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Moral judgment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211503/the-enforcement-of-moral-boundaries-promotes-cooperation-and-prosocial-behavior-in-groups
#1
Brent Simpson, Robb Willer, Ashley Harrell
The threat of free-riding makes the marshalling of cooperation from group members a fundamental challenge of social life. Where classical social science theory saw the enforcement of moral boundaries as a critical way by which group members regulate one another's self-interest and build cooperation, moral judgments have most often been studied as processes internal to individuals. Here we investigate how the interpersonal expression of positive and negative moral judgments encourages cooperation in groups and prosocial behavior between group members...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195420/individual-differences-in-prototypical-moral-and-conventional-judgments-and-children-s-proactive-and-reactive-aggression
#2
Marc Jambon, Judith G Smetana
This article examined links between 4- and 6-year-olds' (n = 101; Mage  = 5.12 years, SD = 0.67; 53% male) ability to distinguish moral and conventional transgressions along different criteria and teacher ratings of proactive and reactive aggression. Latent difference score modeling revealed that moral transgressions were judged more unacceptable and wrong independent of rules and authority than conventional violations, but significant variability in moral-conventional distinctions was also observed...
February 13, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191996/the-impact-of-testimony-on-children-s-moralization-of-novel-actions
#3
Joshua Rottman, Liane Young, Deborah Kelemen
What leads children to moralize actions that cause no apparent harm? We hypothesized that adults' verbal instruction ("testimony"), as well as emotions such as disgust, would influence children's moralization of apparently harmless actions. To test this hypothesis, 7-year-old children were asked to render moral judgments of novel, seemingly victimless, body-directed or nature-directed actions after being exposed to adults' testimony or to an emotional induction. Study 1 demonstrated that children became more likely to judge actions as "wrong" upon being verbally presented with testimony about disgust or anger-but not upon being directly induced to feel disgusted...
February 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152398/derailing-the-trolley-everyday-utilitarian-judgments-in-groups-high-versus-low-in-psychopathic-traits-or-autistic-traits
#4
Karishma Vyas, Leila Jameel, Giulia Bellesi, Sarah Crawford, Shelley Channon
Moral decision-making has been linked with empathy. The present study built on previous work examining the relationship between psychopathy or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), two conditions putatively associated with deficits in empathy, and utilitarian decision-making. Students scoring high on self-report measures of psychopathic or autistic traits were presented with a novel task, 'Utilitarian Judgments', and compared to low trait control groups. This study replicated the classic finding that more direct links between the agents' actions and harm to victims mitigated utilitarian decision-making...
January 22, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150958/kill-or-die-moral-judgment-alters-linguistic-coding-of-causality
#5
Julian De Freitas, Peter DeScioli, Jason Nemirow, Maxim Massenkoff, Steven Pinker
What is the relationship between the language people use to describe an event and their moral judgments? We test the hypothesis that moral judgment and causative verbs rely on the same underlying mental model of people's actions. Experiment 1a finds that participants choose different verbs to describe the major variants of a moral dilemma, the trolley problem, mirroring differences in their wrongness judgments: they described direct harm with a single causative verb (Adam killed the man), and indirect harm with an intransitive verb in a periphrastic construction (Adam caused the man to die)...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150808/the-evolution-of-conditional-moral-assessment-in-indirect-reciprocity
#6
Tatsuya Sasaki, Isamu Okada, Yutaka Nakai
Indirect reciprocity is a major mechanism in the maintenance of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Indirect reciprocity leads to conditional cooperation according to social norms that discriminate the good (those who deserve to be rewarded with help) and the bad (those who should be punished by refusal of help). Despite intensive research, however, there is no definitive consensus on what social norms best promote cooperation through indirect reciprocity, and it remains unclear even how those who refuse to help the bad should be assessed...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135690/wasting-the-doctor-s-time-a-video-elicitation-interview-study-with-patients-in-primary-care
#7
Nadia Llanwarne, Jennifer Newbould, Jenni Burt, John L Campbell, Martin Roland
Reaching a decision about whether and when to visit the doctor can be a difficult process for the patient. An early visit may cause the doctor to wonder why the patient chose to consult when the disease was self-limiting and symptoms would have settled without medical input. A late visit may cause the doctor to express dismay that the patient waited so long before consulting. In the UK primary care context of constrained resources and government calls for cautious healthcare spending, there is all the more pressure on both doctor and patient to meet only when necessary...
January 18, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134541/true-happiness-the-role-of-morality-in-the-folk-concept-of-happiness
#8
Jonathan Phillips, Julian De Freitas, Christian Mott, June Gruber, Joshua Knobe
Recent scientific research has settled on a purely descriptive definition of happiness that is focused solely on agents' psychological states (high positive affect, low negative affect, high life satisfaction). In contrast to this understanding, recent research has suggested that the ordinary concept of happiness is also sensitive to the moral value of agents' lives. Five studies systematically investigate and explain the impact of morality on ordinary assessments of happiness. Study 1 demonstrates that moral judgments influence assessments of happiness not only for untrained participants, but also for academic researchers and even in those who study happiness specifically...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129727/emotional-reactions-in-moral-decision-making-are-influenced-by-empathy-and-alexithymia
#9
Cinzia Cecchetto, Sebastian Korb, Raffaella Ida Rumiati, Marilena Aiello
The role of emotional processes in driving moral choices remains debated. In particular, diminished emotional processing and reduced empathy have been associated with unusual high rates of utilitarian responses in moral judgments while, to date, the effects of diminished emotional processing and empathy on moral decision-making have been only partially considered. In this study, we investigated the influence of empathy and alexithymia on behaviour and emotional responses while participants performed a moral decision task...
January 27, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101699/humanity-at-the-edge-the-moral-laboratory-of-feeding-precarious-lives
#10
Mette N Svendsen, Iben M Gjødsbøl, Mie S Dam, Laura E Navne
At the heart of anthropology and the social sciences lies a notion of human existence according to which humans and animals share the basic need for food, but only humans have the capacity for morality. Based on fieldwork in a pig laboratory, a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and a dementia nursing home, we follow practices of feeding precarious lives lacking most markers of human personhood, including the exercise of moral judgment. Despite the absence of such markers, laboratory researchers and caregivers in these three sites do not abstain from engaging in questions about the moral status of the piglets, infants, and people with dementia in their care...
January 18, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094786/two-replications-of-an-investigation-on-empathy-and-utilitarian-judgement-across-socioeconomic-status
#11
Sarah Babcock, Yixian Li, Vanessa M Sinclair, Clint Thomson, Lorne Campbell
Research by Côté, Piff, and Willer (2013) found that through the induction of empathy in an experimental condition, the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and utilitarian moral judgment was diminished. Participant self-reported income interacted with experimental condition such that high SES participants who empathized with a disadvantaged group member redistributed fewer experimental dollars during an online task at the losing member's expense. This suggests that lower levels of empathy could help explain utilitarian decision-making in high SES individuals...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076403/correction-virtual-morality-transitioning-from-moral-judgment-to-moral-action
#12
Kathryn B Francis, Charles Howard, Ian S Howard, Michaela Gummerum, Giorgio Ganis, Grace Anderson, Sylvia Terbeck
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164374.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059634/judgments-of-moral-responsibility-and-wrongness-for-intentional-and-accidental-harm-and-purity-violations
#13
Mary Parkinson, Ruth M J Byrne
Two experiments examine whether people reason differently about intentional and accidental violations in the moral domains of harm and purity, by examining moral responsibility and wrongness judgments for violations that affect others or the self. The first experiment shows that intentional violations are judged to be worse than accidental ones, regardless of whether they are harm or purity violations-for example, Sam poisons his colleague versus Sam eats his dog, when participants judge how morally responsible was Sam for what he did, or how morally wrong was what Sam did...
January 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054817/imagining-wrong-fictitious-contexts-mitigate-condemnation-of-harm-more-than-impurity
#14
John S Sabo, Roger Giner-Sorolla
Over 5 experiments, we test the fictive pass asymmetry hypothesis. Following observations of ethics and public reactions to media, we propose that fictional contexts, such as reality, imagination, and virtual environments, will mitigate people's moral condemnation of harm violations, more so than purity violations. That is, imagining a purely harmful act is given a "fictive pass," in moral judgment, whereas imagining an abnormal act involving the body is evaluated more negatively because it is seen as more diagnostic of bad character...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054816/two-paths-to-blame-intentionality-directs-moral-information-processing-along-two-distinct-tracks
#15
Andrew E Monroe, Bertram F Malle
There is broad consensus that features such as causality, mental states, and preventability are key inputs to moral judgments of blame. What is not clear is exactly how people process these inputs to arrive at such judgments. Three studies provide evidence that early judgments of whether or not a norm violation is intentional direct information processing along 1 of 2 tracks: if the violation is deemed intentional, blame processing relies on information about the agent's reasons for committing the violation; if the violation is deemed unintentional, blame processing relies on information about how preventable the violation was...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045885/moral-distress-model-reconstructed-using-grounded-theory
#16
Hsun-Kuei Ko, Chi-Chun Chin, Min-Tao Hsu
BACKGROUND: The problems of nurse burnout and manpower shortage relate to moral distress. Thus, having a good understanding of moral distress is critical to developing strategies that effectively improve the clinical ethical climate and improve nursing retention in Taiwan. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to reconstruct the model of moral distress using the grounded theory. METHODS: Twenty-five staff nurses at work units who attend to the needs of adult, pediatric, acute, and critical disease or end-of-life-care patients were recruited as participants using theoretical sampling from three teaching hospitals in Taiwan...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045278/corporate-personhood-lay-perceptions-and-ethical-consequences
#17
Arthur S Jago, Kristin Laurin
Modern conceptions of corporate personhood have spurred considerable debate about the rights that society should afford business organizations. Across eight experiments, we compare lay perceptions of how corporations and people use rights, and also explore the with consequences of these judgments. We find that people believe corporations, compared to humans, are similarly likely to use rights in protective ways that prevent harm but more likely to use rights in nonprotective ways that appear independent from-or even create-harm (Experiments 1a through 1c and Experiment 2)...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028781/a-meta-analysis-of-response-time-tests-of-the-sequential-two-systems-model-of-moral-judgment
#18
Jonathan Baron, Burcu Gürçay
The (generalized) sequential two-system ("default interventionist") model of utilitarian moral judgment predicts that utilitarian responses often arise from a system-two correction of system-one deontological intuitions. Response-time (RT) results that seem to support this model are usually explained by the fact that low-probability responses have longer RTs. Following earlier results, we predicted response probability from each subject's tendency to make utilitarian responses (A, "Ability") and each dilemma's tendency to elicit deontological responses (D, "Difficulty"), estimated from a Rasch model...
December 27, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024438/to-participate-or-not-participate-in-unprofessional-behavior-is-that-the-question
#19
Renato Soleiman Franco, Camila Ament Giuliani Dos Santos Franco, Solena Ziemer Kusma, Milton Severo, Maria Amélia Ferreira
INTRODUCTION: Medical education provides students with abundant learning opportunities, each of which is embodied with messages concerning what is expected from students. This paper analyses students? exposure to instances of unprofessional behavior, investigating whether they judge such behavior to be unprofessional and whether they also participate in unprofessional behavior. METHODS: The survey developed in the Pritzker School of Medicine at the University of Chicago was the basis of this questionnaire that was answered by 276 students from two medical schools in Brazil and Portugal...
December 26, 2016: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000966/dirty-money-the-role-of-moral-history-in-economic-judgments
#20
Arber Tasimi, Susan A Gelman
Although traditional economic models posit that money is fungible, psychological research abounds with examples that deviate from this assumption. Across eight experiments, we provide evidence that people construe physical currency as carrying traces of its moral history. In Experiments 1 and 2, people report being less likely to want money with negative moral history (i.e., stolen money). Experiments 3-5 provide evidence against an alternative account that people's judgments merely reflect beliefs about the consequences of accepting stolen money rather than moral sensitivity...
December 21, 2016: Cognitive Science
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