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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665432/moderate-intensity-exercise-boosts-the-n2-neural-inhibition-marker-a-randomized-and-counterbalanced-erp-study-with-precisely-controlled-exercise-intensity
#1
Tomasz S Ligeza, Marcin Maciejczyk, Patrycja Kałamała, Zbigniew Szygula, Miroslaw Wyczesany
A prior session of moderate intensity continuous exercise (MCE) benefits performance during tasks requiring conflict resolution but the specific cognitive process that underlies this improvement remains unknown. Many studies postulate that MCE increases inhibition, but ERP evidence is ambiguous due to significant differences across past procedures. Most importantly, exercise intensity, which modulates the relationship between acute exercise and cognitive processes, might have varied across past ERP studies...
April 14, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660000/spermatogonial-behavior-in-marmoset-a-new-generation-their-kinetics-and-niche
#2
A L Caldeira-Brant, L Eras-Garcia, D Alves-Freitas, F R C L Almeida, H Chiarini-Garcia
STUDY QUESTION: Could a more detailed evaluation of marmoset spermatogonial morphology, kinetics, and niches using high-resolution light microscopy (HRLM) lead to new findings? SUMMARY ANSWER: Three new classes of marmoset spermatogonia, which were not evenly distributed in terms of number and position along the basal membrane, and an extra premeiotic cell division not present in humans were identified using HRLM. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The seminiferous epithelium cycle (SEC) of marmosets is divided into nine stages when based on the acrosome system, and several spermatogenic stages can usually be recognized within the same tubular cross-section...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658764/a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-family-mediation-with-and-without-motivational-interviewing
#3
Megan Morris, W Kim Halford, Jemima Petch
Family mediation is a widely used approach to assist separated parents to resolve conflicts about parenting arrangements for their children, yet frequently parents undertaking mediation do not reach a mutually agreeable resolution. In Australia, where the current study was conducted, separated parents must attempt family mediation before they can seek to appear in the family court for custody issues. We compared mediation enhanced with motivational interviewing (MI) with mediation as usual (MAU) in a randomized controlled trial...
March 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653378/possible-origins-of-consciousness-in-simple-control-over-involuntary-neuroimmunological-action
#4
REVIEW
Kevin B Clark
The origin(s) and purpose(s) of consciousness continue to be fervently debated by neuroscientists. A recent unconventional hypothesis put forth by Morsella et al. suggests the primary function of consciousness is the integration, selection, and execution of advantageous lower-level voluntary skeletal muscle behavior on surrounding external environments. However, at main issue is whether more precise, adaptable voluntary skeletal motor action, and therefore the corresponding workings of consciousness, first emerged and evolved in animals to exert control over external environments or internal ones regulated by less flexible autonomic function...
April 10, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652247/motor-selection-dynamics-in-fef-explain-the-reaction-time-variance-of-saccades-to-single-targets
#5
Christopher K Hauser, Dantong Zhu, Terrence R Stanford, Emilio Salinas
In studies of voluntary movement, a most elemental quantity is the reaction time (RT) between the onset of a visual stimulus and a saccade toward it. However, this RT demonstrates extremely high variability which, in spite of extensive research, remains unexplained. It is well established that, when a visual target appears, oculomotor activity gradually builds up until a critical level is reached, at which point a saccade is triggered. Here, based on computational work and single-neuron recordings from monkey frontal eye field (FEF), we show that this rise-to-threshold process starts from a dynamic initial state that already contains other incipient, internally-driven motor plans, which compete with the target-driven activity to varying degrees...
April 13, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651921/jordanian-men-s-and-women-s-attitudes-toward-intimate-partner-violence-and-its-correlates-with-family-functioning-and-demographics
#6
Fatmeh Ahmad Alzoubi, Reem Ahmad Ali
Jordan is a developing country in the Middle East and, much like other countries in the world, has high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Little information is available on Jordanian men's and women's attitudes toward IPV. The purpose of this study is to examine men's and women's attitudes toward IPV in Jordan and its relationship with some demographics and family functioning. A descriptive cross-sectional correlational design with a sample of 401 men and women was used. Descriptive statistics ( M, SD), Pearson r, t test, and ANOVA were used...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624148/reliability-of-mri-for-predicting-characteristics-of-neurovascular-conflicts-in-trigeminal-neuralgia-implications-for-surgical-decision-making
#7
Andrei Brînzeu, Landry Drogba, Marc Sindou
OBJECTIVE The choice of microvascular decompression (MVD), among the several other surgical options, for treating refractory classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN) relies mostly on preoperative imaging, but the degree of reliability of MRI remains a matter of debate. The authors approached the question of predictability of neurovascular conflict (NVC) in a series of 100 protocolized MRI studies from patients with TN who underwent MVD, by reexamination of MR images, blinded to the clinical data and surgical findings, including the side of the neuralgia...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616676/certification-and-evaluation-of-the-clinical-ethics-consultant-a-proposal-for-italy
#8
Mario Picozzi, Alessandra Gasparetto, Federico Nicoli, Renzo Pegoraro
Clinical ethics, as a sub-discipline of bioethics, is subject to growing professionalization in North America, Europe and elsewhere. Since the goal of clinical ethics is the identification, analysis and resolution of ethical dilemmas and conflicts in health care settings, specific competencies for practitioners and criteria to evaluate them are strongly needed. Regarding clinical ethics consultation (CEC) many efforts have been made by American clinical ethicists and scholars to delineate the core knowledge and skills to perform it, to settle specific professional responsibilities and tasks and to identify the fundamental training and quality requirements that candidates and actual professionals should satisfy in order to serve as ethics consultants...
January 2018: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615949/recognizing-the-effects-of-language-mode-on-the-cognitive-advantages-of-bilingualism
#9
Ziying Yu, John W Schwieter
For bilinguals, it is argued that a cognitive advantage can be linked to the constant management and need for conflict resolution that occurs when the two languages are co-activated (Bialystok, 2015). Language mode (Grosjean, 1998, 2001) is a significant variable that defines and shapes the language experiences of bilinguals and consequently, the cognitive advantages of bilingualism. Previous work, however, has not sufficiently tested the effects of language mode on the bilingual experience. In this brief conceptual analysis, we discuss the significance of language mode in bilingual work on speech perception, production, and reading...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606418/ventral-hippocampal-ca1-and-ca3-differentially-mediate-learned-approach-avoidance-conflict-processing
#10
Anett Schumacher, Franz R Villaruel, Alicia Ussling, Sadia Riaz, Andy C H Lee, Rutsuko Ito
Approach-avoidance conflict arises when an animal encounters a stimulus that is associated simultaneously with positive and negative valences [1]. The effective resolution of approach-avoidance conflict is critical for survival and is believed to go awry in a number of mental disorders, such as anxiety and addiction. An accumulation of evidence from both rodents and humans suggests that the ventral hippocampus (anterior in humans) plays a key role in approach-avoidance conflict processing [2-8], with one influential model proposing that this structure modulates behavioral inhibition in the face of conflicting goals by increasing the influence of negative valences [9]...
March 28, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599754/generalized-growth-of-estuarine-household-and-clinical-isolates-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#11
Kelly E Diaz, Susanna K Remold, Ogochukwu Onyiri, Maura Bozeman, Peter A Raymond, Paul E Turner
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen of particular concern to immune-compromised people, such as cystic fibrosis patients and burn victims. These bacteria grow in built environments including hospitals and households, and in natural environments such as rivers and estuaries. However, there is conflicting evidence whether recent environments like the human lung and open ocean affect P. aeruginosa growth performance in alternate environments. We hypothesized that bacteria recently isolated from dissimilar habitats should grow differently in media containing artificial versus natural resources...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593622/measuring-responsibility-and-cooperation-in-learning-teams-in-the-university-setting-validation-of-a-questionnaire
#12
Benito León-Del-Barco, Santiago Mendo-Lázaro, Elena Felipe-Castaño, Fernando Fajardo-Bullón, Damián Iglesias-Gallego
Cooperative learning are being used increasingly in the university classroom, in order to promote teamwork among students, improve performance and develop interpersonal competences. Responsibility and cooperation are two fundamental pillars of cooperative learning. Team members' responsibility is a necessary condition for the team's success in the assigned tasks. Students must be aware that they depend on each other and should make their maximum effort. On the other hand, in efficient groups, the members cooperate and pool their efforts to achieve the proposed goals...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590103/preferential-retention-of-genes-from-one-parental-genome-after-polyploidy-illustrates-the-nature-and-scope-of-the-genomic-conflicts-induced-by-hybridization
#13
Marianne Emery, M Madeline S Willis, Yue Hao, Kerrie Barry, Khouanchy Oakgrove, Yi Peng, Jeremy Schmutz, Eric Lyons, J Chris Pires, Patrick P Edger, Gavin C Conant
Polyploidy is increasingly seen as a driver of both evolutionary innovation and ecological success. One source of polyploid organisms' successes may be their origins in the merging and mixing of genomes from two different species (e.g., allopolyploidy). Using POInT (the Polyploid Orthology Inference Tool), we model the resolution of three allopolyploidy events, one from the bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), one from the thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) and one from grasses including Sorghum bicolor...
March 28, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558519/teamwatch-visualizing-development-activities-using-a-3-d-city-metaphor-to-improve-conflict-detection-and-team-awareness
#14
En Ye, Xin Ye, Chang Liu
The awareness of others' activities has been widely recognized as essential in facilitating coordination in a team among Computer-Supported Cooperative Work communities. Several field studies of software developers in large software companies such as Microsoft have shown that coworker and artifact awareness are the most common information needs for software developers; however, they are also two of the seven most frequently unsatisfied information needs. To address this problem, we built a workspace awareness tool named TeamWATCH to visualize developer activities using a 3-D city metaphor...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557405/brain-abscess-following-dental-implant-placement-via-crestal-sinus-lift-a-case-report
#15
Yifat Manor, Adi A Garfunkel
PURPOSE: To describe a rare case of odontogenic brain abscess. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A healthy, 35-year-old male had two dental implants placed in a simultaneously augmented maxillary sinus. One implant failed and the patient developed a maxillary sinusitis that failed to improve following antibiotic treatment at home. The neglected sinus infection led to formation of a brain abscess. The patient was hospitalised only when he had pan sinusitis with neurological signs...
2018: European Journal of Oral Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555489/resolution-of-growth-defense-conflict-mechanistic-insights-from-jasmonate-signaling
#16
Qiang Guo, Ian T Major, Gregg A Howe
Induced plant resistance depends on the production of specialized metabolites that repel attack by biotic aggressors and is often associated with reduced growth of vegetative tissues. Despite progress in understanding the signal transduction networks that control growth-defense tradeoffs, much remains to be learned about how growth rate is coordinated with changes in metabolism during growth-to-defense transitions. Here, we highlight recent advances in jasmonate research to suggest how a major branch of plant immunity is dynamically regulated to calibrate growth-defense balance with shifts in carbon availability...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537181/global-citizenship-and-the-role-of-the-united-nations-the-promise-of-the-early-childhood-peace-consortium
#17
Rima Salah
Today millions of children are trapped in situations of war, conflict, violence and displacement. Science shows that violence has a detrimental effect on the development of young children. It, also, heralds in a new era, with opportunities to contribute to sustaining peace and prevention of violence, through investment in early childhood development. The commentary argues that we have every opportunity to make a transformative shift and raise the voice of science to join the voice of "we the peoples.....
March 2018: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531125/predicting-teen-dating-violence-perpetration
#18
Joseph R Cohen, Ryan C Shorey, Suvarna V Menon, Jeff R Temple
OBJECTIVES: With our study we aimed to (1) understand what factors uniquely conferred risk for physical and sexual forms of teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration and (2) create a screening algorithm to quantify perpetration risk on the basis of these factors. METHODS: A total of 1031 diverse public high school students living in Southeast Texas participated in our study (56% female; 29% African American, 28% white, and 31% Hispanic). Self-report measures concerning TDV and associated risk factors were completed annually for 6 years...
March 12, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526749/the-effect-of-oxytocin-on-group-formation-and-strategic-thinking-in-men
#19
Gökhan Aydogan, Andrea Jobst, Fabian Loy, Sandra Dehning, Peter Zill, Norbert Müller, Martin Kocher
Decision-making in groups is a remarkable and decisive element of human societies. Humans are able to organize themselves in groups, engage in collaborative decision-making processes and arrive at a binding agreement, even in the absence of unanimous consent. However, the transfer of decision-making autonomy requires a willingness to deliberately expose oneself to the decisions of others. A lack of trust in the abilities of others or of the underlying decision-making process, i.e. public trust, can lead to a breakdown of organizations in political or economic domains...
March 8, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521988/large-depth-of-focus-dynamic-micro-integral-imaging-for-optical-see-through-augmented-reality-display-using-a-focus-tunable-lens
#20
Xin Shen, Bahram Javidi
We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) dynamic integral-imaging (InIm)-system-based optical see-through augmented reality display with enhanced depth range of a 3D augmented image. A focus-tunable lens is adopted in the 3D display unit to relay the elemental images with various positions to the micro lens array. Based on resolution priority integral imaging, multiple lenslet image planes are generated to enhance the depth range of the 3D image. The depth range is further increased by utilizing both the real and virtual 3D imaging fields...
March 1, 2018: Applied Optics
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