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Katherine E Tierney, Lingyun Ji, Shannon S Dralla, Eunjeong Yoo, Annie Yessaian, Huyen Q Pham, Lynda Roman, Richard Sposto, Paulette Mhawech-Fauceglia, Yvonne G Lin
: Glucose-regulated protein (GRP)-78, the key regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, is associated with endometrial cancer (EC) development and progression. However, its role in the continuum from complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH) to EC is unknown and the focus of this study. METHODS: 252 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded endometrial biopsies from patients with CAH diagnosed between 2003 and 2011 were evaluated for GRP78 expression by immunohistochemistry...
October 19, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Thomas Viereckel, Sylvie Dumas, Casey J A Smith-Anttila, Bianca Vlcek, Zisis Bimpisidis, Malin C Lagerström, Åsa Konradsson-Geuken, Åsa Wallén-Mackenzie
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of the midbrain are associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), schizophrenia, mood disorders and addiction. Based on the recently unraveled heterogeneity within the VTA and SNc, where glutamate, GABA and co-releasing neurons have been found to co-exist with the classical dopamine neurons, there is a compelling need for identification of gene expression patterns that represent this heterogeneity and that are of value for development of human therapies...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
G S M Paula, L L Souza, N O S Bressane, R Maravalhas, M Wilieman, T Bento-Bernardes, K R Silva, L S Mendonca, K J Oliveira, C C Pazos-Moura
Neuromedin B (NB) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) are bombesin-like peptides, found in the gastrointestinal tube and pancreas, among other tissues. Consistent data proposed that GRP stimulates insulin secretion, acting directly in pancreatic cells or in the release of gastrointestinal hormones that are incretins. However, the role of NB remains unclear. We examined the glucose homeostasis in mice with deletion of NB receptor (NBR-KO). Female NBR-KO exhibited similar fasting basal glucose with lower insulinemia (48...
October 18, 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Huan He, Nino Paichadze, Adnan A Hyder, David Bishai
BACKGROUND: The relationship between economic development and road safety at sub-national level has not been well established. This study aims to assess the relationships between economic growth (measured by gross regional product (GRP)) and road traffic fatalities (RTFs) and crash fatality ratio (CFR) at sub-national level in Russia. METHODS: We used published secondary data on annual RTFs and CFR obtained from the traffic police and socioeconomic development indicators from the statistics department for each Russian federal region (referred to in Russia as "subject") for 2004-2011...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Yaping Zhong, Yonggang Zhang, Ping Wang, Hongxiu Gao, Chunling Xu, Hui Li
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a fatal hematological cancer characterized by clonal plasma cell proliferation in the bone marrow. MM has an increasing global incidence and a poor prognosis. There are limited treatment options available for MM, and this is further compounded by the development of drug resistance. The present study demonstrated that 7-{4-[Bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-amino]-butoxy}-5-hydroxy-8-methoxy-2-phenylchromen-4-one (V8), a novel synthetic flavonoid, induced apoptosis in human MM RPMI 8226 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, using cell viability assays and flow cytometry...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Karine Blais, Jasmine Sethi, Iustin V Tabarean
Bombesin, a pan agonist of the bombesin-like peptide receptor family, elicits potent hypothermia when applied centrally. The signaling mechanisms involved are not known. Here we report that GABAergic preoptic neurons express gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors and are directly excited by GRP or bombesin. This effect was abolished by a GRP receptor antagonist. A partially overlapping group of preoptic GABAergic neurons express bombesin-like receptor 3 (BRS3), however their activation results in a decrease in firing rate...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Li-Li Huang, Xiao-Lin Zhu, Wei-Qian Deng, Na Duan, Xiu-Jie Liang, Yue Wang, Ting-Ting Guo, Shuang-Shuang Shu, Xiao-Hong Xiang, Ting-Ting Jiang, Xun Tang, Jun Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway mediates advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs)-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tubular cells. METHODS: Human proximal tubular cells (HK-2 cells) exposed to AOPP-bovine serum albumin (BSA) were examined for expressions of p38 MAPK and phosphorylated p38 MAPK using Western blotting. Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR were used to examine the protein and mRNA expressions of EMT markers E-cadherin and vimentin and endoplasmic reticulum stress marker glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78 in cells treated with SB203580 (an inhibitor of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway) prior to AOPP exposure...
August 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Yayoi Kamata, Utako Kimura, Hironori Matsuda, Suhandy Tengara, Atsuko Kamo, Yoshie Umehara, Kyoichi Iizumi, Hiroaki Kawasaki, Yasushi Suga, Hideoki Ogawa, Mitsutoshi Tominaga, Kenji Takamori
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease characterized by skin barrier dysfunction, allergic inflammation and intractable pruritus resistant to conventional antipruritic treatments, including H1-antihistamines. Granzymes (Gzms) are a family of serine proteases expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells that have been shown to modulate inflammation. However, the relationship between Gzms and pathology in AD remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the correlation between plasma GzmB levels and severity of pruritus and dermatitis, in AD patients...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
Anjuman Ara Begum, Peter M Moyle, Istvan Toth
Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) receptor (GRPR), a bombesin family receptor, is overexpressed in many cancers including breast, prostate, pancreatic and lung. The targeting of therapeutics to GRPR can be achieved using the full-length (14 amino acid) GRP analogue Bombesin (BBN) or the truncated BBN(6-14) sequence, both of which bind GRPR with high affinity and specificity. In this study, we have investigated the level of GRPR expression in various cancerous (Caco-2, HeLa, LNCap, MDA-MB-231, and PC-3) and non-cancerous (WPMY-1) cell lines using a western blotting approach...
September 16, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Mayurbhai R Patel, Stephen D Kozuch, Christopher N Cultrara, Reeta Yadav, Suiying Huang, Uri Samuni, John Koren, Gabriela Chiosis, David Sabatino
The emerging field of RNA nanotechnology has been used to design well-programmed, self-assembled nanostructures for applications in chemistry, biology, and medicine. At the forefront of its utility in cancer is the unrestricted ability to self-assemble multiple siRNAs within a single nanostructure formulation for the RNAi screening of a wide range of oncogenes while potentiating the gene therapy of malignant tumors. In our RNAi nanotechnology approach, V- and Y-shape RNA templates were designed and constructed for the self-assembly of discrete, higher-ordered siRNA nanostructures targeting the oncogenic glucose regulated chaperones...
October 3, 2016: Nano Letters
Dayton J Goodell, Megan A Ahern, Jessica Baynard, Vanessa L Wall, Sondra T Bland
Post-weaning social isolation (PSI) has been shown to increase aggressive behavior and alter medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) function in social species such as rats. Here we developed a novel escapable social interaction test (ESIT) allowing for the quantification of escape and social behaviors in addition to mPFC activation in response to an aggressive or nonaggressive stimulus rat. Male rats were exposed to 3 weeks of PSI (ISO) or group (GRP) housing, and exposed to 3 trials, with either no trial, all trials, or the last trial only with a stimulus rat...
September 12, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Wei Zhang, Sanjay Garg, Preethi Eldi, Fiona Huan-Huan Zhou, Ian R D Johnson, Doug A Brooks, Frankie Lam, Grigori Rychkov, John Hayball, Hugo Albrecht
In recent years G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have emerged as crucial tumorigenic factors that drive aberrant cancer growth, metastasis and angiogenesis. Consequently, a number of GPCRs are strongly expressed in cancer derived cell lines and tissue samples. Therefore a rational anti-cancer strategy is the design of nano-medicines that specifically target GPCRs to bind and internalise cytotoxic drugs into cancer cells. Herein, we report the genetic engineering of a self-assembling nanoparticle based on elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), which has been fused with gastrin releasing peptide (GRP)...
September 12, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Syed Rahin Ahmed, Kenshin Takemeura, Tian-Cheng Li, Noritoshi Kitamoto, Tomoyuki Tanaka, Tetsuro Suzuki, Enoch Y Park
A hybrid structure of graphene-gold nanoparticles (Grp-Au NPs) was designed as a new nanoprobe for colorimetric immunoassays. This hybrid structure was prepared using chloroauric acid, sodium formate and Grp flakes at room temperature. Au NPs attached strongly onto the Grp surface, and their size was controlled by varying the sodium formate concentration. The Raman intensity of the Grp-Au NP hybrids was significantly enhanced at 1567cm(-1) and 2730cm(-1) compared with those of pristine Grp because of the electronic interaction between Au NPs and Grp...
August 30, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
P P Tregub, V P Kulikov, Yu G Motin, M E Nagibaeva, A S Zabrodina
We studied the expression of chaperone GRP-78 and transcription factor NF-kB during the development of ischemic tolerance of the brain after combined and isolated exposure to hypoxia and hypercapnia. Combined exposure to hypoxia and hypercapnia maximally increased the expression of chaperone GRP-78 and transcription factor NF-kB, while the formation of ischemia-induced tolerance under conditions of hypercapnic hypoxia can be associated with activation of adaptive stress mechanisms in the endoplasmic reticulum...
August 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Manuel Gey, Renate Wanner, Corinna Schilling, Maria T Pedro, Daniela Sinske, Bernd Knöll
Axon injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) induces a regeneration-associated gene (RAG) response. Atf3 (activating transcription factor 3) is such a RAG and ATF3's transcriptional activity might induce 'effector' RAGs (e.g. small proline rich protein 1a (Sprr1a), Galanin (Gal), growth-associated protein 43 (Gap43)) facilitating peripheral axon regeneration. We provide a first analysis of Atf3 mouse mutants in peripheral nerve regeneration. In Atf3 mutant mice, facial nerve regeneration and neurite outgrowth of adult ATF3-deficient primary dorsal root ganglia neurons was decreased...
August 2016: Open Biology
J S J Tan, K C Ong Kc, A Rhodes
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a family of evolutionary conserved proteins that work as molecular chaperones for cellular proteins essential for cell viability and growth as well as having numerous cyto-protective roles. They are sub-categorised based on their molecular weights; amongst which some of the most extensively studied are the HSP90 and HSP70 families. Important members of these two families; Heat shock proteins 70 and heat shock proteins 90 (Hsp70/90), are the glucose regulated proteins (GRP). These stress-inducible chaperones possess distinct roles from that of the other HSPs, residing mostly in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, but they can also be translocated to other cellular locations...
August 2016: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
Jingbo Qiao, Magdalena M Grabowska, Ingrid S Forestier-Roman, Janni Mirosevich, Thomas C Case, Dai H Chung, Justin M M Cates, Robert J Matusik, H Charles Manning, Renjie Jin
Numerous studies indicate that androgen receptor splice variants (ARVs) play a critical role in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), including the resistance to the new generation of inhibitors of androgen receptor (AR) action. Previously, we demonstrated that activation of NF-κB signaling increases ARVs expression in prostate cancer (PC) cells, thereby promoting progression to CRPC. However, it is unclear how NF-κB signaling is activated in CRPC. In this study, we report that long-term treatment with anti-androgens increases a neuroendocrine (NE) hormone - gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor (GRP-R) expression in PC cells...
August 17, 2016: Oncotarget
Jiajia Yang, Yang Yao, Ling Wang, Chunxiao Yang, Faqi Wang, Jie Guo, Zhiyun Wang, Zhuo Yang, Dong Ming
Neuronal Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) has been proved to be an important neuromodulators in the brain and involved in a variety of neurological diseases. Whether GRP could attenuate cognition impairment induced by vascular dementia (VD) in rats, and the mechanism of synaptic plasticity and GRP's action on synaptic efficiency are still poorly understood. In this study, we first investigated the effects of GRP on glutamatergic transmission with patch-clamp recording. We found that acute application of GRP enhanced the excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 neurons via GRPR in a presynaptic mechanism...
August 15, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Hanwen Zhang, Pooja Desai, Yusuke Koike, Jacob Houghton, Sean D Carlin, Nidhi Tandon, Karim Touijer, Wolfgang Andreas Weber
: Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) receptors are frequently overexpressed in human prostate cancer, and radiolabeled GRP receptor (GRPr) affinity ligands have shown promise for in vivo imaging of prostate cancer with PET. The goal of this study was to develop a dual-modality imaging probe that can be used for non-invasive PET imaging and optical imaging of prostate cancer. METHODS: We designed and synthesized an IRDye 650 and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) conjugated GRPr antagonist, HZ220 (DOTA-Lys(IRDye 650)-PEG4-[D-Phe(6), Sta(13)]-BN(6-14)NH(2)) by reacting DOTA-Lys-PEG4-[D-Phe(6), Sta(13)]-BN(6-14)NH(2) (HZ219) with IRDye 650 NHS ester...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Hugues Dardente, Cathy A Wyse, Gerald A Lincoln, Gabriela C Wagner, David G Hazlerigg
In mammals, changing daylength (photoperiod) is the main synchronizer of seasonal functions. The photoperiodic information is transmitted through the retino-hypothalamic tract to the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), site of the master circadian clock. To investigate effects of day length change on the sheep SCN, we used in-situ hybridization to assess the daily temporal organization of expression of circadian clock genes (Per1, Per2, Bmal1 and Fbxl21) and neuropeptides (Vip, Grp and Avp) in animals acclimated to a short photoperiod (SP; 8h of light) and at 3 or 15 days following transfer to a long photoperiod (LP3, LP15, respectively; 16h of light), achieved by an acute 8-h delay of lights off...
2016: PloS One
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