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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741014/post-resuscitation-care
#1
Sohil Pothiawala
Following return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after cardiac arrest, the challenge is to institute measures that ensure a higher likelihood of neurologically intact survival. Regardless of the cause of collapse, multiple organ systems may be affected secondary to post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Interventions required for post-ROSC care are bundled into a care regimen: prompt identification and treatment of the cause of cardiac arrest; and treatment of electrolyte abnormalities. It is also essential to establish definitive airway management to maintain normocapnic ventilation, prevent hyperoxia, and optimise haemodynamic management via judicious intravenous fluids and vasoactive drugs...
July 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732875/specific-ion-effects-in-polysaccharide-dispersions
#2
Duccio Tatini, Filippo Sarri, Piefrancesco Maltoni, Moira Ambrosi, Emiliano Carretti, Barry W Ninham, Pierandrea Lo Nostro
The specific effects induced by some strong electrolytes or neutral co-solutes on aqueous mixtures of guar gum (GG), sodium alginate (SA) and sodium hyaluronate (SH) were studied through rheology and DSC experiments. The results are discussed in terms of changes in the polymer conformation, structure of the network and hydration properties. This study is also aimed at controlling the viscosity of the aqueous mixtures for application in green formulations to be used as fracturing fluids for shale gas extraction plants...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732394/surface-charge-effects-on-the-electro-orientation-of-insulating-boron-nitride-nanotubes-in-aqueous-suspension
#3
Semih Cetindag, Bishnu Tiwari, Dongyan Zhang, Yoke Khin Yap, Sangil Kim, Jerry W Shan
The alignment of hexagonal boron-nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) in aqueous KCl solutions under spatially uniform electric fields was examined experimentally, using direct optical visualization to probe the orientation dynamics of individual BNNTs for different electric-field frequencies. Different from most previously studied nanowires and nanotubes, BNNTs are wide-bandgap materials which are essentially insulating at room temperature. We analyze the electro-orientation of BNNTs in the general context of polarizable cylindrical particles in liquid suspensions, whose behavior can fall into different regimes, including alignment due to Maxwell-Wagner induced dipoles at high frequencies, and alignment due to fluid motion of the electrical double layer around the particles at lower frequencies...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725324/cardiorenal-syndrome-role-of-arginine-vasopressin-and-vaptans-in-heart-failure
#4
REVIEW
Poornima Vinod, Vinod Krishnappa, Abigail M Chauvin, Anshika Khare, Rupesh Raina
Heart and kidney failure continued to be of increasing prevalence in today's society, and their comorbidity has synergistic effect on the morbidity and mortality of patients. Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a complex disease with multifactorial pathophysiology. Better understanding of this pathophysiological network is crucial for the successful intervention to prevent advancement of the disease process. One of the major factors in this process is neurohormonal activation, predominantly involving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and arginine vasopressin (AVP)...
June 2017: Cardiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723186/ingestible-sensors
#5
Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh, Nam Ha, Jian Zhen Ou, Kyle J Berean
Ingestible sensing capsules are fast emerging as a critical technology that has the ability to greatly impact health, nutrition, and clinical areas. These ingestible devices are noninvasive and hence are very attractive for customers. With widespread access to smart phones connected to the Internet, the data produced by this technology can be readily seen and reviewed online, and accessed by both users and physicians. The outputs provide invaluable information to reveal the state of gut health and disorders as well as the impact of food, medical supplements, and environmental changes on the gastrointestinal tract...
April 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711066/ion-association-at-discretely-charged-dielectric-interfaces-giant-charge-inversion
#6
Zhi-Yong Wang, Jianzhong Wu
Giant charge reversal has been identified for the first time by Monte Carlo simulation for a discretely charged surface in contact with a trivalent electrolyte solution. It takes place regardless of the surface charge density under study and the monovalent salt. In stark contrast to earlier predictions based on the 2-dimensional Wigner crystal model to describe strong correlation of counterions at the macroion surface, we find that giant charge reversal reflects an intricate interplay of ionic volume effects, electrostatic correlations, surface charge heterogeneity, and the dielectric response of the confined fluids...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709345/electro-osmotic-flow-through-nanopores-in-thin-and-ultrathin-membranes
#7
Dmitriy V Melnikov, Zachery K Hulings, Maria E Gracheva
We theoretically study how the electro-osmotic fluid velocity in a charged cylindrical nanopore in a thin solid state membrane depends on the pore's geometry, membrane charge, and electrolyte concentration. We find that when the pore's length is comparable to its diameter, the velocity profile develops a concave shape with a minimum along the pore axis unlike the situation in very long nanopores with a maximum velocity along the central pore axis. This effect is attributed to the induced pressure along the nanopore axis due to the fluid flow expansion and contraction near the exit or entrance to the pore and to the reduction of electric field inside the nanopore...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709201/electrohydrodynamic-instability-of-ion-concentration-shock-wave-in-electrophoresis
#8
Rahul Gaur, Supreet Singh Bahga
Capillary electrophoresis techniques often involve ion-concentration shock waves in an electrolyte solution, propagating under the effect of an external electric field. These shock waves are characterized by self-sharpening gradients in ion concentrations and electrical conductivity that are collinear with the electric field. The coupling of electric field and fluid motion at the shock interface sometimes leads to an undesirable electrohydrodynamic (EHD) instability. Using linear stability analysis, we describe the motion of small-amplitude disturbances of an electrophoretic shock wave...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703304/assessing-the-influence-of-media-composition-and-ionic-strength-on-drug-release-from-commercial-immediate-release-and-enteric-coated-aspirin-tablets
#9
Frank Karkossa, Sandra Klein
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this test series was to elucidate the importance of selecting the right media composition for a biopredictive in-vitro dissolution screening of enteric-coated dosage forms. METHODS: Drug release from immediate-release (IR) and enteric-coated (EC) aspirin formulations was assessed in phosphate-based and bicarbonate-based media with different pH, electrolyte composition and ionic strength. KEY FINDINGS: Drug release from aspirin IR tablets was unaffected by media composition...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701841/continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-applications-on-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-circuit
#10
Ayse Filiz Yetimakman, Murat Tanyildiz, Selman Kesici, Esra Kockuzu, Benan Bayrakci
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Continuous venovenous hemofiltration or hemodiafiltration is used frequently in pediatric patients, but experience of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) application on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit is still limited. Among several methods used for applying CRRT on ECMO patients, we aim to share our experience on inclusion of a CRRT device in the ECMO circuit which we believe is easier and safer to apply. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data were collected on demographics, outcomes, and details of the treatment of ECMO patients who had CRRT...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699323/intra-procedural-continuous-dialysis-to-facilitate-interventional-catheterization-in-pediatric-patients-with-severe-renal-failure
#11
Angeline D Opina, Athar M Qureshi, Eileen Brewer, Ewa Elenberg, Sarah Swartz, Mini Michael, Henri Justino
BACKGROUND: Interventional catheterization procedures may be needed for patients with severe renal failure who are dependent on dialysis. To avoid the risk of fluid overload and electrolyte derangement during complex procedures in this oliguric/anuric patient population, we performed intra-procedural dialysis, either continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) or continous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD). METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of a cohort of pediatric patients, ages 0-18 years, with dialysis-dependent renal failure who received CRRT or CCPD during catheterization procedures from January 2013 to March 2016...
July 12, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697495/electrolyte-and-acid-base-abnormalities-in-infants-with-community-acquired-acute-pyelonephritis-prospective-cross-sectional-study
#12
Gregorio P Milani, Angela Grava, Mario G Bianchetti, Sebastiano A G Lava, Laura Dell'Era, Thomas Teatini, Emilio F Fossali
BACKGROUND: Retrospective case series suggest that abnormalities in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base homeostasis may occur among infants with a febrile urinary tract infection. Potentially inaccurate laboratory methods of sodium testing have often been used. METHODS: Between January 2009 and June 2016, we managed 80 previously healthy infants (52 males and 28 females) ≥4 weeks to ≤24 months of age with their first episode of acute pyelonephritis. Ionized sodium, ionized potassium and ionized chloride were determined by direct potentiometry, as recommended by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry...
July 12, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693742/impact-of-cirrhosis-in-patients-who-underwent-surgical-aortic-valve-replacement
#13
Robert J Steffen, Faisal G Bakaeen, Patrick R Vargo, Bogdan A Kindzelski, Douglas R Johnston, Eric E Roselli, A Marc Gillinov, Lars G Svensson, Edward G Soltesz
Cirrhosis is known to adversely affect cardiac surgery outcomes. Our objective was to quantify the morbidity, mortality, and cost that cirrhosis adds to surgical aortic valve replacement. From 1998 to 2011, 423,789 patients in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample Healthcare Cost Utilization Project underwent isolated aortic valve replacement; 2,769 (0.7%) had cirrhosis. Multivariable linear regression and 1:1 propensity matching were used to determine the effect of cirrhosis on postsurgical outcomes. The number of patients with cirrhosis who underwent surgical aortic valve replacement per year more than tripled during the 13-year study period...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693594/the-impact-of-phosphate-balanced-crystalloid-infusion-on-acid-base-homeostasis-palance-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Judith-Irina Pagel, Nikolai Hulde, Tobias Kammerer, Michaela Schwarz, Daniel Chappell, Alexander Burges, Klaus Hofmann-Kiefer, Markus Rehm
BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the effects of a modified, balanced crystalloid including phosphate in a perioperative setting in order to maintain a stable electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis in the patient. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a single-centre, open-label, randomized controlled trial involving two parallel groups of female patients comparing a perioperative infusion regime with sodium glycerophosphate and Jonosteril® (treatment group) or Jonosteril® (comparator) alone...
July 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686506/the-impact-of-aging-on-epithelial-barriers
#15
Alan R Parrish
The epithelium has many critical roles in homeostasis, including an essential responsibility in establishing tissue barriers. In addition to the fundamental role in separating internal from external environment, epithelial barriers maintain nutrient, fluid, electrolyte and metabolic waste balance in multiple organs. While, by definition, barrier function is conserved, the structure of the epithelium varies across organs. For example, the skin barrier is a squamous layer of cells with distinct structural features, while the lung barrier is composed of a very thin single cell to minimize diffusion space...
June 26, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676037/challenges-and-outcomes-of-haemodialysis-among-patients-presenting-with-kidney-diseases-in-dodoma-tanzania
#16
Alfred J Meremo, David P Ngilangwa, Masumbuko Y Mwashambwa, Matobogolo B Masalu, Janet Kapinga, Rehema Tagalile, Issa Sabi
BACKGROUND: Kidney Diseases contribute a significant proportion to the global burden of non-communicable diseases. Haemodialysis services as the main modality of renal replacement therapy in most resource limited countries is only available in few cities and at higher costs. The aim of this study was to determine the challenges and outcomes of patients who were on haemodialysis at the University of Dodoma (UDOM) haemodialysis unit in Tanzania. METHODS: In this retrospective study; we reviewed haemodialysis registers and charts of 116 patients dialyzed from January 2013 to June 2015 at The UDOM haemodialysis unit...
July 4, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675827/hyperglycemia-induced-hyponatremia-reevaluation-of-the-na-correction-factor
#17
Matthew B Wolf
This study addresses the clinically important relationship between the decreases in plasma Na(+) and the increases in plasma glucose concentrations seen in diabetes and other hyperglycemic syndromes. This plasma 'Na(+) correction factor', is generally accepted as 1.6mM Na(+) per 100mg% glucose (0.29mM/mM in SI units) assuming osmotic equilibrium, although much larger numbers have been measured in experiments on normal humans. To resolve this controversy, a mathematical model of whole-body fluid-electrolyte balance was used to perform the experiment wherein plasma glucose concentration was increased to diabetic levels and the plasma Na(+) concentration changes assessed, without the complications seen in human experiments...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665367/-algorithms-of-the-correction-of-fluid-and-electrolyte-disorders-in-patients-with-severe-ischemic-stroke
#18
V I Ershov, A N Chirkov
AIM: To develop a practical algorithm for the correction of sodium levels and osmolality of blood plasma during the acute period of severe ischemic stroke (IS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty patients with cardioembolic or atherothrombotic stroke, aged from 30 to 80 years, hospitalized in the first 12 h after symptom emergence, were examined. Neurological deficit was assessed with the NIHSS. The monitoring of blood plasma sodium level and osmolality of blood plasma in the 1st and 5th day after stroke as well as of blood circulation volume was performed...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660810/intravenous-fluid-and-electrolyte-administration-in-elective-gastrointestinal-surgery-mechanisms-of-excessive-therapy
#19
R G Simpson, J Quayle, N Stylianides, G Carlson, M Soop
INTRODUCTION While clinical guidelines stress the importance of the judicious perioperative intravenous fluid administration, data show that adherence to these protocols is poor. The reasons have not been identified. We therefore audited the magnitude and indications of fluid and electrolyte administration in a teaching hospital. We hypothesised that epidural analgesia is associated with excessive fluid therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Intravenous fluid and electrolyte administration during the day of surgery and the subsequent 2 days in consecutive patients undergoing elective gastrointestinal surgery between November 2013 and May 2014 were retrospectively audited...
July 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657837/mckittrick-wheelock-syndrome-treated-by-transanal-minimally-invasive-surgery-a-single-center-experience-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Anne Elisabeth Maria van der Pool, Eelco Jan Rade de Graaf, Maarten Vermaas, Renée Martine Barendse, Pascal Gabriël Doornebosch
INTRODUCTION: McKittrick Wheelock Syndrome (MKWS) is a rare syndrome characterized by secretory diarrhea, dehydration, prerenal acute kidney injury, and severe electrolyte abnormalities caused by a large hypersecretory villous adenoma located in the rectum or rectosigmoid junction. Transabdominal (laparoscopic) procedures are the most described procedures in the treatment of MKWS. We report an alternative surgical approach, transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS), to solve this syndrome...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
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