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Fluids and electrolytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792531/the-expression-of-lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-5-is-necessary-for-the-regulation-of-intestinal-na-h-exchanger-3-by-lysophosphatidic-acid-in-vivo
#1
Kayte A Jenkin, Peijian He, C Chris Yun
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid molecule, which regulates a broad range of pathophysiological processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that LPA modulates electrolyte flux in the intestine and its potential as an anti-diarrheal agent has been suggested. Of six LPA receptors, LPA5 is highly expressed in the intestine. Recent studies by our group have demonstrated activation of Na+ /H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) by LPA5 . However, much of what has been elucidated was achieved using colonic cell lines that were transfected to express LPA5 ...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792031/the-composition-in-the-interface-between-clay-mineral-surfaces-and-divalent-cation-electrolytes
#2
Stanislav Jelavić, A Rath Nielsen, S L S Stipp, N Bovet
The interfacial free energy of a solid, which determines its adsorption properties, depends on interactions between the surface and the fluid. A change in surface composition can completely change the behaviour of the solid. Decades of work have explored adsorption and its effects at solid-fluid interfaces from the macroscopic perspective and using molecular modelling so the concept of the electric double layer (EDL) is well established in the community. However, direct, molecular level, experimental observations of the composition within the interface region, and its change with time and conditions, is not abundant...
May 23, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791985/-management-of-acute-cholecystitis
#3
REVIEW
Seung Ok Lee, Sung Kyun Yim
Acute cholecystitis is a common serious complication of gallstones. The reported mortality of acute cholecystitis is approximately 3%, but the rate increases with age or comorbidity of the patient. If appropriate treatment is delayed, complications can develop as a consequence with a grave prognosis. The current standard of care in acute cholecystitis is an early laparoscopic cholecystectomy with the appropriate administration of fluid, electrolyte, and antibiotics. On the other hand, the severity of the disease and patient's operational risk must be considered...
May 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789983/principles-of-fluid-management-and-stewardship-in-septic-shock-it-is-time-to-consider-the-four-d-s-and-the-four-phases-of-fluid-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Manu L N G Malbrain, Niels Van Regenmortel, Bernd Saugel, Brecht De Tavernier, Pieter-Jan Van Gaal, Olivier Joannes-Boyau, Jean-Louis Teboul, Todd W Rice, Monty Mythen, Xavier Monnet
In patients with septic shock, the administration of fluids during initial hemodynamic resuscitation remains a major therapeutic challenge. We are faced with many open questions regarding the type, dose and timing of intravenous fluid administration. There are only four major indications for intravenous fluid administration: aside from resuscitation, intravenous fluids have many other uses including maintenance and replacement of total body water and electrolytes, as carriers for medications and for parenteral nutrition...
May 22, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777456/distal-bowel-re-feeding-in-patients-with-proximal-jejunostomy
#5
Anand Nagar, Siddharth Mehrotra, Amitabh Yadav, Vivek Mangla, Shailendra Lalwani, Naimish Mehta, Samiran Nundy
BACKGROUND: Patients who have a proximal jejunostomy are difficult to manage because of their high stoma output which results in fluid and electrolyte imbalance with repeated hospital admissions and the necessity for expensive parenteral nutrition (PN). There are few reports on the use of re-feeding of the proximal effluents in this situation. METHODS: We here relate our experience with this manoeuvre in 35 patients between Jan 2010 and Feb 2016 who had stomas less than 120 cm away from the duodenojejunal flexure...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777154/calcimimetic-acts-on-enteric-neuronal-casr-to-reverse-cholera-toxin-induced-intestinal-electrolyte-secretion
#6
Lieqi Tang, Lingli Jiang, Megan E McIntyre, Ekaterina Petrova, Sam X Cheng
Treatment of acute secretory diarrheal illnesses remains a global challenge. Enterotoxins produce secretion through direct epithelial action and indirectly by activating enteric nervous system (ENS). Using a microperfused colonic crypt technique, we have previously shown that R568, a calcimimetic that activates the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), can act on intestinal epithelium and reverse cholera toxin-induced fluid secretion. In the present study, using the Ussing chamber technique in conjunction with a tissue-specific knockout approach, we show that the effects of cholera toxin and CaSR agonists on electrolyte secretion by the intestine can also be attributed to opposing actions of the toxin and CaSR on the activity of the ENS...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777120/softness-induced-enhancement-in-net-throughput-of-non-linear-bio-fluids-in-nanofluidic-channel-under-edl-phenomenon
#7
Harshad Sanjay Gaikwad, Pranab Kumar Mondal, Somchai Wongwises
In this article, we describe the electro-hydrodynamics of non-Newtonian fluid in narrow fluidic channel with solvent permeable and ion-penetrable polyelectrolyte layer (PEL) grafted on channel surface with an interaction of non-overlapping electric double layer (EDL) phenomenon. In this analysis, we integrate power-law model in the momentum equation for describing the non-Newtonian rheology. The complex interplay between the non-Newtonian rheology and interfacial electrochemistry in presence of PEL on the walls leads to non-intuitive variations in the underlying flow dynamics in the channels...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776812/preservation-with-%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin-improves-primary-graft-function-of-murine-lung-transplants
#8
Jessica Götzfried, Natalia F Smirnova, Carmela Morrone, Brice Korkmaz, Ali Önder Yildirim, Oliver Eickelberg, Dieter E Jenne
BACKGROUND: Vascular damage and primary graft dysfunction increase with prolonged preservation times of transplanted donor lungs. Hence, storage and conservation of donated lungs in protein-free, dextran-containing electrolyte solutions, like Perfadex, is limited to about 6 hours. We hypothesized that transplanted lungs are protected against neutrophil-mediated proteolytic damage by adding α1 -anti-trypsin (AAT), a highly abundant human plasma proteinase inhibitor, to Perfadex. METHODS: A realistic clinically oriented murine model of lung transplantation was used to simulate the ischemia-reperfusion process...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771807/administration-of-an-oral-hydration-solution-prevents-electrolyte-and-fluid-disturbances-and-reduces-readmissions-in-patients-with-a-diverting-ileostomy-after-colorectal-surgery-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Athanasios Migdanis, Georgios Koukoulis, Ioannis Mamaloudis, Ioannis Baloyiannis, Ioannis Migdanis, Maria Kanaki, Eleni Malissiova, Georgios Tzovaras
BACKGROUND: Patients with a newly formed ileostomy often develop electrolyte abnormalities and dehydration. OBJECTIVE: The study assessed the prophylactic effect of an isotonic hydration solution on dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities in patients with a newly formed ileostomy. DESIGN: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial (NCT02036346). SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a single surgical unit of a public university hospital...
May 15, 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771707/electrolytes-and-biochemical-changes-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-drowning-experimental-rabbit-model
#10
Melad G Paulis, Eman I Hasan
The diagnosis of drowning is still a difficult task in forensic science. Biochemical changes in different body fluids have been examined for the identification of drowning. However, none of them alone gives accurate results in the diagnosis of drowning and differentiation of saltwater and freshwater drowning. This study aimed to examine cerebrospinal fluid changes in drowned rabbits. Six groups of rabbits were used including immersed dead rabbits in freshwater or saltwater (as control groups), alive fully conscious rabbits drowned in freshwater and saltwater, and anesthetized rabbits drowned in freshwater and saltwater...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767451/feline-ureteral-obstructions-part-1-medical-management
#11
REVIEW
D L Clarke
Feline ureteral obstructions are an increasingly recognised and challenging diagnostic and management problem. Many cats with ureteral obstructions are critically ill at the time of diagnosis, especially if there is dysfunction of the contralateral kidney. They may present with varying severities of acute kidney injury, electrolyte disturbances, and may have comorbidities such as heart disease that complicate perioperative and long-term management. Medical management, which may consist of rehydration and restoration of intravascular volume with intravenous fluid therapy, osmotic diuresis, ureteral muscle relaxation, and antimicrobials for infection, is important in feline ureteral obstruction patients...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765074/two-fluid-hydrodynamic-model-for-spherical-electrolyte-systems
#12
Christin David
Spatial interaction effects between charge carriers in ionic systems play a sizable role beyond a classical Maxwellian description. We develop a nonlocal, two-fluid, hydrodynamic theory of charges and study ionic plasmon effects, i.e. collective charge oscillations in electrolytes. Ionic spatial dispersion arises from both positive and negative charge dynamics with an impact in the (far-)infrared. Despite highly classical parameters, nonlocal quenching of up to 90% is observed for particle sizes spanning orders of magnitude...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751506/neurocognitive-disorders-and-dehydration-in-older-patients-clinical-experience-supports-the-hydromolecular-hypothesis-of-dementia
#13
Michele Lauriola, Antonio Mangiacotti, Grazia D'Onofrio, Leandro Cascavilla, Francesco Paris, Giulia Paroni, Davide Seripa, Antonio Greco, Daniele Sancarlo
Abnormalities of water homeostasis can be early expressions of neuronal dysfunction, brain atrophy, chronic cerebrovasculopathy and neurodegenerative disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the serum osmolality of subjects with cognitive impairment. One thousand and ninety-one consecutive patients attending the Alzheimer’s Evaluation Unit were evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), 21-Item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21), Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental-ADL (IADL), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Exton-Smith Scale (ESS), and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS)...
May 3, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750039/impact-of-an-inline-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-hemofilter-system-in-neonatal-acute-kidney-injury
#14
Mohammed Azar, Abdulrahman Alamir, Abdullah Thabet Al Qahtani, Al Mokali Khamisa, Khalid Alfakeeh
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is considered a recognized lifesaving support for patients with cardiorespiratory failure. Acute kidney injury (AKI) and fluid overload are significant morbidity factors resulting in serious complications. The inline hemofilter system (IHS) and the continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) machine are different methods of renal replacement therapy for patients with ECMO. IHS is the alternate, safe dialysis modality of choice because it is user-friendly, inexpensive, and efficiently removes fluid overload and renal diffusive clearance...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740578/using-electrolyte-free-water-balance-to-rationalize-and-treat-dysnatremias
#15
REVIEW
Sanjeev R Shah, Gautam Bhave
Dysnatremias or abnormalities in plasma [Na+ ] are often termed disorders of water balance, an unclear physiologic concept often confused with changes in total fluid balance. However, most clinicians clearly recognize that hypertonic or hypotonic gains or losses alter plasma [Na+ ], while isotonic changes do not modify plasma [Na+ ]. This concept can be conceptualized as the electrolyte free water balance (EFWB), which defines the non-isotonic components of inputs and outputs to determine their effect on plasma [Na+ ]...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737013/incremental-dialysis-for-preserving-residual-kidney-function-does-one-size-fit-all-when-initiating-dialysis
#16
Anna T Mathew, Yoshitsugu Obi, Connie M Rhee, Jason A Chou, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
While many patients have substantial residual kidney function (RKF) when initiating hemodialysis (HD), most patients with end stage renal disease in the United States are initiated on 3-times per week conventional HD regimen, with little regard to RKF or patient preference. RKF is associated with many benefits including survival, volume control, solute clearance, and reduced inflammation. Several strategies have been recommended to preserve RKF after HD initiation, including an incremental approach to HD initiation...
May 7, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735573/adolescent-consumption-of-sports-drinks
#17
Kyla Cordrey, Sarah A Keim, Ruth Milanaik, Andrew Adesman
BACKGROUND: Sports drinks are aggressively marketed to teenagers to replenish fluids and/or electrolytes. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, typical adolescent physical activity does not require sports drink rehydration. Given US obesity rates and that sugar-sweetened sports drinks add superfluous calories to the diet, it is important to assess adolescent sports drink consumption and changes over time. METHODS: Researchers in the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey and 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey collected nationally representative samples of US high school students about sports drink consumption...
May 7, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731287/controversies-in-management-of-hyperkalemia
#18
Brit Long, Justin R Warix, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte disorder that can result in morbidity and mortality if not managed appropriately. OBJECTIVES: This review evaluates the classic treatments of hyperkalemia and discusses controversies and new medications for management. DISCUSSION: Potassium (K+) plays a key role in determining the transmembrane potentials of "excitable membranes" present in nerve and muscle cells. K+ is the predominant intracellular cation, and clinical deterioration typically ensues when patients develop sufficiently marked elevation in extracellular fluid concentrations of K+ (hyperkalemia)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727526/incidence-of-hypochloremic-metabolic-alkalosis-in-dogs-and-cats-with-and-without-nasogastric-tubes-over-a-period-of-up-to-36-hours-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#19
Annie Chih, Elke Rudloff, Cheryl Waldner, Andrew K J Linklater
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis (HCMA) in dogs and cats in the ICU that had intermittent nasogastric tube (NGT) aspiration for up to 36 hours. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study (December 2013 to October 2014). SETTING: Privately owned emergency and referral teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Forty-nine client-owned dogs and 16 client-owned cats. INTERVENTIONS: Patients wherein NGT placement was recommended and client consent was obtained were included in the interventional group...
May 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725741/-metabolic-management-and-nutrition-in-critically-ill-patients-with-renal-dysfunction-recommendations-from-the-renal-section-of-the-dgiin-%C3%A3-giain-and-divi
#20
W Druml, M Joannidis, S John, A Jörres, M Schmitz, J Kielstein, D Kindgen-Milles, M Oppert, V Schwenger, C Willam, A Zarbock
BACKGROUND: Intensive care patients with renal failure or insufficiency comprise a heterogeneous group of subjects with widely differing metabolic patterns and nutritional requirements. They include subjects with various stages of acute kidney injury (AKI), acute-on-chronic renal failure (A-CKD), without/with renal replacement therapy (RRT), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and subjects on regular hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis therapy (HD/PD). GOALS: Development of recommendations by the renal section of DGIIN (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internistische Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin), ÖGIAIN (Österreichische Gesellschaft für Internistische und Allgemeine Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin) and DIVI (Deutsche Interdisziplinäre Vereinigung für Intensiv- und Notfallmedizin) for the metabolic management and the planning, indication, implementation, and monitoring of nutrition therapy in this heterogeneous group of patients...
May 3, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
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