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Moral judgment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772455/are-young-children-s-preferences-and-evaluations-of-moral-and-conventional-transgressors-associated-with-domain-distinctions-in-judgments
#1
Judith G Smetana, Courtney L Ball, Marc Jambon, Ha Na Yoo
The current study investigated associations between children's preferences and evaluations of moral and social-conventional transgressors in a novel puppet task and their links with explicit judgments in a standard interview. Children aged 2-3.25 years (M = 2.53 years, SD = 0.35) and 3.5-5 years (M = 4.38 years, SD = 0.52) watched two pairs of live puppet shows depicting actors committing a moral transgression and a conventional transgression and chose which transgressor they liked more, preferred more as a friend, thought was more wrong, and should get in more trouble; they also distributed resources to the transgressors...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767568/the-relationship-between-intuitive-action-choices-and-moral-reasoning-on-animal-ethics-issues-in-students-of-veterinary-medicine-and-other-relevant-professions
#2
Joy M Verrinder, Clive J C Phillips
With growing understanding of animals' capabilities, and public and organizational pressures to improve animal welfare, moral action by veterinarians and other relevant professionals to address animal issues is increasingly important. Little is known about how their action choices relate to their moral reasoning on animal ethics issues. A moral judgment measure, the VetDIT, with three animal and three non-animal scenarios, was used to investigate the action choices of 619 students in five animal- and two non-animal-related professional programs in one Australian university, and how these related to their moral reasoning based on Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), or Universal Principles (UP) schemas...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741993/of-mice-men-and-trolleys-hypothetical-judgment-versus-real-life-behavior-in-trolley-style-moral-dilemmas
#3
Dries H Bostyn, Sybren Sevenhant, Arne Roets
Scholars have been using hypothetical dilemmas to investigate moral decision making for decades. However, whether people's responses to these dilemmas truly reflect the decisions they would make in real life is unclear. In the current study, participants had to make the real-life decision to administer an electroshock (that they did not know was bogus) to a single mouse or allow five other mice to receive the shock. Our results indicate that responses to hypothetical dilemmas are not predictive of real-life dilemma behavior, but they are predictive of affective and cognitive aspects of the real-life decision...
May 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731732/the-cognition-of-severe-moral-failure-a-novel-approach-to-the-perception-of-evil
#4
Aner Govrin
I describe the perception of evil as a categorization judgment, based on a prototype, with extensive feedback loops and top-down influences. Based on the attachment approach to moral judgment (Govrin, 2014, 2018), I suggest that the perception of evil consists of four salient features: Extreme asymmetry between victim and perpetrator; a specific perceived attitude of the perpetrator toward the victim's vulnerability; the observer's inability to understand the perpetrator's perspective; and insuperable differences between the observer and perpetrator's judgment following the incident which shake the observer no less than the event itself...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718384/neural-substrates-for-moral-judgments-of-psychological-versus-physical-harm
#5
Lily Tsoi, James A Dungan, Aleksandr Chakroff, Liane L Young
While we may think about harm as primarily being about physical injury, harm can also take the form of negative psychological impact. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the extent to which moral judgments of physical and psychological harms are processed similarly, focusing on brain regions implicated in mental state reasoning or theory of mind, a key cognitive process for moral judgment. First, univariate analyses reveal item-specific features that lead to greater recruitment of theory of mind regions for psychological harm versus physical harm...
April 28, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691954/children-s-neural-processing-of-moral-scenarios-provides-insight-into-the-formation-and-reduction-of-in-group-biases
#6
Kimberly L Meidenbauer, Jason M Cowell, Jean Decety
Survival is dependent on sociality within groups which ensure sustenance and protection. From an early age, children show a natural tendency to sort people into groups and discriminate among them. The computations guiding evaluation of third-party behaviors are complex, requiring integration of intent, consequences, and knowledge of group affiliation. This study examined how perceiving third-party morally laden behavior influences children's likelihood to exhibit or reduce group bias. Following a minimal group paradigm assignment, young children (4-7 years) performed a moral evaluation task where group affiliations and moral actions were systematically juxtaposed, so that they were exposed to disproportionately antisocial in-group and prosocial out-group scenarios...
April 25, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667482/hot-utilitarianism-and-cold-deontology-insights-from-a-response-patterns-approach-to-sacrificial-and-real-world-dilemmas
#7
Alejandro Rosas, Hugo Viciana, Esteban Caviedes, Alejandra Arciniegas
Research on moral judgment with moral dilemmas suggests that "utilitarian" responses (UR) to sacrificial high-conflict dilemmas are due to decreased harm aversion, not only in individuals with clinical conditions, but also in healthy participants with high scores in antisocial personality traits. We investigated the patterns of responses to different dilemma types in healthy participants and present evidence that some URs to sacrificial dilemmas are morally motivated, as indicated by their empathic concern (EC) or primary psychopathy (PP) scores...
April 18, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663396/internet-trolling-and-everyday-sadism-parallel-effects-on-pain-perception-and-moral-judgment
#8
Erin E Buckels, Paul D Trapnell, Tamara Andjelovic, Delroy L Paulhus
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the association between online trolling and sadistic personality; and provide evidence that the reward and rationalization processes at work in sadism are likewise manifest in online trolling. METHOD: Online respondents (total N = 1,715) completed self-report measures of personality and trolling behavior. They subsequently engaged in one of two judgment tasks. In Study 1, respondents viewed stimuli depicting scenes of emotional/physical suffering, and provided ratings of (a) perceived pain intensity and (b) pleasure experienced while viewing the photos...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561230/are-children-perceived-to-be-morally-exceptional-different-sets-of-psychological-variables-predict-adults-moral-judgments-about-adults-and-young-children
#9
Cindel J M White, Mark Schaller
Conceptual analyses of moral cognition suggest that different variables may influence moral judgments depending upon the target's age. Five experiments (total N = 1,733) tested the implications for moral judgments about adults and young children. Results show that adults who were perceived to be more cognitively capable were judged to have greater moral rights and their transgressions were judged less harshly, but young children who were perceived to be more cognitively capable were judged to have fewer moral rights and their transgressions were judged more harshly...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553766/an-empirically-derived-taxonomy-of-moral-concepts
#10
Justin F Landy, Daniel M Bartels
We propose that methods from the study of category-based induction can be used to test the descriptive accuracy of theories of moral judgment. We had participants rate the likelihood that a person would engage in a variety of actions, given information about a previous behavior. From these likelihood ratings, we extracted a hierarchical, taxonomic model of how moral violations relate to each other (Study 1). We then tested the descriptive adequacy of this model against an alternative model inspired by Moral Foundations Theory, using classic tasks from induction research (Studies 2a and 2b), and using a measure of confirmation, which accounts for the baseline frequency of these violations (Study 3)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546413/human-animal-chimeras-and-hybrids-an-ethical-paradox-behind-moral-confusion
#11
Dietmar Hübner
The prospect of creating and using human-animal chimeras and hybrids (HACHs) that are significantly human-like in their composition, phenotype, cognition, or behavior meets with divergent moral judgments: on the one side, it is claimed that such beings might be candidates for human-analogous rights to protection and care; on the other side, it is supposed that their existence might disturb fundamental natural and social orders. This paper tries to show that both positions are paradoxically intertwined: they rely on two kinds of species arguments, "individual species arguments" and "group species arguments," which formulate opposing demands but are conceptually interdependent...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545762/bridging-the-divide-the-role-of-motivation-and-self-regulation-in-explaining-the-judgment-action-gap-related-to-academic-dishonesty
#12
Jason M Stephens
There is often a divide between moral judgment and moral action; between what we believe we ought to do (or not do) and what we do. Knowledge of this divide is not new, and numerous theories have attempted to offer more robust accounts of ethical decision-making and moral functioning. Knowledge of widespread academic dishonesty among students is also not new, and several studies have revealed that many students report cheating despite believing it is wrong. The present study, involving cross-sectional survey data from a sample of secondary students ( N = 380) in the United States, contributes to the literature on this important area of theory and research by fulfilling three broad purposes...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527183/moral-judgments-of-in-group-and-out-group-harm-in-post-conflict-urban-and-rural-croatian-communities
#13
Michael A Moncrieff, Pierre Lienard
Our research brings to light features of the social world that impact moral judgments and how they do so. The moral vignette data presented were collected in rural and urban Croatian communities that were involved to varying degrees in the Croatian Homeland War. We argue that rapid shifts in moral accommodations during periods of violent social strife can be explained by considering the role that coordination and social agents' ability to reconfigure their social network (i.e., relational mobility) play in moral reasoning...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519851/domain-general-and-domain-specific-patterns-of-activity-supporting-metacognition-in-human-prefrontal-cortex
#14
Jorge Morales, Hakwan Lau, Stephen M Fleming
Metacognition is the capacity to evaluate the success of one's own cognitive processes in various domains; for example, memory and perception. It remains controversial whether metacognition relies on a domain-general resource that is applied to different tasks or if self-evaluative processes are domain specific. Here, we investigated this issue directly by examining the neural substrates engaged when metacognitive judgments were made by human participants of both sexes during perceptual and memory tasks matched for stimulus and performance characteristics...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516303/living-slow-and-being-moral-life-history-predicts-the-dual-process-of-other-centered-reasoning-and-judgments
#15
Nan Zhu, Skyler T Hawk, Lei Chang
Drawing from the dual process model of morality and life history theory, the present research examined the role of cognitive and emotional processes as bridges between basic environmental challenges (i.e., unpredictability and competition) and other-centered moral orientation (i.e., prioritizing the welfare of others). In two survey studies, cognitive and emotional processes represented by future-oriented planning and emotional attachment, respectively (Study 1, N = 405), or by perspective taking and empathic concern, respectively (Study 2, N = 424), positively predicted other-centeredness in prosocial moral reasoning (Study 1) and moral judgment dilemmas based on rationality or intuition (Study 2)...
June 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512030/task-dependent-evaluative-processing-of-moral-and-emotional-content-during-comprehension-an-erp-study
#16
Angelika Kunkel, Ruth Filik, Ian Grant Mackenzie, Hartmut Leuthold
Recently, we showed that when participants passively read about moral transgressions (e.g., adultery), they implicitly engage in the evaluative (good-bad) categorization of incoming information, as indicated by a larger event-related brain potential (ERP) positivity to immoral than to moral scenarios (Leuthold, Kunkel, Mackenzie, & Filik in Social, Cognitive, and Affective Neuroscience, 10, 1021-1029, 2015). Behavioral and neuroimaging studies indicated that explicit moral tasks prioritize the semantic-cognitive analysis of incoming information but that implicit tasks, as used in Leuthold et al...
April 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465776/fair-chances-and-hard-work-families-making-sense-of-inequality-and-opportunity-in-21st-century-britain
#17
Helene Snee, Fiona Devine
In British social mobility discourse, the rhetoric of fair access can obscure wider issues of social justice. While socio-economic inequalities continue to shape young people's lives, sociological work on class dis-identification suggests social class is less obviously meaningful as a source of individual and collective identity. This paper considers subjective understandings of the post-16 education and employment landscape in this context, drawing on qualitative research exploring the aspirations of young men and women as they completed compulsory education in north-west England, and the hopes their parents had for their future...
February 21, 2018: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459195/cultural-adaptation-and-validation-of-the-lasater-clinical-judgment-rubric-in-nursing-students-in-spain
#18
Montserrat Román-Cereto, Silvia García-Mayor, Shakira Kaknani-Uttumchandani, Marina García-Gámez, Alvaro León-Campos, Eloisa Fernández-Ordóñez, Maria Luisa Ruiz-García, C Martí-García, Inmaculada López-Leiva, Kathie Lasater, José Miguel Morales-Asencio
BACKGROUND: The clinical judgment and decision-making abilities of nurses can influence many health outcomes, hence the importance of addressing these qualities in university studies. In this respect, clinical simulation is a commonly employed teaching method. The evaluation of simulation activities requires standardised instruments, such as the Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric, which is widely used for this purpose, although a culturally adapted and validated version in Spain is not available...
May 2018: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451322/intuitive-probabilities-and-the-limitation-of-moral-imagination
#19
Arseny A Ryazanov, Jonathan Knutzen, Samuel C Rickless, Nicholas J S Christenfeld, Dana Kay Nelkin
There is a vast literature that seeks to uncover features underlying moral judgment by eliciting reactions to hypothetical scenarios such as trolley problems. These thought experiments assume that participants accept the outcomes stipulated in the scenarios. Across seven studies (N = 968), we demonstrate that intuition overrides stipulated outcomes even when participants are explicitly told that an action will result in a particular outcome. Participants instead substitute their own estimates of the probability of outcomes for stipulated outcomes, and these probability estimates in turn influence moral judgments...
February 16, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427877/the-origins-of-infants-fairness-concerns-and-links-to-prosocial-behavior
#20
REVIEW
Jessica A Sommerville, Elizabeth A Enright
Concerns about fairness are central to mature moral judgments. We review research regarding the origins of a sensitivity to distributive fairness, and how it relates to early sharing. Infants' sensitivity to fairness appears to be commensurate with that of school-age children: infants notice violations to fairness norms and evaluate individuals based on their fair or unfair behavior. However, it may differ in other ways: there is no evidence that infants punish unfair individuals. Sharing behavior plays a role in both the developmental emergence of, and subsequent individual differences in, infants' fairness concerns...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
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