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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913453/movement-patterns-of-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus-in-farmlands-in-botswana
#1
L K Van der Weyde, T Y Hubel, J Horgan, J Shotton, R McKenna, A M Wilson
Botswana has the second highest population of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with most living outside protected areas. As a result, many cheetahs are found in farming areas, bringing them into conflict with people. This study aimed to look at movement patterns of cheetahs in farming environments to determine whether cheetahs have adapted their movements in these human-dominated landscapes. We fitted high-time resolution GPS collars to cheetahs in the Ghanzi farmlands of Botswana. GPS locations were used to calculate home range sizes as well as number and duration of visits to landscape features using a time-based local convex hull method...
December 2, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912056/conflict-resolution-in-the-genome-how-transcription-and-replication-make-it-work
#2
REVIEW
Stephan Hamperl, Karlene A Cimprich
The complex machineries involved in replication and transcription translocate along the same DNA template, often in opposing directions and at different rates. These processes routinely interfere with each other in prokaryotes, and mounting evidence now suggests that RNA polymerase complexes also encounter replication forks in higher eukaryotes. Indeed, cells rely on numerous mechanisms to avoid, tolerate, and resolve such transcription-replication conflicts, and the absence of these mechanisms can lead to catastrophic effects on genome stability and cell viability...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911752/frontosubthalamic-circuits-for-control-of-action-and-cognition
#3
Adam R Aron, Damian M Herz, Peter Brown, Birte U Forstmann, Kareem Zaghloul
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia appears to have a potent role in action and cognition. Anatomical and imaging studies show that different frontal cortical areas directly project to the STN via so-called hyperdirect pathways. This review reports some of the latest findings about such circuits, including simultaneous recordings from cortex and the STN in humans, single-unit recordings in humans, high-resolution fMRI, and neurocomputational modeling. We argue that a major function of the STN is to broadly pause behavior and cognition when stop signals, conflict signals, or surprise signals occur, and that the fronto-STN circuits for doing this, at least for stopping and conflict, are dissociable anatomically and in terms of their spectral reactivity...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910657/time-dependent-analysis-of-visible-helium-line-ratios-for-electron-temperature-and-density-diagnostic-using-synthetic-simulations-on-nstx-u
#4
J M Muñoz Burgos, T Barbui, O Schmitz, D Stutman, K Tritz
Helium line-ratios for electron temperature (Te) and density (ne) plasma diagnostic in the Scrape-Off-Layer (SOL) and edge regions of tokamaks are widely used. Due to their intensities and proximity of wavelengths, the singlet, 667.8 and 728.1 nm, and triplet, 706.5 nm, visible lines have been typically preferred. Time-dependency of the triplet line (706.5 nm) has been previously analyzed in detail by including transient effects on line-ratios during gas-puff diagnostic applications. In this work, several line-ratio combinations within each of the two spin systems are analyzed with the purpose of eliminating transient effects to extend the application of this powerful diagnostic to high temporal resolution characterization of plasmas...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909382/gender-differences-in-empathic-sadness-towards-persons-of-the-same-versus-other-sex-during-adolescence
#5
Suzannah Stuijfzand, Minet De Wied, Maaike Kempes, Jolien Van de Graaff, Susan Branje, Wim Meeus
Although gender differences in affective empathy are well established, evidence of gender differences in the development of affective empathy is inconsistent. Consideration of same-sex versus other-sex affective empathy may assist in elucidating these inconsistencies. Gender differences were investigated in the experience of empathic sadness towards same- versus other-sex targets. The relationships were studied cross-sectionally (N = 730) and longitudinally (N = 318) with Dutch adolescents using the empathic sadness scale of the Index of Empathy for Children and Adolescents (IECA; Bryant 1982)...
2016: Sex Roles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908942/the-need-for-an-effective-process-to-resolve-conflicts-over-medical-futility-a-case-study-and-analysis
#6
Jocelyn A Olmstead, Michael D Dahnke
The issue of medical futility requires a well-defined process in which both sides of the dispute can be heard and a resolution reached in a fair and ethical manner. Procedural approaches to medical futility cases provide all parties involved with a process-driven framework for resolving these disputes. Medical paternalism or the belief in the absolute rightness of the medical model will not serve to resolve these disputes. Although medical futility is first determined by medicine, in order for the determination to meet legal criteria, it must be subject to review...
December 2016: Critical Care Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898341/tracking-competition-and-cognitive-control-during-language-comprehension-with-multi-voxel-pattern-analysis
#7
Elizabeth Musz, Sharon L Thompson-Schill
To successfully comprehend a sentence that contains a homonym, readers must select the ambiguous word's context-appropriate meaning. The outcome of this process is influenced both by top-down contextual support and bottom-up, word-specific characteristics. We examined how these factors jointly affect the neural signatures of lexical ambiguity resolution. We measured the similarity between multi-voxel patterns evoked by the same homonym in two distinct linguistic contexts: once after subjects read sentences that biased interpretation toward each homonym's most frequent, dominant meaning, and again after interpretation was biased toward a weaker, subordinate meaning...
November 26, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893905/critical-care-interprofessional-education-exploring-conflict-and-power-lessons-learned
#8
Mary Louanne Friend, Richard D Friend, Cassandra Ford, Patrick J Ewell
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to evaluate the effects of an innovative critical care interprofessional education intervention on prelicensure nursing and medical students at a large public university. The class provided opportunities for students to (a) explore stereotypes about each respective profession, (b) examine the occurrence and effects of interprofessional conflict in high-acuity areas, and (c) explore conflict resolution techniques while learning how to perform critical care procedures as a team...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884401/the-make-love-not-war-ape-bonobos-and-late-twentieth-century-explanations-for-war-and-peace
#9
Deborah Weinstein
Why do people fight wars? Following the devastation of the Second World War, this question became particularly pressing. Postwar scholars in the human sciences, from political science to anthropology, investigated the role of human nature in the causes of war even as they debated the very meaning of human nature itself. Among the wide-ranging efforts of postwar social and behavioral scientists to explain the causes of war, research on primate aggression became a compelling approach to studying the evolution of human warfare...
November 21, 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871752/public-acceptance-of-management-methods-under-different-human-wildlife-conflict-scenarios
#10
Vasilios Liordos, Vasileios J Kontsiotis, Marina Georgari, Kerasia Baltzi, Ioanna Baltzi
Wildlife management seeks to minimise public controversy for successful application of wildlife control methods. Human dimensions research in wildlife seeks a better understanding of public preferences for effective human-wildlife conflict resolution. In face to face interviews, 630 adults in Greece were asked to rate on a 5-point Likert-like scale their acceptance of 3 management methods, i.e., do nothing, non-lethal control, and lethal control, in the context of 5 human-wildlife conflict scenarios: 1) corvids damage crops; 2) starlings damage crops; 3) starlings foul urban structures; 4) coypus damage crops; and 5) coypus transfer disease...
November 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867367/mentalizing-and-information-propagation-through-social-network-evidence-from-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#11
Huijun Zhang, Lei Mo
Microblogs is one of the main social networking channels by which information is spread. Among them, Sina Weibo is one of the largest social networking channels in China. Millions of users repost information from Sina Weibo and share embedded emotion at the same time. The present study investigated participants' propensity to repost microblog messages of positive, negative, or neutral valence, and studied the neural correlates during resting state with the reposting rate of each type microblog messages. Participants preferred to repost negative messages relative to positive and neutral messages...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867080/biomechanical-advantages-of-robot-assisted-pedicle-screw-fixation-in-posterior-lumbar-interbody-fusion-compared-to-free-hand-technique-in-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial-perspective-for-patient-specific-finite-element-analysis
#12
Ho-Joong Kim, Kyoung-Tak Kang, Sung-Cheol Park, Bong-Soon Chang, Choon-Ki Lee, Jin S Yeom, Lawrence G Lenke
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: There have been conflicting results regarding the surgical outcome of lumbar fusion surgery using two different techniques between robot-assisted pedicle screw fixation and conventional free-hand technique. In addition, there have been no studies about biomechanical issues between the both techniques. PURPOSE: To investigate biomechanical properties in terms of stress at adjacent segments using robot-assisted pedicle screw insertion technique (robot-assisted minimally invasive posterior lumbar interbody fusion, Rom-PLIF) and free-hand technique (conventional, free-hand, open approach, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, Cop-PLIF) for instrumented lumbar fusion surgery...
November 17, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862606/abiotic-proxies-for-predictive-mapping-of-near-shore-benthic-assemblages-implications-for-marine-spatial-planning
#13
Jennifer McHenry, Robert S Steneck, Damian C Brady
Marine spatial planning (MSP) should assist managers in guiding human activities towards sustainable practices and in minimizing user-conflicts in our oceans. A necessary first step is to quantify spatial patterns of marine assemblages in order to understand the ecosystem's structure, function, and services. However, the large spatial scale, high economic value, and density of human activities in near-shore habitats often makes quantifying this component of marine ecosystems especially daunting. To address this challenge, we developed an assessment method that employs abiotic proxies to rapidly characterize marine assemblages in near-shore benthic environments with relatively high resolution...
November 16, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847482/the-effect-of-aging-on-the-dynamics-of-reactive-and-proactive-cognitive-control-of-response-interference
#14
Ling Xiang, Baoqiang Zhang, Baoxi Wang, Jun Jiang, Fenghua Zhang, Zhujing Hu
A prime-target interference task was used to investigate the effects of cognitive aging on reactive and proactive control after eliminating frequency confounds and feature repetitions from the cognitive control measures. We used distributional analyses to explore the dynamics of the two control functions by distinguishing the strength of incorrect response capture and the efficiency of suppression control. For reactive control, within-trial conflict control and between-trial conflict adaption were analyzed...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846723/-novel-approaches-in-dna-methylation-studies-ms-hrm-analysis-and-electrochemistry
#15
M Bartošík, E Ondroušková
Cytosine methylation in DNA is an epigenetic mechanism regulating gene expression and plays a vital role in cell differentiation or proliferation. Tumor cells often exhibit aberrant DNA methylation, e.g. hypermethylation of tumor suppressor gene promoters. New methods, capable of determining methylation status of specific DNA sequences, are thus being developed. Among them, MS-HRM (methylation-specific high resolution melting) and electrochemistry offer relatively inexpensive instrumentation, fast assay times and possibility of screening multiple samples/DNA regions simultaneously...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831623/-alternative-mechanisms-for-conflict-resolution-in-the-context-of-health-rights-the-peruvian-experience-from-the-center-for-reconciliation-and-arbitration-of-the-national-health-authority
#16
Darwin Hidalgo-Salas, Claudia Ortiz-Pérez, Juan Lobatón-Flores, Percy Huamaní-Ñahuinlla, Edward Mezones-Holguín
In Peru the right to health protection is constitutionally recognized. The right to access health services is legally mandated, as well as access to health information and the protection of rights such as informed consent. However, with the implementation of actions related to these rights and protections, there may be disagreements which need to be resolved. In this context, alternative mechanisms for conflict resolution (AMCR), such as mediation, reconciliation and arbitration, are valid and accessible strategies within the Peruvian Health System...
July 2016: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822505/the-role-of-alpha-activity-in-spatial-and-feature-based-attention
#17
Rosanne M van Diepen, Lee M Miller, Ali Mazaheri, Joy J Geng
Modulations in alpha oscillations (∼10 Hz) are typically studied in the context of anticipating upcoming stimuli. Alpha power decreases in sensory regions processing upcoming targets compared to regions processing distracting input, thereby likely facilitating processing of relevant information while suppressing irrelevant. In this electroencephalography study using healthy human volunteers, we examined whether modulations in alpha power also occur after the onset of a bilaterally presented target and distractor...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822277/comparison-between-marital-satisfaction-and-self-esteem-before-and-after-bariatric-surgery-in-patients-with-obesity
#18
Atefeh Ghanbari Jolfaei, Tahereh Lotfi, Abdolreza Pazouki, Azadeh Mazaheri Meybod, Fahimeh Soheilipour, Fatemeh Jesmi
BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the most common chronic diseases with important medical effects, as well as mental and social health problems. Bariatric surgery is one of the most effective treatments of morbid obesity. OBJECTIVES: Because of the possible psychological changes, and its effects on weight loss after surgery, the current study aimed to compare marital satisfaction and self-confidence in patients with obesity before and after bariatric surgery in Rasoul-e-Akram hospital in 2013...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822273/spiritual-well-being-and-dyadic-adjustment-mediator-effects-for-family-strengths
#19
Majid Ghaffari
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to test a structural model of hypothesized relationships between spiritual well-being, intervening variables of personal worth of self and others, commitment to relationship stability, commitment to relationship growth, positive interaction/appreciation, communication/conflict resolution, time spent together, and, the dependent variable, dyadic adjustment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and sixty eight (171 females and 97 males) married parent subjects were selected by convenience sampling from three universities in Mazandaran, Iran, to take part in this study...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813592/sequencing-of-gag-env-association-with-hiv-genotyping-resolution-and-hiv-related-epidemiologic-studies-of-hiv-in-china
#20
L Ren, H W Wang, Y Xu, Y Feng, H F Zhang, K H Wang
HIV genotyping has led to conflicting results between laboratories. Therefore, identifying the most accurate gene combinations to sequence remains a priority. Datasets of Chinese HIV subtypes based on several markers and deposited in PubMed, Metstr, CNKI, and VIP databases between 2000 and 2015 were studied. In total, 9177 cases of amplification-positive samples from 26 provinces of China were collected and used to classify HIV subtypes based on eight individual genes or a combination thereof. CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC and B were the prevalent HIV subtypes in China, accounting for 84...
October 24, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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