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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436995/faking-death-to-avoid-male-coercion-extreme-sexual-conflict-resolution-in-a-dragonfly
#1
Rassim Khelifa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435885/phylogenomic-reconstruction-of-the-oomycete-phylogeny-derived-from-37-genomes
#2
Charley G P McCarthy, David A Fitzpatrick
The oomycetes are a class of microscopic, filamentous eukaryotes within the Stramenopiles-Alveolata-Rhizaria (SAR) supergroup which includes ecologically significant animal and plant pathogens, most infamously the causative agent of potato blight Phytophthora infestans. Single-gene and concatenated phylogenetic studies both of individual oomycete genera and of members of the larger class have resulted in conflicting conclusions concerning species phylogenies within the oomycetes, particularly for the large Phytophthora genus...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431025/1h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-of-live-human-sperm
#3
S Reynolds, S J Calvert, M N Paley, A A Pacey
STUDY QUESTION: Can 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) be used to obtain information about the molecules and metabolites in live human spermatozoa? SUMMARY ANSWER: Percoll-based density gradient centrifugation (DGC) followed by a further two washing steps, yielded enough sperm with minimal contamination (<0.01%) from seminal fluid to permit effective MRS which detected significant differences (p < 0.05) in the choline/glycerophosphocholine, lipid and lactate regions of the 1H MRS spectrum between sperm in the pellet and those from the 40/80% interface...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430382/mixed-evidence-for-the-erosion-of-inter-tactical-genetic-correlations-through-intralocus-tactical-conflict
#4
Kyana N Pike, Joseph L Tomkins, Bruno A Buzatto
Alternative reproductive tactics, whereby members of the same sex use different tactics to secure matings are often associated with conditional intrasexual dimorphisms. Given the different selective pressures on males adopting each mating tactic,, intrasexual dimorphism is more likely to arise if phenotypes are genetically uncoupled and free to evolve towards their phenotypic optima. However, in this context, genetic correlations between male morphs could result in intralocus tactical conflict. We investigated the genetic architecture of male dimorphism in bulb mites (Rhizoglyphus echinopus) and earwigs (Forficula auricularia)...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430040/foraging-value-risk-avoidance-and-multiple-control-signals-how-the-acc-controls-value-based-decision-making
#5
Joshua W Brown, William H Alexander
Recent work on the role of the ACC in cognition has focused on choice difficulty, action value, risk avoidance, conflict resolution, and the value of exerting control among other factors. A main underlying question is what are the output signals of ACC, and relatedly, what is their effect on downstream cognitive processes? Here we propose a model of how ACC influences cognitive processing in other brain regions that choose actions. The model builds on the earlier Predicted Response Outcome model and suggests that ACC learns to represent specifically the states in which the potential costs or risks of an action are high, on both short and long timescales...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421633/efficacy-of-tulathromycin-for-the-treatment-of-foals-with-mild-to-moderate-bronchopneumonia
#6
D Rutenberg, M Venner, S Giguère
BACKGROUND: There is conflicting data regarding the efficacy of tulathromycin for the treatment of foals with bronchopneumonia. HYPOTHESES: Tulathromycin is effective for the treatment of bronchopneumonia in foals and noninferior to the combination of azithromycin and rifampin. ANIMALS: A total of 240 foals on a farm endemic for infections caused by Rhodococcus equi. METHODS: In a controlled, randomized, and double-blinded clinical trial, foals with ultrasonographic pulmonary lesions (abscess score 10-15 cm) were allocated to 3 groups: 1-tulathromycin IM q 7 days (n = 80); 2-azithromycin-rifampin, orally q24h (n = 80); or 3-untreated controls (n = 80)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420302/the-genus-spirorchis-maccallum-1918-digenea-schistosomatoidea-and-the-early-history-of-parasitology-in-the-united-states
#7
Thomas Reid Platt
We know little about the founders of our discipline apart from their scientific contributions and brief biographical sketches, most frequently in published obituaries. A number of years ago, Ralph Lichtenfels, then Director of the National Parasite Collection, sent me photocopies of letters between Henry Baldwin Ward, Horace W. Stunkard, George A. MacCallum, and William G. MacCallum dating from the early years of the 20th century that hinted at a series of conflicts centered on the proposal of Spirorchis MacCallum, 1918 (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419160/an-empirically-grounded-agent-based-model-for-modeling-directs-conflict-detection-and-resolution-operations-in-air-traffic-management
#8
Christian Bongiorno, Salvatore Miccichè, Rosario N Mantegna
We present an agent based model of the Air Traffic Management socio-technical complex system aiming at modeling the interactions between aircraft and air traffic controllers at a tactical level. The core of the model is given by the conflict detection and resolution module and by the directs module. Directs are flight shortcuts that are given by air controllers to speed up the passage of an aircraft within a certain airspace and therefore to facilitate airline operations. Conflicts between flight trajectories can occur for two main reasons: either the planning of the flight trajectory was not sufficiently detailed to rule out all potential conflicts or unforeseen events during the flight require modifications of the flight plan that can conflict with other flight trajectories...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417941/mapping-patterns-and-trends-in-the-spatial-availability-of-alcohol-using-low-level-geographic-data-a-case-study-in-england-2003-2013
#9
Colin Angus, John Holmes, Ravi Maheswaran, Mark A Green, Petra Meier, Alan Brennan
Much literature examines the relationship between the spatial availability of alcohol and alcohol-related harm. This study aims to address an important gap in this evidence by using detailed outlet data to examine recent temporal trends in the sociodemographic distribution of spatial availability for different types of alcohol outlet in England. Descriptive analysis of measures of alcohol outlet density and proximity using extremely high resolution market research data stratified by outlet type and quintiles of area-level deprivation from 2003, 2007, 2010 and 2013 was undertaken and hierarchical linear growth models fitted to explore the significance of socioeconomic differences...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416035/measuring-the-autocorrelation-function-of-nanoscale-three-dimensional-density-distribution-in-individual-cells-using-scanning-transmission-electron-microscopy-atomic-force-microscopy-and-a-new-deconvolution-algorithm
#10
Yue Li, Di Zhang, Ilker Capoglu, Karl A Hujsak, Dhwanil Damania, Lusik Cherkezyan, Eric Roth, Reiner Bleher, Jinsong S Wu, Hariharan Subramanian, Vinayak P Dravid, Vadim Backman
Essentially all biological processes are highly dependent on the nanoscale architecture of the cellular components where these processes take place. Statistical measures, such as the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the three-dimensional (3D) mass-density distribution, are widely used to characterize cellular nanostructure. However, conventional methods of reconstruction of the deterministic 3D mass-density distribution, from which these statistical measures can be calculated, have been inadequate for thick biological structures, such as whole cells, due to the conflict between the need for nanoscale resolution and its inverse relationship with thickness after conventional tomographic reconstruction...
April 18, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410373/parallel-reorganization-of-protein-function-in-the-spindle-checkpoint-pathway-through-evolutionary-paths-in-the-fitness-landscape-that-appear-neutral-in-laboratory-experiments
#11
Alex N Nguyen Ba, Bob Strome, Selma Osman, Elizabeth-Ann Legere, Taraneh Zarin, Alan M Moses
Regulatory networks often increase in complexity during evolution through gene duplication and divergence of component proteins. Two models that explain this increase in complexity are: 1) adaptive changes after gene duplication, such as resolution of adaptive conflicts, and 2) non-adaptive processes such as duplication, degeneration and complementation. Both of these models predict complementary changes in the retained duplicates, but they can be distinguished by direct fitness measurements in organisms with short generation times...
April 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409218/transmembrane-helices-containing-a-charged-arginine-are-thermodynamically-stable
#12
Martin B Ulmschneider, Jakob P Ulmschneider, J Alfredo Freites, Gunnar von Heijne, Douglas J Tobias, Stephen H White
Hydrophobic amino acids are abundant in transmembrane (TM) helices of membrane proteins. Charged residues are sparse, apparently due to the unfavorable energetic cost of partitioning charges into nonpolar phases. Nevertheless, conserved arginine residues within TM helices regulate vital functions, such as ion channel voltage gating and integrin receptor inactivation. The energetic cost of arginine in various positions along hydrophobic helices has been controversial. Potential of mean force (PMF) calculations from atomistic molecular dynamics simulations predict very large energetic penalties, while in vitro experiments with Sec61 translocons indicate much smaller penalties, even for arginine in the center of hydrophobic TM helices...
April 13, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408869/rapid-long-range-disynaptic-inhibition-explains-the-formation-of-cortical-orientation-maps
#13
Ján Antolík
Competitive interactions are believed to underlie many types of cortical processing, ranging from memory formation, attention and development of cortical functional organization (e.g., development of orientation maps in primary visual cortex). In the latter case, the competitive interactions happen along the cortical surface, with local populations of neurons reinforcing each other, while competing with those displaced more distally. This specific configuration of lateral interactions is however in stark contrast with the known properties of the anatomical substrate, i...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401507/improving-student-engagement-in-the-study-of-professional-ethics-concepts-and-an-example-in-cyber-security
#14
John D Bustard
In spite of the acknowledged importance of professional ethics, technical students often show little enthusiasm for studying the subject. This paper considers how such engagement might be improved. Four guiding principles for promoting engagement are identified: (1) aligning teaching content with student interests; (2) taking a pragmatic rather than a philosophical approach to issue resolution; (3) addressing the full complexity of real-world case studies; and (4) covering content in a way that students find entertaining...
April 11, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394142/are-there-individual-and-sibling-differences-in-appraisals-of-interparental-conflict
#15
Rachel G Lucas-Thompson, Melissa W George
Despite decades of empirical literature documenting the harmful effects of frequent, intense, violent, and unresolved interparental conflict on children's adjustment, there is considerable variability in the extent to which marital conflict contributes to the development of children's emotional and behavioral problems. Past research has documented links between properties of interparental conflict itself (e.g., intensity, frequency), children's appraisals of conflict, and children's outcomes, yet less is known about the role of individual and family characteristics in predicting children's conflict appraisals...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392208/minimal-effects-of-prolonged-smoking-abstinence-or-resumption-on-cognitive-performance-challenge-the-self-medication-hypothesis-in-schizophrenia
#16
Douglas L Boggs, Toral S Surti, Irina Esterlis, Brian Pittman, Kelly Cosgrove, R Andrew Sewell, Mohini Ranganathan, Deepak Cyril D'Souza
One prominent, long-standing view is that individuals with schizophrenia smoke cigarettes more than the general population to "self-medicate" cognitive deficits and other symptoms. This study tested the self-medication hypothesis by examining the effects of smoking abstinence and resumption on cognition in patients with schizophrenia. Nicotine-dependent smokers with schizophrenia (n=26) were trained on a cognitive battery and then hospitalized to achieve and maintain confirmed abstinence from smoking for ~1 week...
April 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391324/the-evolution-of-sex-chromosomes-and-dosage-compensation-in-plants
#17
Aline Muyle, Rylan Shearn, Gabriel Ab Marais
Plant sex chromosomes can be vastly different from those of the few historical animal model organisms from which most of our understanding of sex chromosome evolution is derived. Recently, we have seen several advancements from studies on green algae, brown algae, and land plants that are providing a broader understanding of the variable ways in which sex chromosomes can evolve in distant eukaryotic groups. Plant sex-determining genes are being identified and, as expected, are completely different from those in animals...
March 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380058/audio-visual-interactions-uniquely-contribute-to-resolution-of-visual-conflict-in-people-possessing-absolute-pitch
#18
Sujin Kim, Randolph Blake, Minyoung Lee, Chai-Youn Kim
Individuals possessing absolute pitch (AP) are able to identify a given musical tone or to reproduce it without reference to another tone. The present study sought to learn whether this exceptional auditory ability impacts visual perception under stimulus conditions that provoke visual competition in the form of binocular rivalry. Nineteen adult participants with 3-19 years of musical training were divided into two groups according to their performance on a task involving identification of the specific note associated with hearing a given musical pitch...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376344/differential-effects-of-phasic-and-tonic-alerting-on-the-efficiency-of-executive-attention
#19
Dariusz Asanowicz, Anna Marzecová
The study examined how alerting and executive attention interact in a task involving conflict resolution. We proposed a tentative scenario in which an initial exogenous phasic alerting phase is followed by an endogenous tonic alerting phase, and hypothesized that these two processes may have distinct effects on conflict resolution. Phasic alerting was expected to increase the conflict, whereas tonic alerting was expected to decrease the conflict. Three experiments were conducted using different variants of the flanker task with visual alerting cues and varied cue-target intervals (SOA), to differentiate between effects of phasic alerting (short SOA) and tonic alerting (long SOA)...
April 1, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369509/revisiting-the-human-seminiferous-epithelium-cycle
#20
F Nihi, M L M Gomes, F A R Carvalho, A B Reis, R Martello, R C N Melo, F R C L Almeida, H Chiarini-Garcia
STUDY QUESTION: Can all types of testicular germ cells be accurately identified by microscopy techniques and unambiguously distributed in stages of the human seminiferous epithelium cycle (SEC)? SUMMARY ANSWER: By using a high-resolution light microscopy (HRLM) method, which enables an improved visualization of germ cell morphological features, we identified all testicular germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium and precisely grouped them in six well-delimitated SEC stages, thus providing a reliable reference source for staging in man...
March 28, 2017: Human Reproduction
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