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Moral judgment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527671/inferences-about-moral-character-moderate-the-impact-of-consequences-on-blame-and-praise
#1
Jenifer Z Siegel, Molly J Crockett, Raymond J Dolan
Moral psychology research has highlighted several factors critical for evaluating the morality of another's choice, including the detection of norm-violating outcomes, the extent to which an agent caused an outcome, and the extent to which the agent intended good or bad consequences, as inferred from observing their decisions. However, person-centered accounts of moral judgment suggest that a motivation to infer the moral character of others can itself impact on an evaluation of their choices. Building on this person-centered account, we examine whether inferences about agents' moral character shape the sensitivity of moral judgments to the consequences of agents' choices, and agents' role in the causation of those consequences...
May 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525960/the-behavioral-and-neural-signatures-of-distinct-conceptions-of-fairness
#2
Laura Niemi, Emily Wasserman, Liane Young
Adhering to standard procedures (impartiality), returning favors (reciprocity), or giving based on individuals' needs (charity) may all be considered moral and/or fair ways to allocate resources. However, these allocation behaviors may be perceived as differently motivated, and their moral evaluation may make different demands on theory of mind (ToM)-the capacity to process information about mental states, including motives. In Studies 1-2, we examined participants' moral judgments of allocations based on (a) impartiality, (b) reciprocity, (c) charity, and (d) unspecified criteria as depicted in vignettes, as well as participants' perceptions of allocators' motivations...
May 19, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508353/what-matters-when-judging-intentionality-moral-content-or-normative-status-testing-the-rational-scientist-model-of-the-side-effect
#3
C Papadopoulos, B K Hayes
Previous work has demonstrated a "side-effect effect," such that intentionality is more likely to be attributed to agents who bring about negatively valenced as opposed to positively valenced side effects. The rational-scientist model explains this by suggesting that norm-violating side effects are more informative for inferring intentionality than norm-conforming side effects. In the present study we reexamined this account, addressing limitations of previous empirical tests (e.g., Uttich & Lombrozo, Cognition 116: 87-100, 2010)...
May 15, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506923/core-social-and-moral-disgust-are-bounded-a-review-on-cognitive-and-neural-bases-of-repugnance-in-clinical-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Carmelo M Vicario, Robert D Rafal, Davide Martino, Alessio Avenanti
Disgust is a multifaceted experience that might affect several aspects of life. Here, we reviewed research on neurological and psychiatric disorders that are characterized by abnormal disgust processing to test the hypothesis of a shared neurocognitive architecture in the representation of three disgust domains: i) personal experience of 'core disgust'; ii) social disgust, i.e., motor and vocal expressions of disgust; iii) moral disgust, i.e., sensitivity to ethical violations. Our analysis provides some support to the shared neurocognitive hypothesis and suggests that the insula might be the "hub" structure linking the three domains of disgust sensitivity, while other brain regions may subserve specific facets of the multidimensional experience...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504021/the-theory-of-dyadic-morality-reinventing-moral-judgment-by-redefining-harm
#5
Chelsea Schein, Kurt Gray
The nature of harm-and therefore moral judgment-may be misunderstood. Rather than an objective matter of reason, we argue that harm should be redefined as an intuitively perceived continuum. This redefinition provides a new understanding of moral content and mechanism-the constructionist Theory of Dyadic Morality (TDM). TDM suggests that acts are condemned proportional to three elements: norm violations, negative affect, and-importantly-perceived harm. This harm is dyadic, involving an intentional agent causing damage to a vulnerable patient (A→P)...
May 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503833/moral-enhancement-meets-normative-and-empirical-reality-assessing-the-practical-feasibility-of-moral-enhancement-neurotechnologies
#6
Veljko Dubljević, Eric Racine
Moral enhancement refers to the possibility of making individuals and societies better from a moral standpoint. A fierce debate has emerged about the ethical aspects of moral enhancement, notably because steering moral enhancement in a particular direction involves choosing amongst a wide array of competing options, and these options entail deciding which moral theory or attributes of the moral agent would benefit from enhancement. Furthermore, the ability and effectiveness of different neurotechnologies to enhance morality have not been carefully examined...
June 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498535/domain-specificity-in-adolescents-concepts-of-laws-associations-among-beliefs-and-behavior
#7
Benjamin Oosterhoff, Aaron Metzger
Using detailed vignettes and scale measures, concepts of laws regulating domain-specific issues and engagement in delinquency were assessed among 340 9th through 12th graders (Mage = 16.64, SD = 1.37). Adolescents distinguished between laws that regulate moral, drug-related prudential, conventional, personal, and multifaceted issues in their criterion judgments and justifications. Youths' ratings of the importance of laws, obligation to obey laws, and deserved punishment for breaking different laws also followed domain-consistent patterns...
March 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497725/factors-guiding-moral-judgment-reason-decision-and-action
#8
Alex Wiegmann, Magda Osman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497724/explaining-moral-behavior
#9
Magda Osman, Alex Wiegmann
In this review we make a simple theoretical argument which is that for theory development, computational modeling, and general frameworks for understanding moral psychology researchers should build on domain-general principles from reasoning, judgment, and decision-making research. Our approach is radical with respect to typical models that exist in moral psychology that tend to propose complex innate moral grammars and even evolutionarily guided moral principles. In support of our argument we show that by using a simple value-based decision model we can capture a range of core moral behaviors...
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497723/the-intention-outcome-asymmetry-effect
#10
Arunima Sarin, David A Lagnado, Paul W Burgess
Knowledge of intention and outcome is integral to making judgments of responsibility, blame, and causality. Yet, little is known about the effect of conflicting intentions and outcomes on these judgments. In a series of four experiments, we combine good and bad intentions with positive and negative outcomes, presenting these through everyday moral scenarios. Our results demonstrate an asymmetry in responsibility, causality, and blame judgments for the two incongruent conditions: well-intentioned agents are regarded more morally and causally responsible for negative outcomes than ill-intentioned agents are held for positive outcomes...
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497722/moral-severity-is-represented-as-a-domain-general-magnitude
#11
Derek Powell, Zachary Horne
The severity of moral violations can vary by degree. For instance, although both are immoral, murder is a more severe violation than lying. Though this point is well established in Ethics and the law, relatively little research has been directed at examining how moral severity is represented psychologically. Most prominent moral psychological theories are aimed at explaining first-order moral judgments and are silent on second-order metaethical judgments, such as comparisons of severity. Here, the relative severity of 20 moral violations was established in a preliminary study...
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497721/scale-effects-in-moral-relevance-assessment
#12
Jonas Nagel, Andrej Rybak
Research on moral judgment often employs bipolar rating scales to assess whether the difference between two contrasted options is judged to be morally relevant. We give an account of how different numbers of response options provided on such scales (odd vs. even) change the meaning of the test question by communicating different implicit presuppositions. We demonstrate experimentally that these changes can qualitatively affect the moral relevance judgments that subjects express in response to a given judgment problem...
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497720/neuroscience-and-ethics
#13
S Matthew Liao
A number of people believe that results from neuroscience have the potential to settle seemingly intractable debates concerning the nature, practice, and reliability of moral judgments. In particular, Joshua Greene has argued that evidence from neuroscience can be used to advance the long-standing debate between consequentialism and deontology. This paper first argues that charitably interpreted, Greene's neuroscientific evidence can contribute to substantive ethical discussions by being part of an epistemic debunking argument...
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497719/moral-hindsight
#14
Nadine Fleischhut, Björn Meder, Gerd Gigerenzer
How are judgments in moral dilemmas affected by uncertainty, as opposed to certainty? We tested the predictions of a consequentialist and deontological account using a hindsight paradigm. The key result is a hindsight effect in moral judgment. Participants in foresight, for whom the occurrence of negative side effects was uncertain, judged actions to be morally more permissible than participants in hindsight, who knew that negative side effects occurred. Conversely, when hindsight participants knew that no negative side effects occurred, they judged actions to be more permissible than participants in foresight...
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495558/acute-psychosocial-stress-and-everyday-moral-decision-making-in-young-healthy-men-the-impact-of-cortisol
#15
Nina Singer, Monika Sommer, Katrin Döhnel, Sandra Zänkert, Stefan Wüst, Brigitte M Kudielka
In everyday life, moral decisions must frequently be made under acute stress. Although there is increasing evidence that both stress and cortisol affect moral judgment and behavior as well as decision-making in various domains unrelated to morality, surprisingly few attempts have been made to explore the effects of stress on everyday moral decision-making. Therefore, in the present study, we exposed 50 young healthy men to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or its non-stressful placebo version (PTSST). We investigated the impact of acute stress exposure and stress-related cortisol levels on decision-making, decision certainty, and emotions in 28 everyday moral conflict situations with altruistic versus egoistic response alternatives...
May 7, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486837/distinct-effects-of-reminding-mortality-and-physical-pain-on-the-default-mode-activity-and-activity-underlying-self-reflection
#16
Zhenhao Shi, Shihui Han
Behavioral research suggests that reminding both mortality and negative affect influences self-related thoughts. Using functional MRI, we tested the hypothesis that reminders of mortality and physical pain decrease brain activity underlying self-related thoughts. Three groups of adults underwent priming procedures during which they answered questions pertaining to mortality, physical pain, or leisure time, respectively. Before and after priming, participants performed personality trait judgments on oneself or a celebrity, identified the font of words, or passively viewed a fixation...
May 9, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481619/what-s-wrong-with-using-steroids-exploring-whether-and-why-people-oppose-the-use-of-performance-enhancing-drugs
#17
Justin F Landy, Daniel K Walco, Daniel M Bartels
The use of performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) elicits widespread normative opposition, yet little research has investigated what underlies these judgments. We examine this question comprehensively, across 13 studies. We first test the hypothesis that opposition to PED use cannot be fully accounted for by considerations of fairness. We then test the influence of 10 other potential drivers of opposition in an exploratory manner. We find that health risks for the user and rules and laws prohibiting use of anabolic steroids reliably affect normative judgments...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446105/evaluating-methods-of-correcting-for-multiple-comparisons-implemented-in-spm12-in-social-neuroscience-fmri-studies-an-example-from-moral-psychology
#18
Hyemin Han, Andrea L Glenn
In fMRI research, the goal of correcting for multiple comparisons is to identify areas of activity that reflect true effects, and thus would be expected to replicate in future studies. Finding an appropriate balance between trying to minimize false positives (Type I error) while not being too stringent and omitting true effects (Type II error) can be challenging. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of these types of errors may differ for different areas of study. In many areas of social neuroscience that involve complex processes and considerable individual differences, such as the study of moral judgment, effects are typically smaller and statistical power weaker, leading to the suggestion that less stringent corrections that allow for more sensitivity may be beneficial, but also result in more false positives...
April 27, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420792/morality-constrains-the-default-representation-of-what-is-possible
#19
Jonathan Phillips, Fiery Cushman
The capacity for representing and reasoning over sets of possibilities, or modal cognition, supports diverse kinds of high-level judgments: causal reasoning, moral judgment, language comprehension, and more. Prior research on modal cognition asks how humans explicitly and deliberatively reason about what is possible but has not investigated whether or how people have a default, implicit representation of which events are possible. We present three studies that characterize the role of implicit representations of possibility in cognition...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404217/children-s-expectations-about-conventional-and-moral-behaviors-of-ingroup-and-outgroup-members
#20
Zoe Liberman, Lauren H Howard, Nathan M Vasquez, Amanda L Woodward
Although children demonstrate robust social preferences for ingroup members early in ontogeny, it is not yet clear whether these preferences are based on children generally liking people who are more familiar or on children holding specific biased beliefs about people in their ingroup as compared with people in their outgroup. Here, we investigated the origins of humans' propensity to link ingroup members with positive behaviors and outgroup members with negative behaviors by asking whether linguistic group membership influences children's expectations of how people will act...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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