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Fluids and electrolytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630246/ominous-triad-triggered-by-high-dose-glucocorticosteroid-therapy
#1
Sarah Bär, Fritz Daudel, Thomas Zueger
Glucocorticosteroids (CS) play a key role in the treatment of numerous diseases. Nonetheless, they can be accompanied by several adverse effects. We present the case of a 51-year-old woman who was treated with high-dose CS for a relapse of her multiple sclerosis. After 5 days of treatment, the patient developed severe diabetic ketoacidosis, hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis-a potentially life-threatening triad which has previously been described, in our case, however, for the first time as a complication of CS therapy...
June 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628995/in-simulated-body-fluid-performance-of-polymorphic-apatite-coatings-synthesized-by-pulsed-electrodeposition
#2
Shoujie Liu, Hejun Li, Leilei Zhang, Xuemin Yin, Yao Guo
Surface modification is to modify biological responses through changing surface properties without reducing the mechanical properties of the implant. Specifically bioactive coatings, such as hydroxyapatite, carbonate apatite and dicalcium phosphate dehydrate, have been deposited on carbon/carbon (C/C) composites to change the bio-inert surface state. This work focused on the effects of voltages and electrolyte concentrations of pulsed electrodeposition on apatite layer. The apatite coatings thus synthesized were then structurally, morphologically and chemically characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Transmission electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628846/substance-p-and-the-neurokinin-1-receptor-expression-in-dog-ileum-with-and-without-inflammation
#3
Giulia Polidoro, Fiorella Giancola, Federico Fracassi, Marco Pietra, Giuliano Bettini, Martina Asti, Roberto Chiocchetti
In the gastrointestinal tract, the tachykinin Substance P (SP) is involved in motility, fluid and electrolyte secretion, and blood flow and regulation of immunoinflammatory response. SP exerts its biological activity on target cells by interacting mainly with the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R). The present study aims to quantify the percentage of SP-immunoreactive (SP-IR) enteric neurons and the density of SP-IR nerve fibers in the ileum of control dogs (CTRL-dogs; n=7) vs dogs with spontaneous ileal inflammation (INF-dogs; n=8)...
June 12, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627732/the-acute-effect-of-loperamide-on-ileostomy-output-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-cross-over-study
#4
Katrine Kristensen, Niels Qvist
High stoma output is a common problem in patients with ileostomy and can lead to dehydration and electrolyte disturbances. The first drug of choice to reduce stoma output is often loperamide. The aim was to assess the acute effect of loperamide on (a) ileostomy output in g/day, (b) gastrointestinal transit time and (c) patient-reported effects. A total of 12 patients completed this double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, consisting of a 3-day treatment period with loperamide 12 mg/day or placebo followed by the reverse after a washout period of 5-7 days...
June 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625070/mckittrick-wheelock-syndrome-unusual-but-potentially-lethal
#5
María López Álvarez, Jesús Ángel Yañéz López, Aldara Naveiras Calvo
McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome is characterized by extracellular volume depletion and severe fluid and electrolyte imbalance caused by secretory tumors of the rectum, usually villous adenomas. Patients usually present signs of dehydration, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and prerenal azotemia due to the chronic diarrhea, rich in ions and water. Since this is a potencially lethal entity without treatment, and a very unusual condition, we report a clinical case. Treatment consists in surgical resection of the tumor, although endoscopy polypectomy has also been reported...
June 19, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623705/counter-ion-transport-number-and-membrane-potential-in-working-membrane-systems
#6
Mette Birch Kristensen, Anders Bentien, Michele Tedesco, Jacopo Catalano
In this work we use the general space-charge (SC) theory for a combined transport model of fluid and ion through cylindrical nanopores to derive equations for the membrane potential and counter-ion transport numbers. We discuss this approach for ion exchange membranes assuming aqueous domains as interconnected network of cylindrical pores. The transport number calculations from the SC theory are compared with the corresponding ones from the uniform potential (UP) and Teorell-Meyer-Sievers (TMS) models in the case of both zero and non-zero concentration gradient across the membrane and with an applied current density...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616210/acute-kidney-injury-an-overview-of-diagnostic-methods-and-clinical-management
#7
Daniel Hertzberg, Linda Rydén, John W Pickering, Ulrik Sartipy, Martin J Holzmann
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common condition in multiple clinical settings. Patients with AKI are at an increased risk of death, over both the short and long term, and of accelerated renal impairment. As the condition has become more recognized and definitions more unified, there has been a rapid increase in studies examining AKI across many different clinical settings. This review focuses on the classification, diagnostic methods and clinical management that are available, or promising, for patients with AKI...
June 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615646/hydrogen-sulfide-stimulates-cftr-in-xenopus-oocytes-by-activation-of-the-camp-pka-signalling-axis
#8
Alexander Perniss, Kathrin Preiss, Marcel Nier, Mike Althaus
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as a signalling molecule which affects the activity of ion channels and transporters in epithelial cells. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an epithelial anion channel and a key regulator of electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the regulation of CFTR by H2S. Human CFTR was heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and its activity was electrophysiologically measured by microelectrode recordings. The H2S-forming sulphur salt Na2S as well as the slow-releasing H2S-liberating compound GYY4137 increased transmembrane currents of CFTR-expressing oocytes...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604611/eplerenone-resistant-salt-sensitive-hypertension-in-nedd4-2-c2-ko-mice
#9
Tabito Kino, Tomoaki Ishigami, Tsumugi Murata, Hiroshi Doi, Rie Nakashima-Sasaki, Lin Chen, Michiko Sugiyama, Kengo Azushima, Hiromichi Wakui, Shintaro Minegishi, Kouichi Tamura
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) plays critical roles in maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and is located in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN). We previously found that Nedd4-2 C2 knockout (KO) mice showed salt-sensitive hypertension with paradoxically enhanced ENaC gene expression in ASDN under high oral salt intake. Eplerenone (EPL), a selective aldosterone blocker, is a promising therapeutic option for resistant or/and salt-sensitive hypertension. We examined the effect of EPL on Nedd4-2 C2 KO mice with respect to blood pressure, metabolic parameters, and molecular level changes in ASDN under high oral salt intake...
June 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597932/low-cost-zeta-potentiometry-using-solute-gradients
#10
Sangwoo Shin, Jesse T Ault, Jie Feng, Patrick B Warren, Howard A Stone
The zeta potential is an electric potential in the Debye screening layer of an electrolyte, which represents a key physicochemical surface property in various fields ranging from electrochemistry to pharmaceuticals. Thus, characterizing the zeta potential is essential for many applications, but available measurement techniques are limited. Electrophoretic light scattering is typically used to measure the zeta potential of particles in suspension, whereas zeta potential measurements of a solid wall in solution rely on either streaming potential or electroosmotic mobility measurement techniques, both of which are expensive and sophisticated...
June 9, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593552/a-reformed-surgical-treatment-modality-for-children-with-giant-cystic-craniopharyngioma
#11
Wanchun Zhu, Xiang Li, Jintao He, Tao Sun, Chunde Li, Jian Gong
OBJECTIVE: Surgical removal plays an important role in treating children's craniopharyngioma. For a safe and minimally invasive craniotomy, a reformed surgical modality was proposed in this paper by combining the insertion of an Ommaya reservoir system (ORS) by stereotactic puncture, aspiration of cystic fluid in 2-day interval for consecutive 7-10 days, and the delayed tumor resection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eleven patients (aged from 5 to 9 years old) with giant cystic craniopharyngiomas who had undergone the reformed surgical modality during November 2014 and December 2015 were collected as group A...
June 7, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591008/plasma-resuscitation-improved-survival-in-a-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-rat-model-of-sepsis
#12
Ronald Chang, John B Holcomb, Par I Johansson, Shibani Pati, Martin A Schreiber, Charles E Wade
BACKGROUND: The paradigm shift from crystalloid to plasma resuscitation of traumatic hemorrhagic shock has improved patient outcomes due in part to plasma-mediated reversal of catecholamine and inflammation-induced endothelial injury, decreasing vascular permeability and attenuating organ injury. Since sepsis induces a similar endothelial injury as seen in hemorrhage, we hypothesized that plasma resuscitation would increase 48-hour survival in a rat sepsis model. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (375-425 g) were subjected to 35% cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) (t = 0 h)...
June 6, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585150/mild-encephalopathy-encephalitis-with-a-reversible-splenial-lesion-mers-a-report-of-five-neonatal-cases
#13
Dan Sun, Wen-Hong Chen, Suraj Baralc, Juan Wang, Zhi-Sheng Liu, Yuan-Peng Xia, Lei Chen
Mild encephalopathy/encephalitis with a reversible splenial (MERS) lesion is a clinic-radiological entity. The clinical features of MERS in neonates are still not systemically reported. This paper presents five cases of MERS, and the up-to-date reviews of previously reported cases were collected and analyzed in the literature. Here we describe five cases clinically diagnosed with MERS. All of them were neonates and the average age was about 4 days. They were admitted for the common neurological symptoms such as hyperspasmia, poor reactivity and delirium...
June 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580076/postoperative-acute-kidney-injury
#14
REVIEW
Jung Tak Park
Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is a common and serious complication. Several definitions of AKI have been proposed recently, and include both increases in serum creatinine levels and decreases in urine output as diagnostic criteria. The pathophysiology of postoperative AKI is complex and involves both ischemic injury and systemic inflammation. Identifying risk factors, such as old age, underlying diabetes, heart failure, and obesity, may aid in the application of preventative methods for postoperative AKI...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573174/optimal-intake-of-clear-liquids-during-preparation-for-afternoon-colonoscopy-with-low-volume-polyethylene-glycol-plus-ascorbic-acid
#15
Masahiro Tajika, Tsutomu Tanaka, Makoto Ishihara, Yutaka Hirayama, Sachiyo Oonishi, Nobumasa Mizuno, Kazuo Hara, Susumu Hijioka, Hiroshi Imaoka, Toshihisa Fujiyoshi, Nobuhiro Hieda, Nozomi Okuno, Tsukasa Yoshida, Kenji Yamao, Vikram Bhatia, Masahiko Ando, Yasumasa Niwa
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS : The standard colonoscopy preparation regimen in Japan for afternoon procedures is sequential intake of 1 L of polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution containing ascorbic acid (PEG-ASC), 0.5 L of clear liquid, 0.5 L of PEG-ASC, and finally 0.25 L of clear fluids (all at a rate of 0.25 L every 15 min). However, this regimen seems poorly tolerated and complicated for many patients compared to previous regimen of polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution...
June 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571891/renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-inhibition-in-the-treatment-of-cardiovascular-disease
#16
REVIEW
Carlos M Ferrario, Adam E Mullick
A collective century of discoveries establishes the importance of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system in maintaining blood pressure, fluid volume and electrolyte homeostasis via autocrine, paracrine and endocrine signaling. While research continues to yield new functions of angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1-7), the gap between basic research and clinical application of these new findings is widening. As data accumulates on the efficacy of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers as drugs of fundamental importance in the treatment of cardiovascular and renal disorders, it is becoming apparent that the achieved clinical benefits is suboptimal and surprisingly no different than what can be achieved with other therapeutic interventions...
May 29, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567321/neuropsychiatric-manifestations-in-a-patient-with-panhypopituitarism
#17
Oluwole Jegede, Ajouka Jeyakumar, Thyarapan Balakumar, Alyssa Raghu, Katherine I Chang, Katarina Soewono, Mario Gustave, Ayodeji Jolayemi
We present a case of an incidental diagnosis of panhypopituitarism in a 68-year-old African American man admitted to our psychiatric inpatient unit with symptoms suggestive of schizophrenia. The case was unusual as a first-episode psychosis given the patient's age. In the course of his admission, the patient's clinical condition deteriorated culminating in a sudden altered mental status which prompted a transfer to the medical floors and further investigations. A head CT scan and a pituitary MRI revealed a near total resection of the pituitary while laboratory investigations revealed hyponatremia and a grossly low hormone profile...
2017: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557397/-study-into-ratios-of-mineral-metabolism-in-patients-of-different-age-groups-suffering-from-osteoarthritis-of-the-knee
#18
A G Gasanovа, E L Matveeva, E S Spirkina
A study has been made into indicators of electrolyte composition and phosphatase activity of blood serum, urine and synovial fluid of the patients belonging to different age groups and going through compensated, subcompensated and decompensated stages of osteoarthritis of the knee. Changes in parameters of mineral metabolism have been detected related to the progress of the disease. The most obvious alteration was discovered in patients of the second age group having the subcompensated osteoarthritis stage...
2017: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553873/does-fluid-resuscitation-with-balanced-solutions-induce-electrolyte-and-metabolic-abnormalities-an-in-vitro-assessment
#19
Łukasz J Krzych, Piotr F Czempik
BACKGROUND: Popular intravenous fluids in clinical use may have impact on electrolyte concentration and metabolic balance and should be considered as powerful pharmacologic agents. There is growing body of evidence that fluid therapy should be more individualized and preferably based on balanced solutions. AIM: We sought to investigate impact of three commonly used balanced fluids on electrolytes and metabolic equilibrium in an in vitro setting. METHODS: Study group comprised 32 healthy male volunteers (no history of any acute/chronic disorder or known metabolic abnormalities), aged 21-35 (29 ± 4) years, weighting 59-103 (81...
May 29, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547320/real-time-noninvasive-monitoring-of-intracranial-fluid-shifts-during-dialysis-using-volumetric-integral-phase-shift-spectroscopy-vips-a-proof-of-concept-study
#20
Chethan P Venkatasubba Rao, Eric M Bershad, Eusebia Calvillo, Nelson Maldonado, Rahul Damani, Sreedhar Mandayam, Jose I Suarez
BACKGROUND: Cerebral edema, which is associated with increased intracranial fluid, is often a complication of many acute neurological conditions. There is currently no accepted method for real-time monitoring of intracranial fluid volume at the bedside. We evaluated a novel noninvasive technique called "Volumetric Integral Phase-shift Spectroscopy (VIPS)" for detecting intracranial fluid shifts during hemodialysis. METHODS: Subjects receiving scheduled hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease and without a history of major neurological conditions were enrolled...
May 25, 2017: Neurocritical Care
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