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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029339/targeted-enrichment-of-large-gene-families-for-phylogenetic-inference-phylogeny-and-molecular-evolution-of-photosynthesis-genes-in-the-portullugo-clade-caryophyllales
#1
Abigail J Moore, Jurriaan M de Vos, Lillian P Hancock, Eric Goolsby, Erika J Edwards
Hybrid enrichment is an increasingly popular approach for obtaining hundreds of loci for phylogenetic analysis across many taxa quickly and cheaply. The genes targeted for sequencing are typically single-copy loci, which facilitate a more straightforward sequence assembly and homology assignment process. However, this approach limits the inclusion of most genes of functional interest, which often belong to multi-gene families. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of including large gene families in hybrid enrichment protocols for phylogeny reconstruction and subsequent analyses of molecular evolution, using a new set of bait sequences designed for the "portullugo" (Caryophyllales), a moderately sized lineage of flowering plants (∼2200 species) that includes the cacti and harbors many evolutionary transitions to C4 and CAM photosynthesis...
September 25, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029231/analysis-of-phylogenomic-tree-space-resolves-relationships-among-marsupial-families
#2
David A Duchêne, Jason G Bragg, Sebastián Duchêne, Linda E Neaves, Sally Potter, Craig Moritz, Rebecca N Johnson, Simon Y W Ho, Mark D B Eldridge
A fundamental challenge in resolving evolutionary relationships across the Tree of Life is to account for heterogeneity in the evolutionary signal across loci. Studies of marsupial mammals have demonstrated that this heterogeneity can be substantial, leaving considerable uncertainty in the evolutionary timescale and relationships within the group. Using simulations and a new phylogenomic data set comprising nucleotide sequences of 1550 loci from 18 of the 22 extant marsupial families, we demonstrate the power of a method for identifying clusters of loci that support different phylogenetic trees...
September 22, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028974/temporal-dynamics-of-human-frontal-and-cingulate-neural-activity-during-conflict-and-cognitive-control
#3
Eleonora Bartoli, Christopher R Conner, Cihan M Kadipasaoglu, Sudha Yellapantula, Matthew J Rollo, Cameron S Carter, Nitin Tandon
Cognitive control refers to the ability to produce flexible, goal-oriented behavior in the face of changing task demands and conflicting response tendencies. A classic cognitive control experiment is the Stroop-color naming task, which requires participants to name the color in which a word is written while inhibiting the tendency to read the word. By comparing stimuli with conflicting word-color associations to congruent ones, control processes over response tendencies can be isolated. We assessed the spatial specificity and temporal dynamics in the theta and gamma bands for regions engaged in detecting and resolving conflict in a cohort of 13 patients using a combination of high-resolution surface and depth recordings...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028667/impact-of-antiretroviral-drugs-on-the-microbiome-unknown-answers-to-important-questions
#4
Sandra Pinto-Cardoso, Nichole R Klatt, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Little is known on how different antiretroviral (ARV) drugs affect the gut microbiome in HIV infection; and conflicting data exists on the effect of ARV drugs on residual inflammation/immune activation and microbial translocation. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut microbiome involvement in the transmission and pathogenesis of HIV infection is increasingly being recognized. Various studies have shown that antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unable to restore gut health despite effective suppression of plasma HIV viremia...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017916/conflict-detection-and-resolution-rely-on-a-combination-of-common-and-distinct-cognitive-control-networks
#5
REVIEW
Qi Li, Guochun Yang, Zhenghan Li, Yanyan Qi, Michael Cole, Xun Liu
Cognitive control can be activated by stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (S-R) conflicts. However, whether cognitive control is domain-general or domain-specific remains unclear. To deepen the understanding of the functional organization of cognitive control networks, we conducted activation likelihood estimation (ALE) from 111 neuroimaging studies to examine brain activation in conflict-related tasks. We observed that fronto-parietal and cingulo-opercular networks were commonly engaged by S-S and S-R conflicts, showing a domain-general pattern...
October 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988690/impact-of-number-of-co-existing-rotors-and-inter-electrode-distance-on-accuracy-of-rotor-localization
#6
Konstantinos N Aronis, Hiroshi Ashikaga
BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence exists on the efficacy of focal impulse and rotor modulation on atrial fibrillation ablation. A potential explanation is inaccurate rotor localization from multiple rotors coexistence and a relatively large (9-11mm) inter-electrode distance (IED) of the multi-electrode basket catheter. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied a numerical model of cardiac action potential to reproduce one through seven rotors in a two-dimensional lattice. We estimated rotor location using phase singularity, Shannon entropy and dominant frequency...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987654/high-resolution-ultrasound-in-etiological-evaluation-of-ulnar-neuropathy-at-the-elbow
#7
Mathieu Schertz, Celine Mutschler, Emmanuel Masmejean, Jonathan Silvera
OBJECTIVE: Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE) involves mechanical compression and irritation of the ulnar nerve (UN) caused by environmental and dynamic abnormalities that can however also be found in asymptomatic patients. Using high-resolution ultrasound, we aimed to assess and compare the relevance of morphological and dynamic variants of the UN and its surrounding structures (UN abnormalities) in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. METHOD: UN abnormalities in patients with UNE were assessed using high-resolution ultrasound and compared against unaffected arms (patients or healthy volunteers)...
October 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986452/care-in-specialized-centers-and-data-sharing-increase-agreement-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-genetic-test-interpretation
#8
Aisha Furqan, Patricia Arscott, Francesca Girolami, Allison L Cirino, Michelle Michels, Sharlene M Day, Iacopo Olivotto, Carolyn Y Ho, Euan Ashley, Eric M Green, Colleen Caleshu
BACKGROUND: Clinically impactful differences in the interpretation of genetic test results occur between laboratories and clinicians. To improve the classification of variants, a better understanding of why discrepancies occur and how they can be reduced is needed. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the frequency, causes, and resolution of discordant variant classifications in the Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry (SHaRe), a consortium of international centers with expertise in the clinical management and genetic architecture of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy...
October 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986446/the-seca-protein-deeply-penetrates-into-the-secyeg-channel-during-insertion-contacting-most-channel-transmembrane-helices-and-periplasmic-regions
#9
Tithi Banerjee, Zeliang Zheng, Jane Abolafia, Shelby Harper, Donald B Oliver
The bacterial Sec-dependent system is the major protein-biogenic pathway for protein secretion across the cytoplasmic membrane or insertion of integral membrane proteins into the phospholipid bilayer. The mechanism of SecA-driven protein transport across the SecYEG channel complex has remained controversial with conflicting claims from biochemical and structural studies regarding the depth and extent of SecA insertion into SecYEG during ongoing protein transport. Here we utilized site-specific in vivo photo-crosslinking to thoroughly map SecY regions that are in contact with SecA during its insertion cycle...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986284/electrophysiological-indicators-of-inhibitory-control-deficits-in-depression
#10
Erin N Palmwood, Jason W Krompinger, Robert F Simons
Ample evidence from behavioral and brain imaging studies suggests that inhibitory control is impaired in depression, though the precise nature of this impairment is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to examine potential deficits in three aspects of inhibitory control - conflict monitoring, conflict resolution, and overt behavioral inhibition - in the context of depressive symptoms. Depressed (n=15) and non-depressed (n=15) participants completed a stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) task while electroencephalography (EEG) data were recorded...
October 3, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978703/atomic-structures-of-minor-proteins-vi-and-vii-in-the-human-adenovirus
#11
Xinghong Dai, Lily Wu, Ren Sun, Z Hong Zhou
Human adenoviruses (Ad) are dsDNA viruses associated with infectious diseases, yet better known as tools for gene delivery and oncolytic anti-cancer therapy. Atomic structures of Ad provide the basis for the development of antivirals and for engineering efforts towards more effective applications. Since 2010, atomic models of human Ad5 have been independently derived from photographic film cryoEM and X-ray crystallography, but discrepancies exist concerning the assignment of cement proteins IIIa, VIII and IX...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950981/emotions-in-conflicts-understanding-emotional-processes-sheds-light-on-the-nature-and-potential-resolution-of-intractable-conflicts
#12
REVIEW
Eran Halperin, Michal Reifen Tagar
In recent years, researchers have been making substantial advances in understanding the central role of emotions in intractable conflict. We now know that discrete emotions uniquely shape policy preferences in conflict through their unique emotional goals and action tendencies in all stages of conflict including conflict management, conflict resolution and reconciliation. Drawing on this understanding, recent research also points to emotion regulation as a path to reduce conflict and advance peace, exploring both direct and indirect strategies of emotion regulation...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945862/conflicting-evolutionary-histories-of-the-mitochondrial-and-nuclear-genomes-in-new-world-myotis-bats
#13
Roy N Platt Ii, Brant C Faircloth, Kevin A M Sullivan, Troy J Kieran, Travis C Glenn, Michael W Vandewege, Thomas E Lee, Robert J Baker, Richard D Stevens, David A Ray
The rapid diversification of Myotis bats into more than 100 species is one of the most extensive mammalian radiations available for study. Efforts to understand relationships within Myotis have primarily utilized mitochondrial markers and trees inferred from nuclear markers lacked resolution. Our current understanding of relationships within Myotis is therefore biased towards a set of phylogenetic markers that may not reflect the history of the nuclear genome. To resolve this, we sequenced the full mitochondrial genomes of 37 representative Myotis, primarily from the New World, in conjunction with targeted sequencing of 3,648 ultraconserved elements (UCEs)...
August 26, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945441/intergroup-conflict-self-perpetuates-via-meaning-exposure-to-intergroup-conflict-increases-meaning-and-fuels-a-desire-for-further-conflict
#14
Daniel R Rovenpor, Thomas C O'Brien, Antoine Roblain, Laura De Guissmé, Peggy Chekroun, Bernhard Leidner
We investigated whether violent conflict provides individuals with a sense of meaning that they are hesitant to let go of, thus contributing to the perpetuation of intergroup conflict. Across a wide variety of contexts, we found that making intergroup conflict salient increased the meaning people found in conflict and, in turn, increased support for conflict-perpetuating beliefs, ideologies, policies, and behaviors. These effects were detected among participants exposed to reminders of intergroup conflict (the American Revolutionary War and the U...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938098/an-integrative-review-on-conflict-management-styles-among-nursing-students-implications-for-nurse-education
#15
REVIEW
Leodoro J Labrague, Denise M McEnroe-Petitte
OBJECTIVES: Nurse education plays a critical role in the achievement of conflict management skills in nursing students. However, a wider perspective on this concept has not been explored. This paper is a report of a review appraising and synthesizing existing empirical studies describing conflict management styles among nursing students. DESIGN: An integrative review method guided this review. DATA SOURCES: Five (5) bibliographic databases (CINAHL, Medline, Psych Info, Embase and SCOPUS) were searched to locate relevant articles...
September 15, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934677/evaluation-of-participatory-planning-lessons-from-hungarian-natura-2000-management-planning-processes
#16
Eszter Kovács, Eszter Kelemen, Gabriella Kiss, Ágnes Kalóczkai, Veronika Fabók, Barbara Mihók, Boldizsár Megyesi, György Pataki, Barbara Bodorkós, Bálint Balázs, Györgyi Bela, Katalin Margóczi, Ágnes Roboz, Dániel Molnár
Stakeholder participation in nature conservation policies and especially in the management of protected areas has gained importance in the last decades. These changes are underlined by democratic principles and the perceived contribution of stakeholder involvement to the effectiveness of conservation management. Evaluating participatory processes is essential to learn about the past and thus increase the quality of future processes. The evaluation can be useful for the organisations responsible for planning and management, stakeholders and policy makers as well...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931612/cue-induced-changes-in-the-stability-of-finger-force-production-tasks-revealed-by-the-uncontrolled-manifold-analysis
#17
Satyajit S Ambike, Mitchell Tillman
A motor system configured to maximize the stability of its current state cannot dexterously transition between states. Yet, we routinely resolve the stability-dexterity conflict and rapidly change our current behavior without allowing it to become unstable prior to the desired transition. The phenomenon called anticipatory synergy adjustment (ASA) partly describes how the central nervous system handles this conflict. ASA is a continuous decrease in the stability of the current motor state beginning 150-400 ms prior to a rapid state transition accomplished using redundant sets of motor inputs (more input variables than task-specific output variables)...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915493/in-situ-spectral-response-of-the-arabian-gulf-and-sea-of-oman-coastal-waters-to-bio-optical-properties
#18
Maryam R Al Shehhi, Imen Gherboudj, Hosni Ghedira
Mapping of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) over the coastal waters of the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman using the satellite-based observations, such as MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer), has shown inferior performance (Chl-a overestimation) than that of deep waters. Studies in the region have shown that this poor performance is due to three reasons: (i) water turbidity (sediments re-suspension), and the presence of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), (ii) bottom reflectance and (iii) incapability of the existing atmospheric correction models to reduce the effect of the aerosols from the water leaving radiance...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910132/modified-african-ngoma-healing-ceremony-for-stress-reduction-a-pilot-study
#19
Ava LaVonne Vinesett, Riitta Rutanen Whaley, Cheryl Woods-Giscombe, Paul Dennis, Medina Johnson, Yin Li, Pline Mounzeo, Mabiba Baegne, Kenneth H Wilson
OBJECTIVE: Indigenous people's ceremonies using rhythm and dance have been used for countless generations throughout the world for healing, conflict resolution, social bonding, and spiritual experience. A previous study reported that a ceremony based on the Central African ngoma tradition was favorably received by a group of Americans. The present trial compared the effects of the modified ngoma ceremony (Ngoma) with those of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in a randomized pilot study...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903663/the-shadows-of-the-past-effects-of-historical-group-trauma-on-current-intergroup-conflicts
#20
Noa Schori-Eyal, Yechiel Klar, Sonia Roccas, Andrew McNeill
We examined associations between two orientations based on historical group trauma, a form of enduring group victimhood (Perpetual Ingroup Victimhood Orientation [PIVO]) and the belief that one's group might itself become a victimizer (Fear of Victimizing [FOV]), and attitudes, cognitions, and emotions related to intergroup conflicts. PIVO was positively and FOV was negatively related to aggressive attitudes and emotions toward the outgroup (Studies 1a-1c, Israeli-Palestinian conflict), and to the attribution of responsibility for a series of hostilities to the outgroup (Study 3, Israeli-Palestinian conflict)...
April 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
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