usually refers to matching people in different camera views in nonoverlapping multicamera networks. Many existing methods learn a similarity measure by projecting the raw feature to a latent subspace to make the same target's distance smaller than different targets' distances. However, the same targets captured in different camera views should hold the same intrinsic attributes while different targets should hold different intrinsic attributes. Projecting all the data to the same subspace would cause loss of such an information and comparably poor discriminability...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422482/organosilica-nanoparticles-with-an-intrinsic-secondary-amine-an-efficient-and-reusable-adsorbent-for-dyes
#13
Fang Chen, Eric Zhao, Taeho Kim, Junxin Wang, Ghanim Hableel, Philip James Thomas Reardon, Soundaram J Ananthakrishnan, Tianyu Wang, Santiago J Arconada-Alvarez, Jonathan C Knowles, Jesse V Jokerst
Nanomaterials are promising tools in water remediation due to their large surface area and unique properties compared to bulky materials. We synthesized an organosilica nanoparticle (OSNP) and tuned its composition for anionic dye removal. The adsorption mechanisms are electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding between the amine on OSNP and the dye, and the surface charge of the OSNP can be tuned to adsorb either anionic or cationic dyes. Using phenol red as a model dye, we studied the effect of the amine group, pH, ionic strength, time, dye concentration, and nanomaterial mass on the adsorption...
April 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422160/efficient-electrical-control-of-thin-film-black-phosphorus-bandgap
#14
Bingchen Deng, Vy Tran, Yujun Xie, Hao Jiang, Cheng Li, Qiushi Guo, Xiaomu Wang, He Tian, Steven J Koester, Han Wang, Judy J Cha, Qiangfei Xia, Li Yang, Fengnian Xia
Recently rediscovered black phosphorus is a layered semiconductor with promising electronic and photonic properties. Dynamic control of its bandgap can allow for the exploration of new physical phenomena. However, theoretical investigations and photoemission spectroscopy experiments indicate that in its few-layer form, an exceedingly large electric field in the order of several volts per nanometre is required to effectively tune its bandgap, making the direct electrical control unfeasible. Here we reveal the unique thickness-dependent bandgap tuning properties in intrinsic black phosphorus, arising from the strong interlayer electronic-state coupling...
April 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421735/a-self-healable-and-cold-resistant-supercapacitor-based-on-a-multifunctional-hydrogel-electrolyte
#15
Feng Tao, Liming Qin, Zhikui Wang, Qinmin Pan
Excellent self-healability and cold-resistance are attractive properties for a portable/wearable energy-storage device. However, achieving the features is fundamentally dependent on an intrinsically self-healable electrolyte with high ionic conduction at low temperature. Here we report such a hydrogel electrolyte comprising sodium alginate cross-linked by dynamic catechol-borate ester bonding. Since its dynamically cross-linked alginate network can tolerate high content inorganic salts, the electrolyte possesses excellent healing efficiency/cyclability but also high ionic conduction at both room temperature and low temperature...
April 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421413/substrate-induced-conformational-changes-of-the-tyrocidine-synthetase-1-adenylation-domain-probed-by-intrinsic-trp-fluorescence
#16
Matilda Šprung, Barbara Soldo, Stjepan Orhanović, Viljemka Bučević-Popović
Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) are multifunctional proteins that catalyze the synthesis of the peptide products with enormous biological potential. The process of biosynthesis starts with the adenylation (A) domain, which during the catalytic cycle undergoes extensive structural rearrangements. In this paper, we present the first study of the tyrocidine synthetase 1 A-domain (TycA-A) fluorescence properties. The TycA-A protein contains five potentially fluorescent Trp residues at positions 227, 301, 323, 376 and 406...
April 18, 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421412/bioactive-compounds-and-antioxidant-activity-exhibit-high-intraspecific-variability-in-pleurotus-ostreatus-mushrooms-and-correlate-well-with-cultivation-performance-parameters
#17
Georgios Koutrotsios, Nick Kalogeropoulos, Pantelis Stathopoulos, Andriana C Kaliora, Georgios I Zervakis
Experimental data related with oyster mushroom production and nutritional properties usually derive from the examination of only one strain, and hence their representativeness/usefulness is questionable. This work aims at assessing intraspecific variability in Pleurotus ostreatus by studying 16 strains, under the same conditions, in respect to essential cultivation and mushroom quality aspects, and by defining the impact of intrinsic/genetic factors on such parameters. Hence, mushroom yield, earliness, crop length, biological efficiency, productivity, and their content in selected macro and microconstituents (e...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420975/beta-band-corticomuscular-drive-reflects-muscle-coordination-strategies
#18
Alexander Reyes, Christopher M Laine, Jason J Kutch, Francisco J Valero-Cuevas
During force production, hand muscle activity is known to be coherent with activity in primary motor cortex, specifically in the beta-band (15-30 Hz) frequency range. It is not clear, however, if this coherence reflects the control strategy selected by the nervous system for a given task, or if it instead reflects an intrinsic property of cortico-spinal communication. Here, we measured corticomuscular and intermuscular coherence between muscles of index finger and thumb while a two-finger pinch grip of identical net force was applied to objects which were either stable (allowing synergistic activation of finger muscles) or unstable (requiring individuated finger control)...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420237/intrinsic-instability-of-cs2in-i-m-iii-x6-m-bi-sb-x-halogen-double-perovskites-a-combined-density-functional-theory-and-experimental-study
#19
Zewen Xiao, Ke-Zhao Du, Weiwei Meng, Jianbo Wang, David B Mitzi, Yanfa Yan
Recently, there has been substantial interest in developing double-B-cation halide perovskites, which hold the potential to overcome the toxicity and instability issues inherent within emerging lead halide-based solar absorber materials. Among all double perovskites investigated, In(I)-based Cs2InBiCl6 and Cs2InSbCl6 have been proposed as promising thin-film photovoltaic absorber candidates, with computational examination predicting suitable materials properties, including direct bandgap and small effective masses for both electrons and holes...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419297/host-pore-forming-protein-complex-neutralizes-the-acidification-of-endocytic-organelles-to-counteract-intracellular-pathogens
#20
Sheng-An Li, Long Liu, Xiao-Long Guo, Yu-Yan Zhang, Yang Xiang, Qi-Quan Wang, Wen-Hui Lee, Yun Zhang
Many intracellular pathogens invade cells via endocytic organelles and have adapted to the drop in pH along the endocytic pathway. However, the strategy by which the host cell counteracts this pathogen adaptation remains unclear. βγ-CAT is an aerolysin-like pore-forming protein and trefoil factor complex in the frog Bombina maxima. We report here that βγ-CAT, as a host-secreted factor with an intrinsic channel-forming property, is the first example of a molecule that actively neutralizes the acidification of endocytic organelles to counteract Listeria monocytogenes infection...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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