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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912908/gastrin-releasing-peptide-and-glucose-metabolism-following-pancreatitis
#1
Sayali A Pendharkar, Marie Drury, Monika Walia, Murray Korc, Maxim S Petrov
BACKGROUND: Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a pluripotent peptide that has been implicated in both gastrointestinal inflammatory states and classical chronic metabolic diseases such as diabetes. Abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) after pancreatitis, an exemplar inflammatory disease involving the gastrointestinal tract, is associated with persistent low-grade inflammation and altered secretion of pancreatic and gut hormones as well as cytokines. While GRP is involved in secretion of many of them, it is not known whether GRP has a role in AGM...
August 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895579/a-sexually-dimorphic-peptidergic-system-in-the-lower-spinal-cord-controlling-penile-function-in-non-human-primates
#2
T Ito, T Oti, K Takanami, K Satoh, Y Ueda, T Sakamoto, H Sakamoto
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental animal study. OBJECTIVES: Although a population of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) neurons in the lumbar spinal cord has an important role in erection and ejaculation in rats, little information exists on this GRP system in primates. To identify the male-specific GRP system in the primate spinal cord, we studied the lumbosacral cord in macaque monkeys as a non-human primate model. SETTING: University laboratory in Japan...
September 12, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894993/effect-of-growth-hormone-overexpression-on-gastric-evacuation-rate-in-coho-salmon
#3
Jin-Hyoung Kim, Satid Chatchaiphan, Michelle T Crown, Samantha L White, Robert H Devlin
Growth hormone (GH) transgenic (T) coho salmon consistently show remarkably enhanced growth associated with increased appetite and food consumption compared to non-transgenic wild-type (NT) coho salmon. To improve understanding of the mechanism by which GH overexpression mediates food intake and digestion in T fish, feed intake and gastric evacuation rate (over 7 days) were measured in size-matched T and NT coho salmon. T fish displayed greatly enhanced feed intake levels (~ 2.5-fold), and more than 3-fold increase in gastric evacuation rates relative to NT coho salmon...
September 11, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870943/prospective-evaluation-of-neuromediator-dynamics-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-patients-during-docetaxel
#4
MULTICENTER STUDY
Jost VON Hardenberg, Maike Schwartz, Thorsten Werner, Stefan Fuxius, Markus Müller, Thomas Frangenheim, Christian Bolenz, Christel Weiss, Elmar Heinrich
AIM: Aim of the study was to detect small cell/neuroendocrine (SCNC) transformation in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) that is a challenging procedure. We investigated the role of neuromediator dynamics as potential evidence of SCNC in patients undergoing docetaxel therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multi-institutional, prospective observational study was conducted. Patients undergoing docetaxel treatment were included. Chromogranin A (CGA), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and pro-gastrin releasing peptide (Pro-GRP) were sequentially evaluated at predefined time points...
September 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847141/na%C3%A2-%C2%BA-ca%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C2%BA-exchanger-2-ncx2-in-the-circadian-clock-of-the-rat-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-colocalization-with-neuropeptides-and-daily-profiles-of-gene-expression-and-protein-levels
#5
Pi-Cheng Cheng, Ya-Shuan Chen, Rong-Chi Huang
The plasmalemmal Na⁺/Ca²⁺ changer (NCX) regulates intracellular Ca²⁺ by exchanging 3 Na⁺ for 1 Ca²⁺ in either the Ca²⁺ exit or Ca²⁺ entry mode. All three NCX isoforms NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3 are expressed in the rat brain, with isoform-specific differential distribution. In the central clock of suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), intracellular Ca²⁺ controls the circadian release of major neuropeptides, which are the arginine vasopressin (AVP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), and the NCX, most likely NCX1, rapidly clears depolarization-induced somatic Ca²⁺ influx...
August 31, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821745/metabolomics-and-genomics-combine-to-unravel-the-pathway-for-the-presence-of-fragrance-in-rice
#6
Venea Dara Daygon, Mariafe Calingacion, Louise C Forster, James J De Voss, Brett D Schwartz, Ben Ovenden, David E Alonso, Susan R McCouch, Mary J Garson, Melissa A Fitzgerald
Since it was first characterised in 1983, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) has been considered to be the most important aroma compound in rice. In this study, we show four other amine heterocycles: 6-methyl, 5-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine (6M5OTP), 2-acetylpyrrole, pyrrole and 1-pyrroline, that correlate strongly with the production of 2AP, and are present in consistent proportions in a set of elite aromatic rice varieties from South East Asia and Australia as well as in a collection of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from indica Jasmine-type varieties, Australian long grain varieties (temperate japonica) and Basmati-type rice (Grp V)...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802884/astrocytes-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-a-bridge-between-obesity-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Cynthia A Martin-Jiménez, Ángela García-Vega, Ricardo Cabezas, Gjumrakch Aliev, Valentina Echeverria, Janneth González, George E Barreto
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a subcellular organelle involved in protein folding and processing. ER stress constitutes a cellular process characterized by accumulation of misfolded proteins, impaired lipid metabolism and induction of inflammatory responses. ER stress has been suggested to be involved in several human pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases and obesity. Different studies have shown that both neurodegenerative diseases and obesity trigger similar cellular responses to ER stress. Moreover, both diseases are assessed in astrocytes as evidences suggest these cells as key regulators of brain homeostasis...
August 9, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748446/selenium-protects-against-lead-induced-apoptosis-via-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-chicken-kidneys
#8
Xiaoyu Wang, Yang An, Wanying Jiao, Zhongyuan Zhang, Hui Han, Xianhong Gu, Xiaohua Teng
Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal and can harm organisms by inducing apoptosis. Selenium (Se), an essential trace element for humans and animals, can alleviate heavy metal toxicity. The aim of our study is to investigate alleviative effect of Se on Pb-induced apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in chicken kidneys. One hundred and eighty male chickens were randomly divided into four groups at 7 days of age and were fed with commercial diet (containing 0.49 mg/kg Se) and drinking water, Na2SeO3-added commercial diet (containing 1 mg/kg Se) and drinking water, the commercial diet and (CH3OO)2Pb-added drinking water (containing 350 mg/L Pb), and Na2SeO3-added commercial diet (containing 1 mg/kg Se) and (CH3OO)2Pb-added drinking water (containing 350 mg/L Pb), respectively...
July 26, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739747/application-of-serum-elavl4-hud-antigen-assay-for-small-cell-lung-cancer-diagnosis
#9
Feifei Wang, Jianyi Lu, Shentao Li, Xueyun Huo, Xin Liu, Xiaoyan Du, Changlong Li, Jinghui Wang, Zhenwen Chen
BACKGROUND/AIM: The ELAVL4 (HuD) is a neuron-specific RNA-binding protein expressed in 100% of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells and over 50% of neuroblastoma cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum HuD concentration in SCLC patients and the possibility of its utilization as a biomarker of small cell lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study included 47 SCLC cases and 29 normal controls. Indirect competitive inhibition ELISA method was established to detect HuD antigen of serum samples...
August 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733141/gastrin-releasing-peptide-and-its-receptor-increase-arthritis-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-invasiveness-through-activating-the-pi3k-akt-pathway
#10
Vanessa Schuck Clarimundo, Mirian Farinon, Renata Ternus Pedó, Vivian Oliveira Nunes Teixeira, Carolina Nör, Percio S Gulko, Ricardo Machado Xavier, Patricia Gnieslaw de Oliveira
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that leads to joint destruction. The fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) has a central role on the disease pathophysiology. The present study aimed to examine the role of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor (GRPR) on invasive behavior of mice fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), as well as to evaluate GRP-induced signaling on PI3K/AKT pathway. The expression of GRPR in FLS was investigated by immunocytochemistry, western blot (WB) and qRT-PCR. The proliferation and invasion were assessed by SRB and matrigel-transwell assay after treatment with GRP and/or RC-3095 (GRPR antagonist), and/or Ly294002 (inhibitor of PI3K/AKT pathway)...
July 18, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725583/positron-emission-tomography-pet-in-primary-prostate-cancer-staging-and-risk-assessment
#11
REVIEW
Sandra Bednarova, Maria L Lindenberg, Maria Vinsensia, Chiara Zuiani, Peter L Choyke, Baris Turkbey
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the few neoplasms that are not well served by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). As a result, a number of PET tracers have been developed to target particular biological features of PCa. Such agents can be used for diagnosis, staging, identification of biochemical recurrence (BCR) and evaluation of metastatic disease. Here, we focus on primary disease and local staging. To date, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven superior to PET in the imaging of primary PCa...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711565/new-aspects-of-molecular-imaging-in-prostate-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Francesco Ceci, Paolo Castellucci, Juliano J Cerci, Stefano Fanti
Nowadays several new imaging modalities are available for investigating prostate cancer (PCa) such as magnet resonance imaging (MRI) in the form of whole body MRI and pelvic multiparametric MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) using choline as radiotracers. Nevertheless, these modalities proved sub-optimal accuracy for detecting PCa metastases, particularly in the recurrence setting. A new molecular probe targeting the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been recently developed for PET imaging...
July 13, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707656/-regulation-of-heat-shock-gene-expression-in-response-to-stress
#13
D G Garbuz
Heat shock (HS) genes, or stress genes, code for a number of proteins that collectively form the most ancient and universal stress defense system. The system determines the cell capability of adaptation to various adverse factors and performs a variety of auxiliary functions in normal physiological conditions. Common stress factors, such as higher temperatures, hypoxia, heavy metals, and others, suppress transcription and translation for the majority of genes, while HS genes are upregulated. Transcription of HS genes is controlled by transcription factors of the HS factor (HSF) family...
May 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702069/positive-association-between-musclin-and-insulin-resistance-in-obesity-evidence-of-a-human-study-and-an-animal-experiment
#14
Wen-Jia Chen, Yue Liu, Yu-Bin Sui, Hong-Tao Yang, Jin-Rui Chang, Chao-Shu Tang, Yong-Fen Qi, Jing Zhang, Xin-Hua Yin
BACKGROUND: Musclin is a novel skeletal muscle-derived secretory factor considered to be a potent regulator of the glucose metabolism and therefore may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance (IR). METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we examined the plasma musclin levels in overweight/obese subjects and lean controls. Rats on a high fat diet (HFD) were used as the annimal model of obesity. Radioimmunoassay and western blot were used to determine musclin levels in plasma and skeletal muscle...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690256/sensitive-electrochemical-capsaicin-sensor-based-on-a-screen-printed-electrode-modified-with-poly-sodium-4-styrenesulfonate-functionalized-graphite
#15
Yan Wang, Bin-Bin Huang, Wan-Lin Dai, Bin Xu, Tian-Liang Wu, Jia-Ping Ye, Jian-Shan Ye
A sensitive capsaicin sensor was constructed based on a poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) functionalized graphite modified screen printed electrode (PSS-Grp/SPE) in this study. The PSS-Grp and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized graphite (PDDA-Grp) were easily synthesized by interacting Grp with PSS and PDDA through sonication, and resulted in negative and with positive charges on the surface, respectively. The prepared PSS-Grp and PDDA-Grp were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy (UV-vis)...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685994/gibberellin-regulated-protein-in-japanese-apricot-is-an-allergen-cross-reactive-to-pru-p-7
#16
Naoko Inomata, Mami Miyakawa, Michiko Aihara
BACKGROUND: Gibberellin-regulated protein (GRP, also known as peamaclein) was recently identified as a new marker allergen related to systemic reactions in peach allergy; however, its role in other fruit allergies is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the allergenicity of Japanese apricot (JA) GRP and clarify the clinical characteristics of JA allergy patients with GRP sensitization. METHODS: Seven patients (two males, five females, mean age 28...
July 6, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675694/benzyl-isothiocyanate-bitc-induces-apoptosis-of-gbm-8401-human-brain-glioblastoma-multiforms-cells-via-activation-of-caspase-8-bid-and-the-reactive-oxygen-species-dependent-mitochondrial-pathway
#17
Hung-Sheng Shang, Yung-Luen Shih, Tai-Jung Lu, Ching-Hsiao Lee, Shu-Ching Hsueh, Yu-Cheng Chou, Hsu-Feng Lu, Nien-Chieh Liao, Jing-Gung Chung
Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is one of member of the isothiocyanate family which has been shown to induce cancer cell apoptosis in many human cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BITC on the growth of GBM 8401 human brain glioblastoma multiforms cells. Results indicated that BITC-induced cell morphological changes decreased in the percentage of viable GBM8401 cells and these effects are dose-dependent manners. Results from flow cytometric assay indicated that BITC induced sub-G1 phase and induction of apoptosis of GBM 8401 cells...
December 2016: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672174/characterization-of-small-spored-alternaria-from-argentinean-crops-through-a-polyphasic-approach
#18
Lucía da Cruz Cabral, Marcela Rodriguero, Sebastián Stenglein, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Andrea Patriarca
Small-spored Alternaria have been isolated from a wide variety of food crops, causing both economic losses and human health risk due to the metabolites produced. Their taxonomy has been discussed widely, but no scientific consensus has been established in this field to date. Argentina is a major exporter of agricultural products, so it is essential to thoroughly understand the physiological behaviour of this pathogen in a food safety context. Thus, the objective of this work was to characterize small-spored Alternaria spp...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651595/identification-of-pathogenic-genes-and-upstream-regulators-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#19
Bin Zhao, Mengya Wang, Jing Xu, Min Li, Yuhui Yu
BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in older individuals. Our study aims to identify the key genes and upstream regulators in AMD. METHODS: To screen pathogenic genes of AMD, an integrated analysis was performed by using the microarray datasets in AMD derived from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The functional annotation and potential pathways of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were further discovered by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis...
June 26, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647962/-effect-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-trophocytes-on-the-pathogenesis-of-intrahepatic-cholestasis-of-pregnancy
#20
Y Yu, C L Zhou, T T Yu, X J Han, H Y Shi, H Z Wang, J J Shen, J He
Objective: To evaluate the effect of endoplasmic reticulum stress in trophocytes, in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). Methods: Sixty-one pregnant women who were hospitalized in Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University from January to December 2015 were recruited. Thirty-one women who were diagnosed as ICP were defined as the ICP group and 30 healthy pregnant women were defined as the control group. The localization and expression intensity of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP-78) in placental tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry technique...
June 25, 2017: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
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