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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337387/pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokines-in-children-with-malaria-in-franceville-gabon
#1
Sandrine Lydie Oyegue-Liabagui, Aline Gaëlle Bouopda-Tuedom, Lady Charlène Kouna, Sydney Maghendji-Nzondo, Herman Nzoughe, Nina Tchitoula-Makaya, Irene Pegha-Moukandja, Jean-Bernard Lekana-Douki
Severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria anemia (SMA) is a major cause of mortality in pediatric wards. Variations in inflammatory mediator production play an essential role in disease outcomes. Indeed, several studies have shown the involvement of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 in malaria immunopathology. In other hand the exact role of Th17 cytokines such as IL-17, IL-22 and IL-21 in malaria remains poorly documented. Here, we investigated IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, IL-10, IL-4, IL-13, IL-17, IL-22 and IL-21 circulating levels and their association with malaria anemia and parasitemia in Gabonese children...
2017: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314758/immune-checkpoint-dysfunction-in-medium-and-large-vessel-vasculitis
#2
Ryu Watanabe, Hui Zhang, Gerald Berry, Jorg J Goronzy, Cornelia M Weyand
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a granulomatous vasculitis of the aorta and its medium-sized branch vessels. CD4 T-cells, macrophages and dendritic cells build granulomatous infiltrates that injure the vessel wall and elicit a maladaptive response-to-injury. Pathologic consequences include fragmentation of elastic membranes, destruction of the medial layer, microvascular neoangiogenesis, massive outgrowth of myofibroblasts, and lumen-occlusive intimal hyperplasia. Antigens have been suspected to drive the local activation of vasculitogenic CD4 T-cells, but recent data suggest a more generalized defect in the threshold setting of such T-cells, rendering them hyperreactive...
March 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303891/il-21-restricts-t-follicular-regulatory-t-cell-proliferation-through-bcl-6-mediated-inhibition-of-responsiveness-to-il-2
#3
Christoph Jandl, Sue M Liu, Pablo F Cañete, Joanna Warren, William E Hughes, Alexis Vogelzang, Kylie Webster, Maria E Craig, Gulbu Uzel, Alexander Dent, Polina Stepensky, Bärbel Keller, Klaus Warnatz, Jonathan Sprent, Cecile King
T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells control the magnitude and specificity of the germinal centre reaction, but how regulation is contained to ensure generation of high-affinity antibody is unknown. Here we show that this balance is maintained by the reciprocal influence of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-21. The number of IL-2-dependent FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells is increased in the peripheral blood of human patients with loss-of-function mutations in the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R). In mice, IL-21:IL-21R interactions influence the phenotype of T follicular cells, reducing the expression of CXCR4 and inhibiting the expansion of Tfr cells after T-cell-dependent immunization...
March 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299430/alternative-quantiferon-cytokines-for-diagnosis-of-children-with-active-tuberculosis-and-hiv-co-infection-in-ghana
#4
Christian Lundtoft, Anthony Afum-Adjei Awuah, Norman Nausch, Anthony Enimil, Ertan Mayatepek, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Marc Jacobsen
IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs) often present false-negative or indeterminate results in children with tuberculosis. HIV co-infection may contribute to decreased sensitivity of IGRAs by impairing T-cell IFN-γ expression. Measurement of alternative cytokines in QuantiFERON(®) (QFT) supernatants can circumvent the IFN-γ-dependency and may improve QFT sensitivity. We aimed to identify additional cytokines from QFT supernatants for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children with tuberculosis and HIV co-infection from Ghana...
March 15, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294304/il-21-promotes-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-the-modulation-of-neutrophil-infiltration
#5
Kejing Wang, Shuang Wen, Jiao Jiao, Tingting Tang, Xin Zhao, Min Zhang, Bingjie Lv, Yuzhi Lu, Xingdi Zhou, Jingyong Li, Shaofang Nie, Yuhua Liao, Qing Wang, Xin Tu, Ziad Mallat, Ni Xia, Xiang Cheng
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The immune system plays important roles in driving the acute inflammatory response following myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI). Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a pleiotropic cytokine with multiple immunomodulatory effects and its role in MIRI remains unknown. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Myocardial injury, neutrophil infiltration and expressions of neutrophil chemokines keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) were studied in a mouse model of MIRI...
March 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286199/abnormalities-of-the-bone-marrow-immune-microenvironment-in-patients-with-prolonged-isolated-thrombocytopenia-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#6
Yang Song, Min-Min Shi, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Xiao-Dong Mo, Yu Wang, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Lan-Ping Xu, Xiao-Jun Huang, Yuan Kong
Prolonged isolated thrombocytopenia (PT) is a serious complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, whether abnormalities of the bone marrow immune microenvironment are involved in the pathogenesis of PT remains unknown. In total, 20 patients with PT, 40 matched patients with good graft function (GGF) after allo-HSCT, and 20 healthy donors (HD) were enrolled in this nested case-control study. Th1, Th2, Tc1, Tc2, Th17 and Treg cells were analysed by flow cytometry, and IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17, IL-6, IL-21 and thrombopoietin levels in bone marrow (BM) plasma were evaluated using cytometric beads assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
March 9, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283529/targeting-the-rhoa-rock-pathway-to-reverse-t-cell-dysfunction-in-sle
#7
Cristina Rozo, Yurii Chinenov, Reena Khianey Maharaj, Sanjay Gupta, Laura Leuenberger, Kyriakos A Kirou, Vivian P Bykerk, Susan M Goodman, Jane E Salmon, Alessandra B Pernis
OBJECTIVES: Deregulated production of interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-21 contributes to the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Production of IL-17 and IL-21 can be regulated by ROCK2, one of the two Rho kinases. Increased ROCK activation was previously observed in an SLE cohort. Here, we evaluated ROCK activity in a new SLE cohort, and an RA cohort, and assessed the ability of distinct inhibitors of the ROCK pathway to suppress production of IL-17 and IL-21 by SLE T cells or human Th17 cells...
April 2016: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282448/correction-ifn-%C3%AE-and-il-21-double-producing-t-cells-are-bcl6-independent-and-survive-into-the-memory-phase-in-plasmodium-chabaudi-infection
#8
Victor H Carpio, Michael M Opata, Marelle E Montañez, Pinaki P Banerjee, Alexander L Dent, Robin Stephens
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144654.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281408/the-role-of-follicular-t-helper-cells-in-patients-with-malignant-lymphoid-disease
#9
Dong-Ming Zhou, Yan-Xia Xu, Li-Ying Zhang, Yu Sun, Zi-Yan Wang, Yu-Qing Yuan, Jin-Xiang Fu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the dynamic change of follicular T helper cells (TFH) in patients with malignant lymphoid disease (MLD) and to explore its clinical significance. METHODS: The dynamic change of TFH cells, ICOS(+)- and PD-1(+) TFH cells at pretreatment and different treatment periods was determined by flow cytometry in 85 MLD patients. Concentration of interleukin 21 (IL-21) was evaluated by ELISA, and the correlation between clinical prognosis and the ratio of TFH cells was analyzed...
March 10, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275700/peripheral-inflammatory-markers-indicate-microstructural-damage-within-periventricular-white-matter-hyperintensities-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease-a-preliminary-report
#10
Walter Swardfager, Di Yu, Joel Ramirez, Hugo Cogo-Moreira, Gregory Szilagyi, Melissa F Holmes, Christopher J M Scott, Gustavo Scola, Pak C Chan, Jialun Chen, Parco Chan, Demetrios J Sahlas, Nathan Herrmann, Krista L Lanctôt, Ana C Andreazza, Jacqueline A Pettersen, Sandra E Black
INTRODUCTION: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) presumed to reflect cerebral small vessel disease and increased peripheral inflammatory markers are found commonly in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but their interrelationships remain unclear. METHODS: Inflammatory markers were assayed in 54 elderly participants (n = 16 with AD). Periventricular WMH were delineated from T1, T2/proton density, and fluid-attenuated magnetic resonance imaging using semiautomated fuzzy lesion extraction and coregistered with maps of fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of microstructural integrity assessed using diffusion tensor imaging...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263097/transcriptional-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-follicular-t-helper-cells-and-their-role-in-autoimmunity
#11
Hong Qiu, Haijing Wu, Vera Chan, Chak-Sing Lau, Qianjin Lu
T-follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a specialized subset of T cells that provide help to B cells and promote the formation of germinal centers (GCs). Tfh cells transmit important signals to B cells that drive class switch recombination, somatic hyper-mutation, the generation of high-affinity antibodies, immunological memory and their differentiation into plasma cells or memory B cells in the GCs. Tfh-cell differentiation is regulated by the coordinated functions of distinct cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-21, IL-12, IL-23, IL-2, IL-7 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), as well as transcription factors, including B-cell lymphoma 6 protein (Bcl-6), Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1, STAT3, STAT4, B-cell activating transcription factor (Batf), interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4), v-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog (C-Maf), T-cell-specific transcription factor 1 (TCF-1) and Achaete-scute homolog 2 (Acl2), which have been shown to form a complex transcriptional network...
March 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259000/th17-treg-imbalance-and-increased-interleukin-21-are-associated-with-liver-injury-in-patients-with-chronic-severe-hepatitis-b
#12
Bin Liu, Wei Gao, Li Zhang, Jing Wang, Min Chen, Mingli Peng, Hong Ren, Peng Hu
BACKGROUND: Th17/Treg imbalance and the levels of related cytokines are essential in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and infectious diseases. The aim of the current study was to assess the Treg/Th17 balance and the levels of related cytokines associated with various degrees of liver injury in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. METHODS: The proportions of peripheral Th17, Treg and Th1 cells in 7 patients classified as asymptomatic hepatitis B virus carriers (AsCs), 38 patients with low or moderate grade chronic hepatitis B (CHB-LM), 20 patients with chronic severe hepatitis B (CSHB), and 10 healthy controls (HCs) were determined by flow cytometry...
March 1, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243360/immune-profile-of-obese-people-and-in-vitro-effects-of-red-grape-polyphenols-on-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Thea Magrone, Emilio Jirillo, Anna Spagnoletta, Manrico Magrone, Matteo Antonio Russo, Sergio Fontana, Flavia Laforgia, Ilaria Donvito, Angelo Campanella, Franco Silvestris, Giovanni De Pergola
The in vitro ability of polyphenols, extracted from red grape, to modulate peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses has been evaluated in 20 obese (Ob) people. With regard to cytokine release in response to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17 were higher in the Ob than in healthy (H) subjects. Vice versa, IL-21 concentrations were detected only in H people but they were undetectable in the Ob counterpart. In general terms, levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α were higher in Ob people when compared to H controls...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239749/interleukin-21-inhibits-cancer-mediated-foxp3-induction-in-na%C3%A3-ve-human-cd4-t-cells
#14
Vinodh Kannappan, Kate Butcher, Malgorzata Trela, Iain Nicholl, Weiguang Wang, Kesley Attridge
IL-21 is known to promote anti-tumour immunity due to its ability to promote T cell responses and counteract Treg-mediated suppression. It has also been shown to limit Treg frequencies during tumour-antigen stimulations. However, whether this represents inhibition of FOXP3 induction in naïve CD4 T cells or curtailed expansion of natural Treg remains unclear. Moreover, whether this effect is maintained in an environment of tumour-derived immunosuppressive factors is not known. Here, we show that in the context of a number of cancers, naïve CD45RA+ CD4 T cells are induced to express high levels of FOXP3, and that FOXP3 expression correlates with inhibition of T cell proliferation...
February 27, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225165/the-contrasting-role-of-th17-immunity-in-human-health-and-disease
#15
Edwin Hoe, Jeremy Anderson, Jordan Nathanielsz, Zheng Quan Toh, Rachel Marimla, Anne Balloch, Paul V Licciardi
The human immune system is a tightly regulated network that protects the host from disease. An important aspect of this is the balance between pro-inflammatory Th17 cells and anti-inflammatory Treg cells in maintaining immune homeostasis. Foxp3+ Treg are critical for sustaining immune tolerance through IL-10 and TGF-β while RORγt+ Th17 cells promote immunopathology and auto-inflammatory diseases through the actions of IL-17A, IL-21 and IL-22. Therefore, the imbalance between Treg and Th17 cells can result in serious pathology in many organs and tissues in the body...
February 22, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224733/nk1-1-cd4-nkg2d-t-cells-suppress-dss-induced-colitis-in-mice-through-production-of-tgf-%C3%AE
#16
Xingxing Qian, Chunxia Hu, Sen Han, Zhijie Lin, Weiming Xiao, Yanbing Ding, Yu Zhang, Li Qian, Xiaoqing Jia, Guoqiang Zhu, Weijuan Gong
CD4(+) NKG2D(+) T cells are associated with tumour, infection and autoimmune diseases. Some CD4(+) NKG2D(+) T cells secrete IFN-γ and TNF-α to promote inflammation, but others produce TGF-β and FasL to facilitate tumour evasion. Here, murine CD4(+) NKG2D(+) T cells were further classified into NK1.1(-) CD4(+) NKG2D(+) and NK1.1(+) CD4(+) NKG2D(+) subpopulations. The frequency of NK1.1(-) CD4(+) NKG2D(+) cells decreased in inflamed colons, whereas more NK1.1(+) CD4(+) NKG2D(+) cells infiltrated into colons of mice with DSS-induced colitis...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219887/disruption-of-pathogenic-cellular-networks-by-il-21-blockade-leads-to-disease-amelioration-in-murine-lupus
#17
Jin-Young Choi, Abhinav Seth, Michael Kashgarian, Sonia Terrillon, Emma Fung, Lili Huang, Li Chun Wang, Joe Craft
Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) is characterized by autoantibody-mediated organ injury. Follicular Th (Tfh) cells orchestrate physiological germinal center (GC) B cell responses, whereas in lupus they promote aberrant GC responses with autoreactive memory B cell development and plasma cell-derived autoantibody production. IL-21, a Tfh cell-derived cytokine, provides instructional cues for GC B cell maturation, with disruption of IL-21 signaling representing a potential therapeutic strategy for autoantibody-driven diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197386/deficiency-of-the-immunostimulatory-cytokine-il-21-promotes-intestinal-neoplasia-via-dysregulation-of-the-th1-th17-axis
#18
Mia Shapiro, Bisweswar Nandi, Gabriel Gonzalez, Rao H Prabhala, Hiroshi Mashimo, Qin Huang, Natasha Y Frank, Nikhil C Munshi, Jason S Gold
IL-21 has reported activity in promoting both Th1 and Th17 immune responses. Its role in sporadic human colorectal cancer is unknown. We aimed to delineate the role of IL-21 in a model of sporadic intestinal carcinogenesis. We found that in APC(MIN/+) mice, ablation of IL-21 increased intestinal tumorigenesis. Expression of pro-inflammatory Th17-associated genes, including RORγt and IL-17A, was increased in the intestine in the absence of IL-21, while expression of antitumor Th1-associated genes Tbet, IFNγ, granzyme B, and perforin was decreased...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194154/the-role-of-cd4-t-follicular-helper-cells-in-hiv-infection-from-the-germinal-center-to-the-periphery
#19
REVIEW
John Patrick Thornhill, Sarah Fidler, Paul Klenerman, John Frater, Chansavath Phetsouphanh
T follicular helper cells (TFh) are key components of the adaptive immune system; they are primarily found in germinal centers (GCs) where their interaction with B cells supports humoral immune responses and efficient antibody production. They are defined by the expression of CXC receptor 5, program death-1, ICOS, and secretion of IL-21. Their differentiation is regulated by B-cell lymphoma 6. The relationship and function of circulating TFh to bona fide TFh resident in the GC is much debated. HIV infection impacts the TFh response with evidence of aberrant TFh function observed in acute and chronic infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189042/activity-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-influences-the-expression-of-cytokines-in-gingival-tissue
#20
C M Figueredo, A P Martins, R Lira-Junior, J B Menegat, A T Carvalho, R G Fischer, A Gustafsson
This study assessed the cytokine expression in gingival and intestinal tissues from periodontitis patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and evaluated if IBD activity is a covariate to the amount of gingival cytokines. Paired gingival and intestinal tissues were collected from 21 patients and homogenised using a cell disruptor. Cytokine expression (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, IL-17A, IL-17F, IFN-γ, sCD40L, and TNF-α) was evaluated using bead-based multiplex technology...
February 8, 2017: Cytokine
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