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Moral judgment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156322/the-development-and-importance-of-shared-reality-in-the-domains-of-opinion-morality-and-religion
#1
REVIEW
Larisa Heiphetz
The importance of shared reality emerges early in human development. Infants and young children notice when others share their beliefs, and information about shared beliefs influences their social judgments. This article reviews recent research on the importance of shared beliefs in three domains that have been widely investigated over the past several years-opinions, moral views, and religious beliefs. I argue that shared religious beliefs appear especially influential and suggest several reasons why this might be the case, including the perceived link between religion and morality as well as the strong role that religious beliefs play in personal identity...
November 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131714/understanding-variations-in-secondary-findings-reporting-practices-across-u-s-genome-sequencing-laboratories
#2
Sara Ackerman, Barbara Koenig
BACKGROUND: Increasingly used for clinical purposes, genome and exome sequencing can generate clinically relevant information that is not directly related to the reason for testing (incidental or secondary findings). Debates about the ethical implications of secondary findings were sparked by the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG)'s 2013 policy statement, which recommended that laboratories report pathogenic alterations in 56 genes. Although wide variation in laboratories' secondary findings policies has been reported, little is known about its causes...
November 13, 2017: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130834/the-relationship-between-intuitive-action-choices-and-moral-reasoning-on-animal-ethics-issues-in-students-of-veterinary-medicine-and-other-relevant-professions
#3
Joy M Verrinder, Clive J C Phillips
With growing understanding of animals' capabilities, and public and organizational pressures to improve animal welfare, moral action by veterinarians and other relevant professionals to address animal issues is increasingly important. Little is known about how their action choices relate to their moral reasoning on animal ethics issues. A moral judgment measure, the VetDIT, with three animal and three non-animal scenarios, was used to investigate the action choices of 619 students in five animal- and two non-animal-related professional programs in one Australian university, and how these related to their moral reasoning based on Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), or Universal Principles (UP) schemas...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123493/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-affects-judgments-of-moral-violations
#4
Hong Yuan, Serik Tabarak, Wenxin Su, Yong Liu, Jing Yu, Xu Lei
Previous studies show that neural activities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are correlated with moral processing during picture viewing tasks. In this study, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to determine whether this non-invasive brain stimulation technique could modulate the evaluation of moral violations. Sixty-four subjects were randomly recruited, separated into different groups and tested with 42 pairs of pictures depicting moral violations. Each subject was required to rate the pictures two separate times, i...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098205/better-minds-better-morals-a-procedural-guide-to-better-judgment
#5
G Owen Schaefer, Julian Savulescu
Making more moral decisions - an uncontroversial goal, if ever there was one. But how to go about it? In this article, we offer a practical guide on ways to promote good judgment in our personal and professional lives. We will do this not by outlining what the good life consists in or which values we should accept.Rather, we offer a theory of procedural reliability: a set of dimensions of thought that are generally conducive to good moral reasoning. At the end of the day, we all have to decide for ourselves what is good and bad, right and wrong...
2017: J Posthum Stud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095658/can-science-explain-the-human-mind-intuitive-judgments-about-the-limits-of-science
#6
Sara Gottlieb, Tania Lombrozo
Can science explain romantic love, morality, and religious belief? We documented intuitive beliefs about the limits of science in explaining the human mind. We considered both epistemic evaluations (concerning whether science could possibly fully explain a given psychological phenomenon) and nonepistemic judgments (concerning whether scientific explanations for a given phenomenon would generate discomfort), and we identified factors that characterize phenomena judged to fall beyond the scope of science. Across six studies, we found that participants were more likely to judge scientific explanations for psychological phenomena to be impossible and uncomfortable when, among other factors, they support first-person, introspective access (e...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094962/the-surprising-costs-of-silence-asymmetric-preferences-for-prosocial-lies-of-commission-and-omission
#7
Emma Levine, Joanna Hart, Kendra Moore, Emily Rubin, Kuldeep Yadav, Scott Halpern
Across 7 experiments (N = 3883), we demonstrate that communicators and targets make egocentric moral judgments of deception. Specifically, communicators focus more on the costs of deception to them-for example, the guilt they feel when they break a moral rule-whereas targets focus more on whether deception helps or harms them. As a result, communicators and targets make asymmetric judgments of prosocial lies of commission and omission: Communicators often believe that omitting information is more ethical than telling a prosocial lie, whereas targets often believe the opposite...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081899/the-illusion-of-moral-superiority
#8
Ben M Tappin, Ryan T McKay
Most people strongly believe they are just, virtuous, and moral; yet regard the average person as distinctly less so. This invites accusations of irrationality in moral judgment and perception-but direct evidence of irrationality is absent. Here, we quantify this irrationality and compare it against the irrationality in other domains of positive self-evaluation. Participants (N = 270) judged themselves and the average person on traits reflecting the core dimensions of social perception: morality, agency, and sociability...
August 2017: Social Psychological and Personality Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080001/the-relevance-of-the-hippocratic-oath-to-the-ethical-and-moral-values-of-contemporary-medicine-part-i-the-hippocratic-oath-from-antiquity-to-modern-times
#9
REVIEW
Helen Askitopoulou, Antoniοs N Vgontzas
The present paper discusses the relevance and significance of the Hippocratic Oath to contemporary medical ethical and moral values. It attempts to answer the questions about some controversial issues related to the Oath. The text is divided in two parts. Part I discusses the general attributes and ethical values of the Oath, while Part II presents a detailed analysis of each passage of the Oath with regard to perennial ethical principles and moral values. Part I starts with the contribution of Hippocrates and his School of Cos to medicine...
October 27, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075229/habitual-cognitive-reappraisal-was-negatively-related-to-perceived-immorality-in-the-harm-and-fairness-domains
#10
Zhongquan Li, Xiaoyuan Wu, Lisong Zhang, Ziyuan Zhang
Emotion plays an important role in moral judgment, and people always use emotion regulation strategies to modulate emotion, consciously or unconsciously. Previous studies had investigated only the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and moral judgment in the Harm domain, and revealed divergent results. Based on Moral Foundations Theory, the present study extended the investigation into moral judgment in all five moral domains and used a set of standardized moral vignettes. Two hundred and six college students filled in the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and completed emotional ratings and moral judgment on moral vignettes from Moral Foundations Vignettes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068851/perinatal-nurses-reported-to-boards-of-nursing-understanding-the-facts
#11
Rebecca L Cypher, Kara Kosycarz
Today's healthcare system is in a state of transformation, as changes in technology, diagnostic approaches, treatments, and levels of professional practice occur on a regular basis. Nurses continue to be the most trusted profession. What has not changed in clinical practice is the amount of responsibility and level of accountability. Therefore, nurses are morally, legally, and ethically responsible for nursing judgment and clinical-based actions covered under each state's Nurse Practice Act, the American Nurses Association's core principles, and position statements as well as standard setting documents from professional organizations...
October 2017: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066760/simulating-moral-actions-an-investigation-of-personal-force-in-virtual-moral-dilemmas
#12
K B Francis, S Terbeck, R A Briazu, A Haines, M Gummerum, G Ganis, I S Howard
Advances in Virtual Reality (VR) technologies allow the investigation of simulated moral actions in visually immersive environments. Using a robotic manipulandum and an interactive sculpture, we now also incorporate realistic haptic feedback into virtual moral simulations. In two experiments, we found that participants responded with greater utilitarian actions in virtual and haptic environments when compared to traditional questionnaire assessments of moral judgments. In experiment one, when incorporating a robotic manipulandum, we found that the physical power of simulated utilitarian responses (calculated as the product of force and speed) was predicted by individual levels of psychopathy...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058938/the-reasons-young-children-give-to-peers-when-explaining-their-judgments-of-moral-and-conventional-rules
#13
Maria Mammen, Bahar Köymen, Michael Tomasello
Moral justifications work, when they do, by invoking values that are shared in the common ground of the interlocutors. We asked 3- and 5-year-old peer dyads (N = 144) to identify and punish norm transgressors. In the moral condition, the transgressor violated a moral norm (e.g., by stealing); in the social rules condition, she/he violated a context-specific rule (e.g., by placing a yellow toy in a green box, instead of a yellow box). Children in both age groups justified their punishment in the social rules condition mostly by referring to the rule (e...
October 23, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027865/the-bidirectional-relation-of-emotion-perception-and-social-judgments-the-effect-of-witness-emotion-expression-on-perceptions-of-moral-behaviour-and-vice-versa
#14
Ursula Hess, Helen Landmann, Shlomo David, Shlomo Hareli
The present research tested the notion that emotion expression and context perception are bidirectionally related. Specifically, in two studies focusing on moral violations (N = 288) and positive moral deviations (N = 245) respectively, we presented participants with short vignettes describing behaviours that were either (im)moral, (in)polite or unusual together with a picture of the emotional reaction of a person who supposedly had been a witness to the event. Participants rated both the emotional reactions observed and their own moral appraisal of the situation described...
October 13, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027618/moral-injury-contextualized-care
#15
Keith G Meador, Jason A Nieuwsma
Amidst the return of military personnel from post-9/11 conflicts, a construct describing the readjustment challenges of some has received increasing attention: moral injury. This term has been variably defined with mental health professionals more recently conceiving of it as a transgression of moral beliefs and expectations that are witnessed, perpetrated, or allowed by the individual. To the extent that morality is a system of conceptualizing right and wrong, individuals' moral systems are in large measure developmentally and socially derived and interpreted...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017623/the-genealogy-of-the-clinical-syndrome-of-mania-signs-and-symptoms-described-in-psychiatric-texts-from-1880-to-1900
#16
K S Kendler
In 1800, mania was conceptualized as an agitated psychotic state. By 1900, it closely resembled its modern form. This paper reviews the descriptions of mania in Western psychiatry from 1880 to 1900, when Kraepelin was training and developing his concept of manic-depressive illness. Psychiatric textbooks published 1900-1960 described 22 characteristic manic symptoms/signs the presence of which were recorded in 25 psychiatric textbooks and three other key documents published 1880-1900. Descriptions of mania in these nineteenth century textbooks closely resembled those in the twentieth century, recording a mean (s...
October 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992273/neural-correlates-of-moral-judgment-in-pedophilia
#17
Claudia Massau, Christian Kärgel, Simone Weiß, Martin Walter, Jorge Ponseti, Tillmann Hc Krueger, Henrik Walter, Boris Schiffer
Pedophilia is a sexual preference that is often associated with child sex offending (CSO). Sexual urges towards prepubescent children and specifically acting upon those urges are universally regarded as immoral. However, up until now, it is completely unknown whether moral processing of sexual offenses is altered in pedophiles. A total of 31 pedophilic men and 19 healthy controls were assessed by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in combination with a moral judgment paradigm consisting of 36 scenarios describing different types of offenses...
September 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971647/revisiting-the-jewish-ethical-approach-toward-peripartum-cesarean-section-in-light-of-emerging-medical-evidence
#18
Sody A Naimer, Edward Fram
BACKGROUND: Maternal cardiac arrest during gestation constitutes a devastating event. Training and anticipant preparedness for prompt action in such cases may save the lives of both the woman and her fetus. OBJECTIVES: To address a previous Jewish guideline that a woman in advanced pregnancy should not undergo any medical procedure to save the fetus until her condition is stabilized. METHODS: Current evidence on perimortal cesarean section shows that immediate section during resuscitation provides restoration of the integrity of the mother's vascular compartment and increases her probability of survival...
September 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968901/general-practitioners-perspective-on-poverty-a-qualitative-study-in-montreal-canada
#19
Christine Loignon, Thomas Gottin, Sophie Dupéré, Christophe Bedos
Background: Social inequalities in healthcare systems persist worldwide. Physicians' prejudices and negative attitudes towards people living in poverty are one of the determinants of healthcare inequalities. We know very little about general practitioners' (GPs) perceptions of poverty, which shape their attitudes. Objective: To identify the perceptions of poverty of GPs who deal with it in everyday practice. Methods: A qualitative study based on interviews with GPs working in deprived urban neighbourhoods...
August 24, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966138/human-lesion-studies-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex
#20
REVIEW
Brett Schneider, Michael Koenigs
Studies of neurological patients with focal lesions involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) have demonstrated a critical role for this brain area in various aspects of cognition, emotion, and behavior. In this article, we review the key themes, methods, and findings from neuropsychological research on vmPFC lesion patients. Early case studies demonstrated profound disruptions in personality and behavior following vmPFC damage, including blunted affect, poor decision-making, and inappropriate social behavior...
September 28, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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