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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648222/improving-care-teams-functioning-recommendations-from-team-science
#1
Kevin Fiscella, Larry Mauksch, Thomas Bodenheimer, Eduardo Salas
BACKGROUND: Team science has been applied to many sectors including health care. Yet there has been relatively little attention paid to the application of team science to developing and sustaining primary care teams. Application of team science to primary care requires adaptation of core team elements to different types of primary care teams. CORE TEAM ELEMENTS: Six elements of teams are particularly relevant to primary care: practice conditions that support or hinder effective teamwork; team cognition, including shared understanding of team goals, roles, and how members will work together as a team; leadership and coaching, including mutual feedback among members that promotes teamwork and moves the team closer to achieving its goals; cooperation supported by an emotionally safe climate that supports expression and resolution of conflict and builds team trust and cohesion; coordination, including adoption of processes that optimize efficient performance of interdependent activities among team members; and communication, particularly regular, recursive team cycles involving planning, action, and debriefing...
July 2017: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644290/could-emotional-intelligence-make-patients-safer
#2
Estelle Codier, David D Codier
: The vast majority of medical errors occurring each year involve faulty communication. For this reason, it's essential that we identify skills that support accurate communication and information transfer as well as optimum patient-centered care, team function, and patient safety. Research in nursing and other disciplines has demonstrated that emotional intelligence abilities improve communication, support constructive conflict resolution, and improve individual and team performance. Although further studies are needed, these findings suggest emotional intelligence ability can positively affect patient safety...
July 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639820/adolescent-sympathetic-activity-and-salivary-c-reactive-protein-the-effects-of-parental-behavior
#3
Benjamin W Nelson, Michelle L Byrne, Julian G Simmons, Sarah Whittle, Orli S Schwartz, Eric C Reynolds, Neil M O'Brien-Simpson, Lisa Sheeber, Nicholas B Allen
OBJECTIVE: This study utilized a novel multisystem approach to investigate the effect of observed parental behavior on the relationship between biological mechanisms associated with disease processes (i.e., autonomic physiology and immune response) among their adolescent children. METHOD: Thirty-three adolescents (23 males), aged 11-13, and their parents participated in a laboratory session in which adolescents provided baseline measures of autonomic (sympathetic) activity, and adolescents and 1 parent participated in a laboratory based dyadic conflict resolution interaction task...
June 22, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639425/high-resolution-anorectal-manometry-a-comparison-of-solid-state-and-water-perfused-catheters
#4
A M P Rasijeff, M Withers, J M Burke, W Jackson, S M Scott
BACKGROUND: Anorectal manometry is the most commonly performed investigation for assessment of anorectal dysfunction. Findings from previous studies comparing water-perfused (WP) and solid-state (SS) techniques in the anorectum are conflicting. We compared anal sphincter pressure at rest and during dynamic maneuvers (squeezing and coughing) in healthy volunteers using SS and WP high-resolution anorectal manometry (HR-ARM) employing equivalent catheter configurations, a standardized protocol, and identical data acquisition and analysis software...
June 22, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624346/theta-burst-magnetic-stimulation-over-the-pre-supplementary-motor-area-improves-motor-inhibition
#5
Ignacio Obeso, Leonora Wilkinson, James T Teo, Penelope Talelli, John C Rothwell, Marjan Jahanshahi
BACKGROUND: Stopping an ongoing motor response or resolving conflict induced by conflicting stimuli are associated with activation of a right-lateralized network of inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and subthalamic nucleus (STN). However, the roles of the right IFG and pre-SMA in stopping a movement and in conflict resolution remain unclear. We used continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to examine the involvement of the right IFG and pre-SMA in inhibition and conflict resolution using the conditional stop signal task...
May 22, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617634/dramatic-fighting-by-male-cuttlefish-for-a-female-mate
#6
Justine J Allen, Derya Akkaynak, Alexandra K Schnell, Roger T Hanlon
Male cuttlefish compete for females with a repertoire of visually dramatic behaviors. Laboratory experiments have explored this system in Sepia officinalis, but corroborative field data have eluded collection attempts by many researchers. While scuba diving in Turkey, we fortuitously filmed an intense sequence of consort/intruder behaviors in which the consort lost and then regained his female mate from the intruder. These agonistic bouts escalated in stages, leading to fast dramatic expression of the elaborate intense zebra display and culminating in biting and inking as the intruder male attempted a forced copulation of the female...
July 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614399/the-effects-of-high-frequency-rtms-over-the-left-dlpfc-on-cognitive-control-in-young-healthy-participants
#7
Yanmin Li, Lin Wang, Meng Jia, Jihong Guo, Huijun Wang, Mingwei Wang
A large body of evidence suggests that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is clinically effective in treating neuropsychiatric disorders and multiple sessions are commonly used. However, it is unknown whether multiple sessions of rTMS improve cognitive control, which is a function of the neural circuitry of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)-cingulate cortex in healthy individuals. In addition, it is still unclear which stages of neural processing are altered by rTMS. In this study, we investigated the effects of high-frequency rTMS on cognitive control and explored the time course changes of cognitive processing after rTMS using event-related potentials (ERPs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612058/vesicoureteral-reflux-and-continuous-prophylactic-antibiotics
#8
REVIEW
Ted Lee, John M Park
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) management must be tailored based on the risk for further infections and renal scarring, gender, likelihood of spontaneous resolution, and parental preferences. Because we now understand that sterile VUR is benign and most reflux spontaneously resolves over time, the initial approach in majority of children is non-surgical with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) and correction of bladder and bowel dysfunction. Despite increasing utilization of CAP over the past four decades, the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis has been questioned due to conflicting results of studies plagued with design flaws and inadequate subject sample size...
June 2017: Investigative and Clinical Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607046/females-manipulate-behavior-of-caring-males-via-prenatal-maternal-effects
#9
Matthieu Paquet, Per T Smiseth
In species with biparental care, there is sexual conflict as each parent is under selection to minimize its personal effort by shifting as much as possible of the workload over to the other parent. Most theoretical and empirical work on the resolution of this conflict has focused on strategies used by both parents, such as negotiation. However, because females produce the eggs, this might afford females with an ability to manipulate male behavior via maternal effects that alter offspring phenotypes. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the prenatal conditions (i...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605722/functional-trade-off-between-strength-and-thermal-capacity-of-dermal-armor-insights-from-girdled-lizards
#10
Chris Broeckhoven, Anton du Plessis, Cang Hui
The presence of dermal armor is often unambiguously considered the result of an evolutionary predator-prey arms-race. Recent studies focusing predominantly on osteoderms - mineralized elements embedded in the dermis layer of various extant and extinct vertebrates - have instead proposed that dermal armor might exhibit additional functionalities besides protection. Multiple divergent functionalities could impose conflicting demands on a phenotype, yet, functional trade-offs in dermal armor have rarely been investigated...
June 7, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596801/tobacco-in-post-conflict-settings-the-case-of-iraq
#11
REVIEW
Zainab Hussain, Richard Sullivan
Tobacco is the leading cause of preventable death in the world, claiming six million lives each year. Although smoking prevalence is decreasing in high-income countries, many low- and middle-income countries, particularly fragile and post-conflict nations such as Iraq, are still seeing prevalence rates rising. With the evidence of higher rates of nicotine dependence in conflict and post-conflict areas, the tobacco problem only becomes more difficult for Iraq, which finds itself involved in conflicts lasting years, if not decades...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595363/more-on-the-best-evolutionary-rate-for-phylogenetic-analysis
#12
Seraina Klopfstein, Tim Massingham, Nick Goldman
The accumulation of genome-scale molecular datasets for non-model taxa brings us ever closer to resolving the tree of life of all living organisms. However, despite the depth of data available, a number of studies that each used thousands of genes have reported conflicting results. The focus of phylogenomic projects must thus shift to more careful experimental design. Even though we still have a limited understanding of what are the best predictors of the phylogenetic informativeness of a gene, there is wide agreement that one key factor is its evolutionary rate; but there is no consensus as to whether the rates derived as optimal in various analytical, empirical, and simulation approaches have any general applicability...
June 8, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595082/a-retrospective-analysis-of-the-effectiveness-of-antipsychotics-in-the-treatment-of-icu-delirium
#13
Cory B Weaver, Sandra L Kane-Gill, Scott R Gunn, Levent Kirisci, Pamela L Smithburger
PURPOSE: Conflicting data exists on the efficacy of antipsychotics for treatment of intensive care unit (ICU) delirium. The purpose of this study was to compare time to delirium resolution for ICU patients who were managed with and without antipsychotics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort evaluation included patients admitted to 12 ICUs at 5 sites over 5 weeks diagnosed with delirium. The primary outcome was time to delirium resolution. Secondary outcomes included ICU length of stay (LOS), mortality, discharge disposition and delirium redevelopment...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581646/triangulation-and-parent-adolescent-relationships-implications-for-adolescent-dating-competence-and-abuse
#14
Gregory M Fosco, Mengya Xia, Mark G Lynn, John H Grych
This study focuses on family predictors of conflict behavior in adolescent dating relationships, drawing on family systems and socialization perspectives. Mother-adolescent, father-adolescent, and triadic relationships each was examined as predictors of adolescent dating outcomes that hold importance for developmental and prevention science (positive conflict resolution, verbal abuse, and physical abuse). We conducted a longitudinal analysis using a 6-month longitudinal design with 236 ethnically diverse high school students...
September 2016: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580687/theta-and-delta-band-eeg-network-dynamics-during-a-novelty-oddball-task
#15
Jeremy Harper, Stephen M Malone, William G Iacono
While the P3 component during target detection and novelty processing has been widely studied, less is known about its underlying network dynamics. A recent cognitive model suggests that frontal-parietal and frontal-temporal interregional connectivity are related to attention/action selection and target-related memory updating during the P3, respectively, but empirical work testing this model is lacking. Other work suggests the importance of theta- and delta-band connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and distributed cortical regions during attention, stimulus detection, and response selection processes, and similar dynamics may underlie P3-related network connectivity...
June 5, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575295/high-resolution-crystal-structures-and-std-nmr-mapping-of-human-abo-h-blood-group-glycosyltransferases-in-complex-with-trisaccharide-reaction-products-suggest-a-molecular-basis-for-product-release
#16
Susannah M L Gagnon, Max S G Legg, Nora Sindhuwinata, James A Letts, Asha R Johal, Brock Schuman, Svetlana N Borisova, Monica M Palcic, Thomas Peters, Stephen V Evans
The human ABO(H) blood group A- and B-synthesizing glycosyltransferases GTA and GTB have been structurally characterized to high-resolution in complex with their respective trisaccharide antigen products. These findings are particularly timely and relevant given the dearth of glycosyltransferase structures collected in complex with their saccharide reaction products. GTA and GTB utilize the same acceptor substrates, oligosaccharides terminating with α-L-Fucp-(1→2)-β-D-Galp-OR (where R is a glycolipid or glycoprotein), but use distinct UDP donor sugars, UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine and UDP-galactose, to generate the blood group A (α-L-Fucp-(1→2)[α-D-GalNAcp-(1→3)]-β-D-Galp-OR) and blood group B (α-L-Fucp-(1→2)[α-D-Galp-(1→3)]-β-D-Galp-OR) determinant structures, respectively...
June 2, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574984/complexity-in-action-untangling-latent-relationships-between-land-quality-economic-structures-and-socio-spatial-patterns-in-italy
#17
Luca Salvati, Ilaria Tombolini, Roberta Gemmiti, Margherita Carlucci, Sofia Bajocco, Luigi Perini, Agostino Ferrara, Andrea Colantoni
Land quality, a key economic capital supporting local development, is affected by biophysical and anthropogenic factors. Taken as a relevant attribute of economic systems, land quality has shaped the territorial organization of any given region influencing localization of agriculture, industry and settlements. In regions with long-established human-landscape interactions, such as the Mediterranean basin, land quality has determined social disparities and polarization in the use of land, reflecting the action of geographical gradients based on elevation and population density...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570532/orientational-transition-in-a-liquid-crystal-triggered-by-the-thermodynamic-growth-of-interfacial-wetting-sheets
#18
Satoshi Aya, Fumito Araoka
In liquid crystal (LC) physical chemistry, molecules near the surface play a great role in controlling bulk orientation. Thus far, mainly to achieve desired molecular orientation states in LC displays, the "static" surface property of LCs, so-called surface anchoring, has been intensively studied. As a rule of thumb, once the initial orientation of LCs is "locked" by specific surface treatments, such as rubbing or treatment with a specific alignment layer, it hardly changes with temperature. Here, we present a system exhibiting an orientational transition upon temperature variation, which conflicts with the consensus...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560777/in-child-and-adult-migraineurs-the-somatosensory-cortex-stands-out-%C3%A2-again-an-arterial-spin-labeling-investigation
#19
Andrew M Youssef, Allison Ludwick, Sophie L Wilcox, Alyssa Lebel, Ke Peng, Elisabeth Colon, Amy Danehy, Rami Burstein, Lino Becerra, David Borsook
Over the past decade, human brain imaging investigations have reported altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the interictal phase of migraine. However, there have been conflicting findings across different investigations, making the use of perfusion imaging in migraine pathophysiology more difficult to define. These inconsistencies may reflect technical constraints with traditional perfusion imaging methods such as single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography. Comparatively, pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) is a recently developed magnetic resonance imaging technique that is noninvasive and offers superior spatial resolution and increased sensitivity...
May 31, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549470/rationale-and-protocol-paper-for-the-healthy-active-peaceful-playgrounds-for-youth-happy-study
#20
Wayne Cotton, Dean Dudley, Kirsten Jackson, Matthew Winslade, Janice Atkin
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggest an association between physical activity levels and students psychological well-being. A number of research studies have evaluated playground interventions that aim to increase physical activity levels, decrease conflict and bullying, and improve students behaviour. The HAPPY Study will evaluate the success of an intervention combining environmental modifications, teacher development, and peer support that can culminate in an easy to implement, low cost and effective model for increasing physical activity, and improving psychological well-being for children...
May 26, 2017: BMC Public Health
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