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Conflict resolution

Alicia Rairden, Brandon L Garrett, Sharon Kelley, Daniel Murrie, Amy Castillo
Latent print examination traditionally follows the ACE-V process, in which latent prints are first analyzed to determine whether they are suitable for comparison, and then compared to an exemplar and evaluated for similarities and differences. Despite standard operating procedures and quality controls designed, in part, to mitigate differences between examiners, latent print processing and review are inherently subjective. The ACE-V process addresses subjectivity, and the possibility of error, in the verification stage in which a second examiner repeats the analysis, comparison, and evaluation steps in a given case...
June 19, 2018: Forensic Science International
Lynn Huestegge, Aleks Pieczykolan, Markus Janczyk
In dual-task situations, which often involve some form of sequential task processing, features of Task 2 were shown to affect Task 1 performance, a phenomenon termed "backward crosstalk effect" (BCE). Most previous reports of BCEs are based on manipulations of code compatibility between tasks, while there is no clear picture whether and how mere Task 2 response selection difficulty (in the absence of cross-task dimensional code overlap, including effector system overlap) may also affect Task 1 performance...
June 19, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Rebecca A Thomson, Nickola C Overall, Linda D Cameron, Rachel S T Low
The way emotions are expressed during relationship conflict should play an important role in facilitating conflict resolution, but the risk of rejection that conflict poses may promote expressive suppression, which could impede conflict resolution. In the current research, the authors applied a risk regulation perspective to understand when expressive suppression will occur during conflict. They predicted that (a) perceiving lower regard from the partner during conflict would predict greater expressive suppression, and (b) greater expressive suppression would undermine conflict resolution...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Jyotika Bahuguna, Philipp Weidel, Abigail Morrison
The basal ganglia have been hypothesized to be involved in action selection, i.e. resolving competition between simultaneously activated motor programs. It has been shown that the direct pathway facilitates action execution whereas the indirect pathway inhibits it. However, as the pathways are both active during an action, it remains unclear whether their role is co-operative or competitive. In order to investigate this issue, we designed a striatal model consisting of D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and interfaced it to a simulated robot moving in an environment...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Liam Ennis, Joanne Ablett, Michael Taylor, Simon Lal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: People with chronic, type 3, intestinal failure often require long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN). People receiving HPN have frequent interactions with their healthcare, due to the need for close monitoring and due to recurrent hospital admissions. Individuals' responses to, and interactions with, their health care service provides are poorly described. We conducted a service evaluation to explore people's experiences of HPN-related healthcare interactions in order to identify how service providers can best meet the individualised needs of patients...
August 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Daniel R Coates, Dennis M Levi, Phanith Touch, Ramkumar Sabesan
Crowding is the substantial interference of neighboring items on target identification. Crowding with letter stimuli has been studied primarily in the visual periphery, with conflicting results for foveal stimuli. While a cortical locus for peripheral crowding is well established (with a large spatial extent up to half of the target eccentricity), disentangling the contributing factors in the fovea is more challenging due to optical limitations. Here, we used adaptive optics (AO) to overcome ocular aberrations and employed high-resolution stimuli to precisely characterize foveal lateral interactions with high-contrast letters flanked by letters...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Judith Belle Brown, Bridget L Ryan
OBJECTIVE: To identify the processes that influence the evolution of family health teams (FHTs). DESIGN: Qualitative study using grounded theory methodology. SETTING: Family health teams in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 110 team members from 20 FHT sites in Ontario. METHODS: Individual semistructured interviews were conducted and data were analyzed using initial coding, focused coding, and a constant comparison analysis...
June 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Jing Zhu, Jianxiu Li, Xiaowei Li, Juan Rao, Yanrong Hao, Zhijie Ding, Gangping Wang
Objects: Effective psychological function requires that cognition is not affected by task-irrelevant emotional stimuli in emotional conflict. Depression is mainly characterized as an emotional disorder. The object of this study is to reveal the behavioral and electrophysiological signature of emotional conflict processing in major depressive disorder (MDD) using event-related potentials (ERPs) and standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analysis. Method: We used a face-word Stroop task involving emotional faces while recording EEG (electroencephalography) in 20 patients with MDD and 20 healthy controls (HCs)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Wolf H Rogowski
BACKGROUND: There is a gap between health economic evaluation methods and the value judgments of coverage decision makers, at least in Germany. Measuring preference satisfaction has been claimed to be inappropriate for allocating health care resources, e.g. because it disregards medical need. The existing methods oriented at medical need have been claimed to disregard non-consequentialist fairness concerns. The aim of this article is to propose a new, contractarian argument for justifying needs-based economic evaluation...
June 13, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
C J Mannion, C Gordon
Oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) is an acute surgical specialty, and members of the surgical team may be exposed to challenging incidents. We have evaluated the experiences of members of OMFS teams and their experiences of aggressive and abusive behaviour. Education and training in the resolution of such conflicts should be offered to all members of the team to allow a safe and secure working environment.
June 6, 2018: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Carol Strike, Tara Marie Watson
Needle and syringe programs (NSPs) are key public health and HIV prevention programs. We sought to compare over time the quality of relationships between NSPs and police, and implementation of best practices. We conducted cross-sectional surveys in 2008 ( n = 32) and 2015 ( n = 28) with NSP managers in Ontario, Canada. Participants were recruited via e-mail to complete an online survey. Over the period studied, self-reported quality of NSP-police relationships did not change-roughly two thirds of NSP managers reported a positive/mostly positive relationship...
June 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
Xiaohong Lin, Victoria Lai Cheng Lei, Defeng Li, Zhen Yuan
This study examined the neural mechanism underlying two translation strategies associated with Chinese to English simultaneous interpreting (SI) targeting the left prefrontal cortex (PFC), which is generally involved in the control of interference and conflict resolution and has been identified as the brain area that plays a pivotal role in SI. Brain activation associated with the two strategies including "pairing" and "transphrasing" were compared with that from "nontranslation," which keeps the source language item unchanged in the target language production and is considered as a tactic that does not require complex cognitive operation associated with bilingual processing effort...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
Robert D Melara, Shalini Singh, Denise A Hien
Two groups of healthy young adults were exposed to 3 weeks of cognitive training in a modified version of the visual flanker task, one group trained to discriminate the target (discrimination training) and the other group to ignore the flankers (inhibition training). Inhibition training, but not discrimination training, led to significant reductions in both Garner interference, indicating improved selective attention, and in Stroop interference, indicating more efficient resolution of stimulus conflict. The behavioral gains from training were greatest in participants who showed the poorest selective attention at pretest...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Samiran Ray, Joe Brierley, Andy Bush, James Fraser, Gillian Halley, Emily Jane Harrop, Lidia Casanueva
The use of long-term ventilation (LTV) in children is growing in the UK and worldwide. This reflects the improvement in technology to provide LTV, the growing number of indications in which it can be successfully delivered and the acceptability of LTV to families and children. In this article, we discuss the various considerations to be made when deciding to initiate or continue LTV, describe the process that should be followed, as decided by a consensus of experienced physicians, and outline the options available for resolution of conflict around LTV decision making...
June 5, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Maite Garaigordobil, Vanesa Martínez-Valderrey
Bullying and cyberbullying have serious consequences for all those involved, especially the victims, and its prevalence is high throughout all the years of schooling, which emphasizes the importance of prevention. This article describes an intervention proposal, made up of a program (Cyberprogram 2.0 Garaigordobil and Martínez-Valderrey, 2014a) and a videogame (Cooperative Cybereduca 2.0 Garaigordobil and Martínez-Valderrey, 2016b) which aims to prevent and reduce cyberbullying during adolescence and which has been validated experimentally...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Emily L Rounds, Andrew S Alexander, Douglas A Nitz, Jeffrey L Krichmar
Retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is an association cortex supporting spatial navigation and memory. However, critical issues remain concerning the forms by which its ensemble spiking patterns register spatial relationships that are difficult for experimental techniques to fully address. We therefore applied an evolutionary algorithmic optimization technique to create spiking neural network models that matched electrophysiologically observed spiking dynamics in rat RSC neuronal ensembles. Virtual experiments conducted on the evolved networks revealed a mixed selectivity coding capability that was not built into the optimization method, but instead emerged as a consequence of replicating biological firing patterns...
June 4, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Malathi Thothathiri, Christine T Asaro, Nina S Hsu, Jared M Novick
Thematic role assignment - generally, figuring out who did what to whom - is a critical component of sentence comprehension, which is influenced by both syntactic and semantic cues. Conflict between these cues can result in temporary consideration of multiple incompatible interpretations during real-time sentence processing. We tested whether the resolution of syntax-semantics conflict can be expedited by the online engagement of cognitive control processes that are routinely used to regulate behavior across domains...
May 31, 2018: Cognition
Tiago R Simões, Michael W Caldwell, Mateusz Tałanda, Massimo Bernardi, Alessandro Palci, Oksana Vernygora, Federico Bernardini, Lucia Mancini, Randall L Nydam
Modern squamates (lizards, snakes and amphisbaenians) are the world's most diverse group of tetrapods along with birds 1 and have a long evolutionary history, with the oldest known fossils dating from the Middle Jurassic period-168 million years ago2-4 . The evolutionary origin of squamates is contentious because of several issues: (1) a fossil gap of approximately 70 million years exists between the oldest known fossils and their estimated origin5-7 ; (2) limited sampling of squamates in reptile phylogenies; and (3) conflicts between morphological and molecular hypotheses regarding the origin of crown squamates6,8,9 ...
May 2018: Nature
Ilene S Speizer, William A Zule, Tara Carney, Felicia A Browne, Jacqueline Ndirangu, Wendee M Wechsberg
RATIONALE: South Africa continues to experience new HIV infections, with the highest risk among Black Africans living in poor communities. Most HIV prevention interventions target women or men separately and only a small number target couples jointly. OBJECTIVE: This study examines varying strategies to engage women and men around HIV prevention and improved couple interactions. METHODS: The study comprises three arms: (1) a couple-based intervention delivered to women and men jointly; (2) women and men both offered a gender-focused intervention that is delivered to them separately; and (3) an intervention offered to women only and their male partners receive standard HIV testing and counseling (comparison arm)...
May 18, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Weerakorn Thichumpa, Nopporn Howteerakul, Nawarat Suwannapong, Visasiri Tantrakul
Objectives: This study aimed to indentify the prevalence of poor sleep quality and its associated factors among community-dwelling elderly in northern Thailand. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 266 randomly selected elderly from a sub-district in rural Chiang Rai Province, northern Thailand. The elderly people were interviewed using the Thai version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (T-PSQI). Results: About 44.0% of the participants had poor sleep quality (PSQI score >5), 9...
May 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
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