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Michael G Tecce, Marten N Basta, Valeriy Shubinets, Michael A Lanni, Michael N Mirzabeigi, Laura Cooney, Suneeta Senapati, Ashley F Haggerty, Jason M Weissler, J Andres Hernandez, John P Fischer
BACKGROUND: Incisional hernia (IH) is a complication following open abdominal hysterectomy. This study addresses the incidence and health care cost of IH repair after open hysterectomy, and identify perioperative risk factors to create predictive risk models. METHODS: We conduct a retrospective review of patients who underwent open hysterectomy between 2005 and 2013 at the University of Pennsylvania. The primary outcome was post-hysterectomy IH. Univariate/multivariate cox proportional hazard analyses identified perioperative risk factors...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
X F Guo, Y N Zhao, J M Li, C X Chen, S X Li
Objective: To compare the changes in the expression of mTOR and beclin1 in the hippocampus of normal rats and intermittent hypoxia rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, so as to explore the roles of mTOR/autophagy pathway in global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injure aggravated by intermittent hypoxia. Methods: One hundred healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into: sham operation group(SO group, n=20), intermittent hypoxia group(IH group, n=20), merely ischemia/reperfusion group(I/R group, n=20), intermittent hypoxia ischemia/reperfusion group(IH+ I/R group, n=20), intermittent hypoxia ischemia/reperfusion+ mTOR inhibitor group(Inhibitor group, n=20)...
October 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Samuel A Neymotin, Benjamin A Suter, Salvador Dura-Bernal, Gordon M G Shepherd, Michele Migliore, William W Lytton
Corticospinal neurons (SPI), thick-tufted pyramidal neurons in motor cortex layer 5B that project caudally via the medullary pyramids, display distinct class-specific electrophysiological properties in vitro: strong sag with hyperpolarization, lack of adaptation, and a nearly linear frequency-current (FI) relationship. We used our electrophysiological data to produce a pair of large archives of SPI neuron computer models in two model classes: 1. Detailed models with full reconstruction; 2. Simplified models with 6 compartments...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Robert N Goldstone, Michael C McCormack, Rachel L Goldstein, Srivalleesha Mallidi, Mark A Randolph, Michael T Watkins, Robert W Redmond, William G Austen
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that decreasing vein compliance would protect the vein against stretch injury and reduce intimal hyperplasia (IH). BACKGROUND: Although arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are the criterion standard for vascular access, their effectiveness is limited by poor patency with 40% to 60% failing due to IH. Venous stretch injury from exposure to arterial pressure induces IH. Photochemical tissue passivation (PTP) crosslinks adventitial collagen, decreasing vein compliance to resemble that of an artery...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Sezin Unal, Dilek Ulubas Isik, Ahmet Yagmur Bas, Zehra Arslan, Nihal Demirel
Introduction The incidence and risk factors for inguinal hernia (IH) is not a thoroughly evaluated issue of preterms. Prematurity is the single most important risk factor. There exists no study in our country which reported the incidence of IH in preterms. The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence and time of diagnosis of IH in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Patients and Methods This retrospective case-control study was conducted in Etlik Zubeyde Hanim Women's Health Training and Research Hospital and included discharged VLBW infants with gestational age less than 32 weeks...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Jingjing Cai, Hong Yuan, Huan Yang, Timothy R Billiar, Alex F Chen
OBJECTIVE: The mechanism of sterile inflammatory response drive the development of vessle remodeling and intimal hyperplasia (IH) was not fully understood. We hypothesis that myeloid differentiation protein-88 (MyD88) in macrophages, the major endocellular adaptor molecule that mediate most toll like receptors (TLRs) induced inflammation, activates processes leading to vessle remodeling via upregulation of cathepsin L activity. DESIGN AND METHOD: Carotid artery wire injury was applied in C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice, MyD88 mice, Lyz-MyD88 mice and cathepsin L mice to investigate vessel remodeling and intimal formation...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Soo Ki Kim, Myung-Hee Shin, Kayo Sugimoto, Soo Ryang Kim, Susumu Imoto, Ke Ih Kim, Miyuki Taniguchi, Hyun-Kyung Oh, Yoshihiko Yano, Yoshitake Hayashi, Masatoshi Kudo
OBJECTIVES: Significant inverse association between coffee intake and the levels of liver enzymes has been reported. We demonstrated higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean immigrants (KIs) than in indigenous Japanese (IJs). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the association between coffee intake and liver enzyme levels was different between the 2 ethnic groups. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional study including a total of 966 subjects comprising KIs and IJs...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Mahzad Akbarpour, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Zhuanghong Qiao, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Isaac Almendros, Ramon Farré, David Gozal
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with cancer appears to be accompanied by poorer outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying such association are unknown. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), including CD8+ T cells, function as cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), and mount immune responses to cancer by the release of cytolytic enzymes, including granzyme B (GzmB), perforin (Prf) and cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-γ. METHODS: Using established in vivo mouse models, we investigated CD8+ T cells and cancer stem cells (CSC) in intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sleep fragmentation (SF) in the context of tumor environment...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
Nadia Gildeh, Panagis Drakatos, Sean Higgins, Ivana Rosenzweig, Brian D Kent
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes daytime fatigue and sleepiness, and has an established relationship with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Recent years have seen the emergence of an evidence base linking OSA with an increased risk of degenerative neurological disease and associated cognitive impairment, an accelerated rate of decline in kidney function with an increased risk of clinically significant chronic kidney disease (CKD), and with a significantly higher rate of cancer incidence and death. This review evaluates the evidence base linking OSA with these seemingly unrelated co-morbidities, and explores potential mechanistic links underpinning their development in patients with OSA, including intermittent hypoxia (IH), sleep fragmentation, sympathetic excitation, and immune dysregulation...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Keisuke Kaneko, Yuko Koyanagi, Yoshiyuki Oi, Masayuki Kobayashi
Propofol is a major intravenous anesthetic that facilitates GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory synaptic currents and modulates Ih, K(+), and voltage-gated Na(+) currents. This propofol-induced modulation of ionic currents changes intrinsic membrane properties and repetitive spike firing in cortical pyramidal neurons. However, it has been unknown whether propofol modulates these electrophysiological properties in GABAergic neurons, which express these ion channels at different levels. This study examined whether pyramidal and GABAergic neuronal properties are differentially modulated by propofol in the rat insular cortical slice preparation...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience
Wei Sun, Fei Yang, Yan Wang, Han Fu, Yan Yang, Chun-Li Li, Xiao-Liang Wang, Qing Lin, Jun Chen
Under physiological state, small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons are believed to mediate nociceptive behavioral responses to painful stimuli. However, recently it has been found that a number of large-sized neurons are also involved in nociceptive transmission under neuropathic conditions. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms that large-sized DRG neurons mediate nociception are poorly understood. In the present study, the role of large-sized neurons in bee venom (BV)-induced mechanical allodynia and the underlying mechanisms were investigated...
October 12, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Mark J Osborn, Beau R Webber, Ronald T McElmurry, Kyle D Rudser, Anthony P DeFeo, Michael Muradian, Anna Petryk, Benedikt Hallgrimsson, Bruce R Blazar, Jakub Tolar, Elizabeth A Braunlin
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS IH) is a lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by inactivating mutations to the alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) gene. Treatment focuses on IDUA enzyme replacement and currently employed methods can be non-uniform in their efficacy particularly for the cardiac and craniofacial pathology. Therefore, we undertook efforts to better define the pathological cascade accounting for treatment refractory manifestations and demonstrate a role for the renin angiotensin system (RAS) using the IDUA(-/-) mouse model...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Michelle Giltrap, Jenny Ronan, Colby Tanner, Francis X O'Beirn, Brett P Lyons, Rónán Mag Aoidh, Heather Rochford, Brendan McHugh, Evin McGovern, James Wilson
A weight of evidence (WOE) approach, integrating biological effects, mussel histopathology and tissue contaminant levels is proposed to evaluate mussel health and pollution status. Contaminant levels, histopathology and several biological effects (BEs) including Lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), acetylcholinesterase (AChe), metallothionein proteins (MT) and alkali labile phosphate (ALP), in Mytilus edulis are presented, improving the current knowledge base for these data. Potential links between histopathology, BEs and contaminants and ranking of sites are investigated with an integrated response (IR) indexing technique...
September 21, 2016: Marine Environmental Research
Elen Guerra, Cristiane Pereira, Renata Faria, Antonio Olavo Jorge, Marco Antonio Bottino, Renata Marques de Melo
This study evaluated the in vitro bacterial microleakage at the implant-abutment interface of three prosthetic connections: external (EH) and internal hexagon (IH) and taper connection (TC: solid [ST], taper with internal hexagon [IT], and short taper [OT]). Escherichia coli (E coli) and Streptococcus sanguinis (S sanguinus) were inoculated in the apical portion of the abutment screw, which was immersed in sterile brain-heart infusion broth for 14 days. There were no differences between the percentages of bacterial infiltration for IH (9...
November 2016: International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry
Richard Q Loi, Kelly M Leyden, Akshara Balachandra, Vedang Uttarwar, Donald J Hagler, Brianna M Paul, Anders M Dale, Nathan S White, Carrie R McDonald
OBJECTIVE: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become a popular tool for delineating the location and extent of white matter injury in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, DTI yields nonspecific measures that are confounded by changes occurring within both the intracellular and extracellular environments. This study investigated whether an advanced diffusion method, restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) could provide a more robust measure of white matter injury in TLE relative to DTI due to RSI's ability to separate intraaxonal diffusion (i...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsia
Horng-Yunn Dou, Yih-Yuan Chen, Ying-Tsong Chen, Jia-Ru Chang, Chien-Hsing Lin, Keh-Ming Wu, Ming-Shian Lin, Ih-Jen Su, Shih-Feng Tsai
To better understand the transmission and evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in Taiwan, six different MTB isolates (representatives of the Beijing ancient sublineage, Beijing modern sublineage, Haarlem, East-African Indian, T1, and Latin-American Mediterranean (LAM)) were characterized and their genomes were sequenced. Discriminating among large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs) that occur once versus those that occur repeatedly in a genomic region may help to elucidate the biological roles of LSPs and to identify the useful phylogenetic relationships...
2016: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
Shimpei Matsui, Nobuhiro Nitori, Ayu Kato, Yoshifumi Ikeda, Yuko Kiatagwa, Hirotoshi Hasegawa, Koji Okabayashi, Masashi Tsuruta, Masaki Kitajima
INTRODUCTION: Spigelian hernia (SH) is a rare ventral hernia occurring near the lateral border of the rectus muscle. The treatment remains controversial and depends on institutional expertise. Although laparoscopic surgery is a good adaptation for the repair of ventral hernias, only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of totally extra-peritoneal (TEP) repair for bilateral SHs. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 74-year-old Japanese man presented with asymptomatic bulges in the right lower abdominal quadrant...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Leora Trub, Ella Quinlan, Tyrel J Starks, Lisa Rosenthal
With increasing numbers of same-sex couples raising children in the United States, discriminatory attitudes toward children of same-sex parents (ACSSP) are of increasing concern. As with other forms of stigma and discrimination, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are at risk for internalizing these societal attitudes, which can negatively affect parenting-related decisions and behaviors and the mental and physical health of their children. Secure attachment is characterized by positive views of the self as loveable and worthy of care that are understood to develop in early relationships with caregivers...
October 8, 2016: Family Process
Katrin Gutsche, Elisa Randi, Volker Blank, Daniel Fink, Roland H Wenger, Cornelia Leo, Carsten C Scholz
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive form of breast cancer. Treatment options are limited and the mechanisms underlying its aggressiveness are poorly understood. Intermittent hypoxia (IH) causes oxidative stress and is emerging as important regulator of tumor metastasis. Vessels in IBC tumors have been shown to be immature, which is a primary cause of IH. We therefore investigated the relevance of IH for the modulation of gene expression in IBC cells in order to assess IH as potential regulator of IBC aggressiveness...
October 5, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Kai Oliver Jensen, Leonhard Held, Andrea Kraus, Frank Hildebrand, Philipp Mommsen, Ladislav Mica, Guido A Wanner, Peter Steiger, Rudolf M Moos, Hans-Peter Simmen, Kai Sprengel
BACKGROUND: Although under discussion, induced hypothermia (IH) is an established therapy for patients with cardiac arrest or traumatic brain injuries. The influences on coagulopathy and bleeding tendency in severely injured patients (SIP) with concomitant traumatic brain injury are most widely unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify the effect of mild IH in SIP with concomitant severe traumatic brain injuries on transfusion rate and mortality. METHODS: In this retrospective multi-centre study, SIP from three European level-1 trauma centres with an ISS ≥16 between 2009 and 2011 were included...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Medical Research
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