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Moral judgment

Dietmar Hübner
The prospect of creating and using human-animal chimeras and hybrids (HACHs) that are significantly human-like in their composition, phenotype, cognition, or behavior meets with divergent moral judgments: on the one side, it is claimed that such beings might be candidates for human-analogous rights to protection and care; on the other side, it is supposed that their existence might disturb fundamental natural and social orders. This paper tries to show that both positions are paradoxically intertwined: they rely on two kinds of species arguments, "individual species arguments" and "group species arguments," which formulate opposing demands but are conceptually interdependent...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Jason M Stephens
There is often a divide between moral judgment and moral action; between what we believe we ought to do (or not do) and what we do. Knowledge of this divide is not new, and numerous theories have attempted to offer more robust accounts of ethical decision-making and moral functioning. Knowledge of widespread academic dishonesty among students is also not new, and several studies have revealed that many students report cheating despite believing it is wrong. The present study, involving cross-sectional survey data from a sample of secondary students ( N = 380) in the United States, contributes to the literature on this important area of theory and research by fulfilling three broad purposes...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Michael A Moncrieff, Pierre Lienard
Our research brings to light features of the social world that impact moral judgments and how they do so. The moral vignette data presented were collected in rural and urban Croatian communities that were involved to varying degrees in the Croatian Homeland War. We argue that rapid shifts in moral accommodations during periods of violent social strife can be explained by considering the role that coordination and social agents' ability to reconfigure their social network (i.e., relational mobility) play in moral reasoning...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jorge Morales, Hakwan Lau, Stephen M Fleming
Metacognition is the capacity to evaluate the success of one's own cognitive processes in various domains, e.g. memory and perception. It remains controversial whether metacognition relies on a domain-general resource that is applied to different tasks, or whether self-evaluative processes are domain-specific. Here we directly investigated this issue by examining the neural substrates engaged when metacognitive judgments were made by human participants of both sexes during perceptual and memory tasks matched for stimulus and performance characteristics...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Nan Zhu, Skyler T Hawk, Lei Chang
Drawing from the dual process model of morality and life history theory, the present research examined the role of cognitive and emotional processes as bridges between basic environmental challenges (i.e., unpredictability and competition) and other-centered moral orientation (i.e., prioritizing the welfare of others). In two survey studies, cognitive and emotional processes represented by future-oriented planning and emotional attachment, respectively (Study 1, N = 405), or by perspective taking and empathic concern, respectively (Study 2, N = 424), positively predicted other-centeredness in prosocial moral reasoning (Study 1) and moral judgment dilemmas based on rationality or intuition (Study 2)...
March 8, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Angelika Kunkel, Ruth Filik, Ian Grant Mackenzie, Hartmut Leuthold
Recently, we showed that when participants passively read about moral transgressions (e.g., adultery), they implicitly engage in the evaluative (good-bad) categorization of incoming information, as indicated by a larger event-related brain potential (ERP) positivity to immoral than to moral scenarios (Leuthold, Kunkel, Mackenzie, & Filik in Social, Cognitive, and Affective Neuroscience, 10, 1021-1029, 2015). Behavioral and neuroimaging studies indicated that explicit moral tasks prioritize the semantic-cognitive analysis of incoming information but that implicit tasks, as used in Leuthold et al...
March 6, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Helene Snee, Fiona Devine
In British social mobility discourse, the rhetoric of fair access can obscure wider issues of social justice. While socio-economic inequalities continue to shape young people's lives, sociological work on class dis-identification suggests social class is less obviously meaningful as a source of individual and collective identity. This paper considers subjective understandings of the post-16 education and employment landscape in this context, drawing on qualitative research exploring the aspirations of young men and women as they completed compulsory education in north-west England, and the hopes their parents had for their future...
February 21, 2018: British Journal of Sociology
Montserrat Román-Cereto, Silvia García-Mayor, Shakira Kaknani-Uttumchandani, Marina García-Gámez, Alvaro León-Campos, Eloisa Fernández-Ordóñez, Maria Luisa Ruiz-García, C Martí-García, Inmaculada López-Leiva, Kathie Lasater, José Miguel Morales-Asencio
BACKGROUND: The clinical judgment and decision-making abilities of nurses can influence many health outcomes, hence the importance of addressing these qualities in university studies. In this respect, clinical simulation is a commonly employed teaching method. The evaluation of simulation activities requires standardised instruments, such as the Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric, which is widely used for this purpose, although a culturally adapted and validated version in Spain is not available...
February 9, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Arseny A Ryazanov, Jonathan Knutzen, Samuel C Rickless, Nicholas J S Christenfeld, Dana Kay Nelkin
There is a vast literature that seeks to uncover features underlying moral judgment by eliciting reactions to hypothetical scenarios such as trolley problems. These thought experiments assume that participants accept the outcomes stipulated in the scenarios. Across seven studies (N = 968), we demonstrate that intuition overrides stipulated outcomes even when participants are explicitly told that an action will result in a particular outcome. Participants instead substitute their own estimates of the probability of outcomes for stipulated outcomes, and these probability estimates in turn influence moral judgments...
February 16, 2018: Cognitive Science
Jessica A Sommerville, Elizabeth A Enright
Concerns about fairness are central to mature moral judgments. We review research regarding the origins of a sensitivity to distributive fairness, and how it relates to early sharing. Infants' sensitivity to fairness appears to be commensurate with that of school-age children: infants notice violations to fairness norms and evaluate individuals based on their fair or unfair behavior. However, it may differ in other ways: there is no evidence that infants punish unfair individuals. Sharing behavior plays a role in both the developmental emergence of, and subsequent individual differences in, infants' fairness concerns...
January 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Michał Misiak, Marina Butovskaya, Piotr Sorokowski
People judge food wasting as an immoral behavior. Although moral concerns vary widely across cultures, to this date, food wasting moral judgments were investigated only among rich and industrialized ones. This study reports first evidence of cultural variability on moral judgments of food wasting between modern and traditional cultures. We conducted our study among the Maasai - pastoralists of Ngorongoro, Yali - horticulturalists of West Papua, and among citizens of Poland. According to the results, Maasai judge food wasting as more immoral compared to Yali and Poles...
February 2, 2018: Appetite
Jennifer E Stellar, Robb Willer
While moral character heavily influences global evaluations of others (Goodwin, Piazza, & Rozin, 2014), its causal effect on perceptions of others' competence (i.e., one's knowledge, skills, and abilities) is less clear. We found that people readily use information about another's morality when judging their competence, despite holding folk intuitions that these domains are independent. Across 6 studies (n = 1,567), including 2 preregistered experiments, participants judged targets who committed hypothetical transgressions (Studies 1 and 3), cheated on lab tasks (Study 2), acted selfishly in economic games (Study 4), and received low morality ratings from coworkers (Study 5 and 6) as less competent than control or moral targets...
February 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Bertram Gawronski, Paul Conway, Joel Armstrong, Rebecca Friesdorf, Mandy Hütter
Effects of incidental emotions on moral dilemma judgments have garnered interest because they demonstrate the context-dependent nature of moral decision-making. Six experiments (N = 727) investigated the effects of incidental happiness, sadness, and anger on responses in moral dilemmas that pit the consequences of a given action for the greater good (i.e., utilitarianism) against the consistency of that action with moral norms (i.e., deontology). Using the CNI model of moral decision-making, we further tested whether the three kinds of emotions shape moral dilemma judgments by influencing (a) sensitivity to consequences, (b) sensitivity to moral norms, or (c) general preference for inaction versus action regardless of consequences and moral norms (or some combination of the three)...
February 1, 2018: Emotion
Caleb J Reynolds, Paul Conway
Moral dilemmas typically entail directly causing harm (said to violate deontological ethics) to maximize overall outcomes (said to uphold utilitarian ethics). The dual process model suggests harm-rejection judgments derive from affective reactions to harm, whereas harm-acceptance judgments derive from cognitive evaluations of outcomes. Recently, Miller, Hannikainen, and Cushman (2014) argued that harm-rejection judgments primarily reflect self-focused-rather than other-focused-emotional responses, because only action aversion (self-focused reactions to the thought of causing harm), not outcome aversion (other-focused reactions to witnessing suffering), consistently predicted dilemma responses...
February 1, 2018: Emotion
Julio González-Álvarez, Teresa Cervera-Crespo
Sexual attraction in humans is influenced by cultural or moral factors, and some gender differences can emerge in this complex interaction. A previous study found that men dissociate sexual attraction from moral judgment more than women do. Two experiments consisting of giving attractiveness ratings to photos of real opposite-sex individuals showed that men, compared to women, were significantly less influenced by the moral valence of a description about the person shown in each photo. There is evidence of some processing differences between real and artificial computer-generated faces...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
C Daryl Cameron, Justin Reber, Victoria L Spring, Daniel Tranel
Implicit moral evaluations-spontaneous, unintentional assessments of the moral status of actions or persons-play a pivotal role in supporting moral behavior, yet little research has attempted to model variability in these moral evaluations across healthy and clinical populations. Prior research reveals that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is a critical area underpinning affect and morality, and patients with vmPFC lesions show abnormalities in moral judgment and moral behavior. We use indirect measurement and multinomial modeling to understand differences in implicit moral evaluations among patients with vmPFC lesions...
January 27, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Damien L Crone, Stefan Bode, Carsten Murawski, Simon M Laham
A major obstacle for the design of rigorous, reproducible studies in moral psychology is the lack of suitable stimulus sets. Here, we present the Socio-Moral Image Database (SMID), the largest standardized moral stimulus set assembled to date, containing 2,941 freely available photographic images, representing a wide range of morally (and affectively) positive, negative and neutral content. The SMID was validated with over 820,525 individual judgments from 2,716 participants, with normative ratings currently available for all images on affective valence and arousal, moral wrongness, and relevance to each of the five moral values posited by Moral Foundations Theory...
2018: PloS One
Byelca Huamán, Alfonso Gushiken, Carlos Benites, Fabiola Quiroz, Lisset García-Fernández
OBJECTIVES: To identify the barriers that limit compliance with the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV measures in two indigenous communities of the Amazon region of Peru. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with pregnant women and mothers of children younger than 1 year of the awajún and wampis indigenous communities diagnosed with HIV in the period 2014-2015...
October 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Daniel A Effron
This research demonstrates how counterfactual thoughts can lead people to excuse others for telling falsehoods. When a falsehood aligned with participants' political preferences, reflecting on how it could have been true led them to judge it as less unethical to tell, which in turn led them to judge a politician who told it as having a more moral character and deserving less punishment. When a falsehood did not align with political preferences, this effect was significantly smaller and less reliable, in part because people doubted the plausibility of the relevant counterfactual thoughts...
January 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Ben R Newell, Mike E Le Pelley
Can judgments be biased via passive monitoring of eye-gaze? We examined this question using a perceptual discrimination task (Experiment 1) and a complex moral judgment task (Experiment 2). Information about the location of participants' gaze at particular time-points in a trial was used to prompt responses. When there was no objective perceptual information available to decision-makers, the timing of the prompt had a small, but detectable effect on judgments (Experiment 1). However, this small effect did not scale up to more complex judgments about moral issues (Experiment 2)...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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