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Conflict resolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294716/cortical-networks-involved-in-memory-for-temporal-order
#1
Anna Manelis, Vencislav Popov, Christopher Paynter, Matthew Walsh, Mark E Wheeler, Keith M Vogt, Lynne M Reder
We examined the neurobiological basis of temporal resetting, an aspect of temporal order memory, using a version of the delayed-match-to-multiple-sample task. While in an fMRI scanner, participants evaluated whether an item was novel or whether it had appeared before or after a reset event that signified the start of a new block of trials. Participants responded "old" to items that were repeated within the current block and "new" to both novel items and items that had last appeared before the reset event (pseudonew items)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292816/leadership-training-in-a-family-medicine-residency-program-cross-sectional-quantitative-survey-to-inform-curriculum-development
#2
Erin Gallagher, Ainsley Moore, Inge Schabort
OBJECTIVE: To assess the current status of leadership training as perceived by family medicine residents to inform the development of a formal leadership curriculum. DESIGN: Cross-sectional quantitative survey. SETTING: Department of Family Medicine at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont, in December 2013. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 152 first- and second-year family medicine residents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Family medicine residents' attitudes toward leadership, perceived level of training in various leadership domains, and identified opportunities for leadership training...
March 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289600/conflict-processing-in-juvenile-patients-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-nf1-and-healthy-controls-two-pathways-to-success
#3
Annet Bluschke, Maja von der Hagen, Katharina Papenhagen, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a monogenetic autosomal-dominant disorder with a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms and is commonly associated with cognitive deficits. Patients with NF1 frequently exhibit cognitive impairments like attention problems, working memory deficits and dysfunctional inhibitory control. The latter is also relevant for the resolution of cognitive conflicts. However, it is unclear how conflict monitoring processes are modulated in NF1. To examine this question in more detail, we used a system neurophysiological approach combining high-density ERP recordings with source localisation analyses in juvenile patients with NF1 and controls during a flanker task...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286183/ordering-the-mob-insights-into-replicon-and-mob-typing-schemes-from-analysis-of-a-curated-dataset-of-publicly-available-plasmids
#4
Alex Orlek, Hang Phan, Anna E Sheppard, Michel Doumith, Matthew Ellington, Tim Peto, Derrick Crook, A Sarah Walker, Neil Woodford, Muna F Anjum, Nicole Stoesser
Plasmid typing can provide insights into the epidemiology and transmission of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance. The principal plasmid typing schemes are replicon typing and MOB typing, which utilize variation in replication loci and relaxase proteins respectively. Previous studies investigating the proportion of plasmids assigned to a type by these schemes ('typeability') have yielded conflicting results; moreover, thousands of plasmid sequences have been added to NCBI in recent years, without consistent annotation to indicate which sequences represent complete plasmids...
March 9, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285574/virtual-reality-exercise-on-a-home-based-phase-iii-cardiac-rehabilitation-program-effect-on-executive-function-quality-of-life-and-depression-anxiety-and-stress-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Ágata Vieira, Cristina Melo, Jorge Machado, Joaquim Gabriel
PURPOSE: To analyse the effect of a six-month home-based phase III cardiac rehabilitation (CR) specific exercise program, performed in a virtual reality (Kinect) or conventional (booklet) environment, on executive function, quality of life and depression, anxiety and stress of subjects with coronary artery disease. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with subjects, who had completed phase II, randomly assigned to intervention group 1 (IG1), whose program encompassed the use of Kinect (n = 11); or intervention group 2 (IG2), a paper booklet (n = 11); or a control group (CG), only subjected to the usual care (n = 11)...
March 13, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278240/neural-correlates-of-conflict-between-gestures-and-words-a-domain-specific-role-for-a-temporal-parietal-complex
#6
J Adam Noah, Swethasri Dravida, Xian Zhang, Shaul Yahil, Joy Hirsch
The interpretation of social cues is a fundamental function of human social behavior, and resolution of inconsistencies between spoken and gestural cues plays an important role in successful interactions. To gain insight into these underlying neural processes, we compared neural responses in a traditional color/word conflict task and to a gesture/word conflict task to test hypotheses of domain-general and domain-specific conflict resolution. In the gesture task, recorded spoken words ("yes" and "no") were presented simultaneously with video recordings of actors performing one of the following affirmative or negative gestures: thumbs up, thumbs down, head nodding (up and down), or head shaking (side-to-side), thereby generating congruent and incongruent communication stimuli between gesture and words...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273252/surgical-center-challenges-and-strategies-for-nurses-in-managerial-activities
#7
Fabiana Zerbieri Martins, Clarice Maria Dall'Agnoll
Objective: Analyze the challenges and strategies of nurses performing managerial activities in a surgical center. Method: Exploratory, descriptive study with a qualitative approach, involving six nurses by means of the Focus Group Technique, between April and August 2013. Data were submitted to thematic content analysis. Results: The main challenges noted were deficiency of material resources, communication noise, adequacy of personnel downsizing, and relationships with the multidisciplinary team...
February 23, 2017: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272470/meta-analysis-of-remote-ischemic-conditioning-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#8
Changfeng Man, Dandan Gong, Yongjing Zhou, Yu Fan
Effects of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients remain conflicting. We performed this meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) to evaluate the benefits of the RIC in patients with AMI. Potentially relevant RCTs were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, VIP, CNKI, and Wanfang database until November 2016. RCTs evaluating RIC using intermittent limb ischemia-reperfusion in AMI patients were included. Thirteen RCTs were identified and analyzed...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269793/proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-indicates-preserved-cerebral-biochemical-composition-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-patients
#9
Nathalie Doorenweerd, Melissa Hooijmans, Stephanie A Schubert, Andrew G Webb, Chiara S M Straathof, Erik W van Zwet, Mark A van Buchem, Jan J G M Verschuuren, Jos G M Hendriksen, Erik H Niks, Hermien E Kan
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by the absence of dystrophin. DMD is associated with specific learning and behavioural disabilities. In the brain, dystrophin is associated with GABAA receptors and aquaporin-4 in neurons and astrocytes, respectively, but little is known about its function. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In this study we aimed to compare the biochemical composition between patients and healthy controls in brain regions that are naturally rich in dystrophin using magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
2017: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261923/preventing-intimate-partner-violence-via-the-internet-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-emotion-regulation-and-conflict-management-training-for-individuals-with-aggression-problems
#10
Hugo Hesser, Sandra Axelsson, Victoria Bäcke, Jonna Engstrand, Tina Gustafsson, Elin Holmgren, Ulrika Jeppsson, Maria Pollack, Kjell Nordén, Dan Rosenqvist, Gerhard Andersson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of an Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT), which incorporated emotion-regulation and conflict-resolution techniques, on intimate partner violence (IPV). Another aim was to test the theoretical underpinnings of the treatment model using mediation analysis. METHOD: Sixty-five participants with aggression problems in intimate adult relationships were recruited from the community and were randomly assigned to iCBT or to a monitored waitlist control...
March 6, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257634/structural-basis-for-potency-differences-between-gdf8-and-gdf11
#11
Ryan G Walker, Magdalena Czepnik, Erich J Goebel, Jason C McCoy, Ana Vujic, Miook Cho, Juhyun Oh, Senem Aykul, Kelly L Walton, Gauthier Schang, Daniel J Bernard, Andrew P Hinck, Craig A Harrison, Erik Martinez-Hackert, Amy J Wagers, Richard T Lee, Thomas B Thompson
BACKGROUND: Growth/differentiation factor 8 (GDF8) and GDF11 are two highly similar members of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) family. While GDF8 has been recognized as a negative regulator of muscle growth and differentiation, there are conflicting studies on the function of GDF11 and whether GDF11 has beneficial effects on age-related dysfunction. To address whether GDF8 and GDF11 are functionally identical, we compared their signaling and structural properties. RESULTS: Here we show that, despite their high similarity, GDF11 is a more potent activator of SMAD2/3 and signals more effectively through the type I activin-like receptor kinase receptors ALK4/5/7 than GDF8...
March 3, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241560/measurement-of-static-convergence-and-accommodation-responses-to-images-of-integral-photography-and-binocular-stereoscopy
#12
Hitoshi Hiura, Kazuteru Komine, Jun Arai, Tomoyuki Mishina
Static convergence and accommodation responses were measured by comparing integral photography images, binocular stereoscopic images, and real objects in a measurement range from 450 to 900 mm. The experimental results were evaluated with a multiple comparison test. It was found that six of the ten observers did not have an accommodation-convergence conflict in viewing integral photography in the range. Moreover, the required resolution was found to be 0.7 or more and less than 1.4 cycles per degree for inducing accommodation...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231459/multisensory-conflict-resolution-should-i-stay-or-should-i-go
#13
Daniel B Polley
Swift action is often required in the face of indeterminate sensory evidence. In this issue of Neuron, Song et al. (2017) describe an inhibitory circuit in the posterior parietal cortex that evaluates conflicting auditory and visual cues and supports resolute perceptual decision making.
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225700/seeking-legitimacy-for-dsm-5-the-bereavement-exception-as-an-example-of-failed-process
#14
James E Sabin, Norman Daniels
In 2013 the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Even before publication, DSM-5 received a torrent of criticism, most prominently over removal of the "bereavement exclusion" for the diagnosis of major depression. We argue that while the APA can claim legitimate authority for deciding scientific questions, it does not have legitimacy for resolving what is ultimately a question of ethics and public policy. We show how the "accountability for reasonableness" framework for seeking legitimacy in health policy could have been used to achieve a better resolution of the conflict than actually occurred...
February 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225481/the-dysfunction-of-inhibition-control-in-pituitary-patients-evidence-from-the-go-nogo-event-related-potential-study
#15
Chenglong Cao, Jian Song, Shun Yao, Yan Yan, Shun Li, Guibao Peng, Pan Ma, Hao Du, Cheng Huang, Huichao Ding, Yuanzhi He, Ronghui Sun, Guozheng Xu
Pituitary tumor is an intracranial tumor; because of the development of neuroimaging technology in recent years, morbidity is likely to increase. Evidence showed impaired cognitive ability of patients with pituitary adenoma. There is evidence that neurobehavioral disorders are common in pituitary adenoma patients. This disorder is because of the cognitive and emotional function of the important functional areas of the brain oppressed and hormone imbalance. Individuals' mental activity is controlled by the brain and the abnormal mental activity is caused by both the structural abnormalities of the brain and neurochemical dysfunction...
February 20, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215016/reconciling-competing-values-placed-upon-goose-populations-the-evolution-of-and-experiences-from-the-islay-sustainable-goose-management-strategy
#16
Rae McKenzie, Jessica M Shaw
The Scottish island of Islay hosts 45 000 barnacle geese Branta leucopsis (56% of the Greenland barnacle goose population, plus those passing through on migration), 5000 Greenland white-fronted geese Anser albifrons flavirostris (up to 30% of the world population) and 2500 greylag geese Anser anser, most of which feed on 9000 ha of grassland. The financial impacts of estimated agricultural damage have risen greatly over the past 20 years due to increasing goose numbers and higher farming costs. Mechanisms implemented to resolve conflict over time are reviewed for their effectiveness...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215010/key-actions-towards-the-sustainable-management-of-european-geese
#17
David A Stroud, Jesper Madsen, Anthony D Fox
Increasing abundance of geese in North America and Europe constitutes a major conservation success, but has caused increasing conflicts with economic, health and safety interests, as well as ecosystem impacts. Potential conflict resolution through a single, 'one size fits all' policy is hindered by differences in species' ecology, behaviour, abundance and population status, and in contrasting political and socio-economic environments across the flyways. Effective goose management requires coordinated application of a suite of tools from the local level to strategic flyway management actions...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212063/conflict-resolution-styles-as-mediators-of-female-child-sexual-abuse-experience-and-heterosexual-couple-relationship-satisfaction-and-stability-in-adulthood
#18
Ashlee E Knapp, Darin J Knapp, Cameron C Brown, Jeffry H Larson
Trauma from female incestuous child sexual abuse may result in negative psychological consequences affecting adult relationships. This study explored relational consequences of incestuous child sexual abuse, focusing on conflict resolution styles, relationship satisfaction, and relationship stability. Using the RELATionship Evaluation dataset, 457 heterosexual couples in which female partners experienced incestuous child sexual abuse were compared to a group of 1,827 couples with no sexual abuse history. Analyses tested differences in the frequencies of reported conflict resolution styles for incestuous child sexual abuse and non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups, the mediating effects of conflict resolution styles on the relationship between incestuous child sexual abuse, and self- and partner-reported relationship satisfaction and stability...
January 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207496/recent-advances-in-the-pathogenesis-prediction-and-management-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-associated-interstitial-lung-disease
#19
Cheilonda Johnson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of recently published articles covering interstitial lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA-ILD). RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past year, many studies replicated previous findings in more diverse and occasionally larger populations internationally. Specifically, the association among cigarette smoking, high rheumatoid factor titer, elevated anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) levels, and RA-ILD was strengthened...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198140/u-s-reserve-soldiers-combat-exposure-and-intimate-partner-violence-not-more-common-but-it-is-more-violent
#20
Sarah Cercone Heavey, D Lynn Homish, Erin Anderson Goodell, Gregory G Homish
Combat exposure's influence on intimate partner violence (IPV) in reserve soldiers is not well understood. This work examines combat exposure's influence on IPV in U.S. Army Reserve/National Guard soldiers and partners. Data are from Operation: SAFETY, a longitudinal study of U.S. Army Reserve/National Guard soldiers and partners. Logistic regression models examined odds of sexual aggression, physical aggression, and physical injury with combat exposure, controlling for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, marital satisfaction, and age...
February 15, 2017: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
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