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Kangjian Li, Yuhui Luo, Yin Mo, Jihong Shen, Xiaodong Liu, Hao Li
Idiopathic hypocitraturia (IH) is a risk factor for urolithiasis. IH is associated with vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a Chinese Han population. However, this association between VDR SNPs and IH has not been recapitulated in a Chinese Bai population. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between VDR SNPs and IH in a Chinese Bai population. A total of 320 participants comprising of 200 Chinese Bai patients with IH and 120 Chinese Bai control participants with normal urinary citrate level were enrolled for this study...
June 20, 2018: Urolithiasis
Fang Zhang, Rui Gu, Ya-Xing Feng, Yao-Lei Zhang, Wei Li, Ting Li, Ming Zhang
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on neuropathic pain in the chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion (CCD) rat model and the underlying mechanism. Pain behavioral tests were applied to observe the effects of DEX on mechanical allodynia in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Whole cell patch clamp was used to observe the influence of DEX on excitability and hyperpolarization-activated inward current (Ih ) of C- and Aδ -type dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons...
June 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
François David, Nihan Çarçak, Szabina Furdan, Filiz Onat, Timothy Gould, Ádám Mészáros, Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Vivian M Hernández, C Savio Chan, Magor L Lőrincz, Vincenzo Crunelli
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels and the Ih current they generate contribute to the pathophysiological mechanisms of absence seizures (ASs), but their precise role in neocortical and thalamic neuronal populations, the main components of the network underlying AS generation remains controversial. In diverse genetic AS models, Ih amplitude is smaller in neocortical neurons and either larger or unchanged in thalamocortical (TC) neurons compared to non-epileptic strains. A lower expression of neocortical HCN subtype 1 channels is present in genetic AS-prone rats and HCN2 Knock-Out mice exhibit ASs...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Deepti Nair, Vijay Ramesh, David Gozal
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disease manifesting as intermittent hypoxia during sleep (IH) and is increasingly recognized as being independently associated with neurobehavioral deficits. These deficits may be due to increased apoptosis in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, as well as increased oxidative stress and inflammation. It has been reported that neuroglobin (Ngb) is upregulated in response to hypoxia-ischemia insults and exhibits a protective role in ischemia-reperfusion brain injury...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Elodie Gautier-Veyret, Magnus Bäck, Claire Arnaud, Elise Belaïdi, Renaud Tamisier, Patrick Lévy, Nathalie Arnol, Marion Perrin, Jean-Louis Pépin, Françoise Stanke-Labesque
AIMS: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) characterized by nocturnal intermittent hypoxia (IH) is associated with atherosclerosis and cysteinyl-leukotrienes (CysLT) pathway activation. We aimed to identify the determinants of CysLT pathway activation and the role of CysLT in OSA-related atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Determinants of the urinary excretion of LTE4 (U-LTE4 ) including history of cardiovascular events, polysomnographic and biological parameters were studied in a cohort of 170 OSA patients and 29 controls, and in a subgroup of OSA patients free of cardiovascular event (n = 136)...
June 16, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Yu Shi, Xiangyu Guo, Jie Zhang, Hanchi Zhou, Bei Sun, Jing Feng
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) complicated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may cause neuronal apoptosis and cognitive deficits, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to determine the relationship between the activation of microglia and the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons, specifically in terms of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), after high glucose (HG) and intermittent hypoxia (IH) exposure. Diabetic KK-Ay mice and non-diabetic C57BL/6J mice (C57 mice) underwent IH or normoxia (control) exposure for 4 weeks...
June 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Patrick B Louden, J Daniel Gezelter
The temperature and depth dependence of the shear viscosity (η) of the quasi-liquid layer (QLL) of water on ice-Ih crystals was determined using simulations of the TIP4P/Ice model. The crystals display either the basal {0001} or prismatic {10-10} facets, and we find that the QLL viscosity depends on the presented facet, the distance from the solid / liquid interface, and the undercooling temperature. Structural order parameters provide two distinct estimates of the QLL widths, which are found to range from 6...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Ameet Kumar, Sumesh Kaistha, Rajesh Gangavatiker
Two major issues with laparoscopic inguinal hernia (IH) repair are recurrences and chronic groin pain (CGP). The procedure involves fixing the mesh with the tackers which is believed to increase the rate of CGP due to nerve injuries. Thus, non-fixation of mesh is being proposed but concerns remain regarding increased recurrences. We sought to look at our outcomes after we switched over to non-fixation of mesh in totally extraperitoneal repair (TEP). Retrospective review of prospectively maintained database of 171 repairs was done on 122 patients (fixation 59 and non-fixation 112) during a period of 4 years with an endeavor to complete a minimum of 1 year of clinical follow-up...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Surgery
Michael C Salling, Mary Jane Skelly, Elizabeth Avegno, Samantha Regan, Tamara Zeric, Elcoma Nichols, Neil L Harrison
Periodic episodes of excessive alcohol consumption ("binge drinking") occur frequently among adolescents, and early binge drinking is associated with an increased risk of alcohol use disorders later in life. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) undergoes significant development during adolescence and hence may be especially susceptible to the effects of binge drinking. In humans and in animal models, adolescent alcohol exposure is known to alter PFC neuronal activity and produce deficits in PFC-dependent behaviors such as decision making, response inhibition, and working memory...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yingcong Yang, Zhongyuan Xia, Qingtao Meng, Kang Liu, Yeda Xiao, Liwei Shi
This study was designed to examine the effect and mechanism of dexmedetomidine (Dex) on neuropathic pain (NP). The NP model was established by performing chronic sciatic nerve constriction injury (CCI). Seven days after CCI surgery, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with Dex, ZD7288 (an HCN channel inhibitor), and saline, respectively. The paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation and the thermal withdrawal latency tests were performed. After administration, the L4, L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons of rats were isolated...
June 14, 2018: Neuroreport
Toshihiko Itesako, Rumiko Eura, Yasuhiro Okamoto, Shuichi Tatarano, Hirofumi Yoshino, Hiroaki Nishimura, Yasutoshi Yamada, Hideki Enokida, Masayuki Nakagawa
Infantile hemangiomas (IH) are the most common in the head and neck region.1 They can occur anywhere in the skin, however, urethral hemangiomas are very rare. We describe a case report of a three years old boy with extensive lesions of IH in the anterior urethra. Urethral IH were disappeared during one year of oral administration of propranolol though it brought on urinary retention. This is the first report about oral propranolol treatment in a child with urethral IH. Oral administration of propranolol may be effective for urethral IH and beneficial especially for lesions requiring extensive surgical resection and reconstruction...
June 14, 2018: Urology
Xin-Lu Yin, Hui-Qun Jie, Min Liang, Li-Na Gong, Han-Wei Liu, Hao-Lai Pan, Ya-Zhi Xing, Hai-Bo Shi, Chun-Yan Li, Lu-Yang Wang, Shan-Kai Yin
In developing sensory systems, elaborate morphological connectivity between peripheral cells and first-order central neurons emerges via genetic programming before the onset of sensory activities. However, how the first-order central neurons acquire the capacity to interface with peripheral cells remains elusive. By making patch-clamp recordings from mouse brainstem slices, we found that a subset of neurons in the cochlear nuclei, the first central station to receive peripheral acoustic impulses, exhibits spontaneous firings (SFs) as early as at birth, and the fraction of such neurons increases during the prehearing period...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Jennifer L Riggs, Carolyn E Pace, Heather H Ward, Laura V Gonzalez Bosc, Lynnette Rios, Adleaeda Barrera, Nancy L Kanagy
Kidney injury and sleep apnea (SA) are independent risk factors for hypertension. Exposing rats to intermittent hypoxia (IH) to simulate SA increases blood pressure while adenine feeding causes persistent kidney damage to model chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesized that exposing CKD rats to IH would exacerbate the development of hypertension and renal failure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 0.2% adenine or control diet until blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was > 120 mg/dL in adenine fed rats (14 {plus minus} 4 days)...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Jan Polak, Naresh M Punjabi, Larissa A Shimoda
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and glucose intolerance. Elevated endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels have been observed in OSA patients and in mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH). We examined whether pharmacological blockade of type A and type B ET-1 receptors (ETA and ETB ) would ameliorate glucose intolerance and IR in mice exposed to IH. Subcutaneously implanted pumps delivered BQ-123 (ETA antagonist; 200 nmol/kg/day), BQ-788 (ETB antagonist; 200 nmol/kg/day) or vehicle (saline or propyleneglycol [PG]) for 14 days in C57BL6/J mice (10/group)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Abdelnaby Khalyfa, David Gozal, Juan F Masa, José Maria Marin, Zhuanghong Qiao, Jaime Corral, Mónica González, Sergi Marti, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, Carlos Egea, M-Ángeles Sánchez-Quiroga, Francisco J Gómez de Terreros, F Javier Barca
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered-breathing (SDB), which is characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sleep fragmentation (SF), is a prevalent condition that promotes metabolic dysfunction, particularly among patients suffering from obstructive hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). Exosomes are generated ubiquitously, are readily present in the circulation, and their cargo may exert substantial functional cellular alterations in both physiological and pathological conditions. However, the effects of plasma exosomes on adipocyte metabolism in patients with OHS or in mice subjected to IH or SF mimicking SDB are unclear...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Michelle L Allen, Tobias Kulik, Salah G Keyrouz, Rajat Dhar
BACKGROUND: Induced hypertension (IH) remains the mainstay of medical management for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, raising blood pressure above normal levels may be associated with systemic and neurological complications, of which posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) has been increasingly recognized. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the frequency and predisposing factors for PRES during IH therapy. METHODS: We identified 68 patients treated with IH from 345 SAH patients over a 3-yr period...
June 8, 2018: Neurosurgery
Rebecca Ichord, Faye S Silverstein, Beth S Slomine, Russell Telford, James Christensen, Richard Holubkov, J Michael Dean, Frank W Moler
OBJECTIVE: To implement a standardized approach to characterize neurologic outcomes among 12-month survivors in the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest (THAPCA) trials. METHODS: Two multicenter trials enrolled children age 48 hours to 18 years who remained comatose after cardiac arrest (CA) occurring out-of-hospital (THAPCA-OH, NCT00878644) or in-hospital (THAPCA-IH, NCT00880087); patients were randomized to therapeutic hypothermia or therapeutic normothermia...
June 8, 2018: Neurology
Torbjørn V Ness, Michiel W H Remme, Gaute T Einevoll
In cortex the local field potential (LFP) is thought to mainly stem from correlated synaptic input to populations of geometrically aligned neurons. Computer models of single cortical pyramidal neurons showed that subthreshold voltage-dependent membrane conductances can also shape the LFP signal, in particular the h-type current, Ih This ion-channel is prominent in various types of pyramidal neurons, typically showing an increasing density gradient along the apical dendrites. Here, we investigate how Ih affects the LFP generated by a model of a population of cortical pyramidal neurons...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Manuel López-Cano, Lidia A Martin-Dominguez, José Antonio Pereira, Manuel Armengol-Carrasco, Josep M García-Alamino
BACKGROUND: Primary ventral hernia (PVH) and incisional hernia (IH) repair using a mesh appears to reduce hernia recurrence. However, are the benefits of mesh offset in part by mesh-related complications? The aim of this study was to compare placement of a mesh versus simple suture for recurrence and postoperative complications in the repair of PVH or IH. METHODS: Five databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The study population was patients with a PVH or IH undergoing hernia repair...
2018: PloS One
Sha-Sha Yang, Yan-Chun Li, Austin A Coley, Linda A Chamberlin, Ping Yu, Wen-Jun Gao
H-current, also known as hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih), is an inward current generated by the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) cation channels. Ih plays an essential role in regulating neuronal properties, synaptic integration and plasticity, and synchronous activity in the brain. As these biological factors change across development, the brain undergoes varying levels of vulnerability to disorders like schizophrenia that disrupt prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent function...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
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