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Moral judgment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917248/explanatory-judgment-moral-offense-and-value-free-science
#1
Matteo Colombo, Leandra Bucher, Yoel Inbar
A popular view in philosophy of science contends that scientific reasoning is objective to the extent that the appraisal of scientific hypotheses is not influenced by moral, political, economic, or social values, but only by the available evidence. A large body of results in the psychology of motivated-reasoning has put pressure on the empirical adequacy of this view. The present study extends this body of results by providing direct evidence that the moral offensiveness of a scientific hypothesis biases explanatory judgment along several dimensions, even when prior credence in the hypothesis is controlled for...
2016: Review of Philosophy and Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914116/so-it-is-so-it-shall-be-group-regularities-license-children-s-prescriptive-judgments
#2
Steven O Roberts, Susan A Gelman, Arnold K Ho
When do descriptive regularities (what characteristics individuals have) become prescriptive norms (what characteristics individuals should have)? We examined children's (4-13 years) and adults' use of group regularities to make prescriptive judgments, employing novel groups (Hibbles and Glerks) that engaged in morally neutral behaviors (e.g., eating different kinds of berries). Participants were introduced to conforming or non-conforming individuals (e.g., a Hibble who ate berries more typical of a Glerk)...
December 3, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913987/a-moral-normative-framework-for-the-judgment-of-actions-and-decisions-in-the-construction-industry-and-engineering-part-ii
#3
Omar J Alkhatib
The construction industry is typically characterized as a fragmented, multi-organizational setting in which members from different technical backgrounds and moral values join together to develop a particular business or project. The most challenging obstacle in the construction process is to achieve a successful practice and to identify and apply an ethical framework to manage the behavior of involved specialists and contractors and to ensure the quality of all completed construction activities. The framework should reflect a common moral ground for myriad people involved in this process to survive and compete ethically in today's turbulent construction market...
December 2, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903725/hippocampal-damage-increases-deontological-responses-during-moral-decision-making
#4
Cornelia McCormick, Clive R Rosenthal, Thomas D Miller, Eleanor A Maguire
: Complex moral decision making is associated with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in humans, and damage to this region significantly increases the frequency of utilitarian judgments. Since the vmPFC has strong anatomical and functional links with the hippocampus, here we asked how patients with selective bilateral hippocampal damage would derive moral decisions on a classic moral dilemmas paradigm. We found that the patients approved of the utilitarian options significantly less often than control participants, favoring instead deontological responses-rejecting actions that harm even one person...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865113/implicit-moral-evaluations-a-multinomial-modeling-approach
#5
C Daryl Cameron, B Keith Payne, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Julian A Scheffer, Michael Inzlicht
Implicit moral evaluations-i.e., immediate, unintentional assessments of the wrongness of actions or persons-play a central role in supporting moral behavior in everyday life. Yet little research has employed methods that rigorously measure individual differences in implicit moral evaluations. In five experiments, we develop a new sequential priming measure-the Moral Categorization Task-and a multinomial model that decomposes judgment on this task into multiple component processes. These include implicit moral evaluations of moral transgression primes (Unintentional Judgment), accurate moral judgments about target actions (Intentional Judgment), and a directional tendency to judge actions as morally wrong (Response Bias)...
November 16, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858712/self-consciousness-deficits-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia
#6
Eva Ma Arroyo-Anlló, Adèle Turpin Boustonb, Marie-Noëlle Fargeau, Begoña Orgaz Baz, Roger Gil
Self-consciousness (SC) is multifaceted and considered to be the consciousness of one's own mental states. The main aim of this paper is to compare SC in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Three groups (control and patient groups) of 23 subjects each were assessed using an SC questionnaire. Both types of dementia clearly induce an alteration of SC. The bvFTD group showed a greater impairment in SC than the AD and control groups. The SC score was strongly associated with frontal functions...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842702/normality-part-descriptive-part-prescriptive
#7
Adam Bear, Joshua Knobe
People's beliefs about normality play an important role in many aspects of cognition and life (e.g., causal cognition, linguistic semantics, cooperative behavior). But how do people determine what sorts of things are normal in the first place? Past research has studied both people's representations of statistical norms (e.g., the average) and their representations of prescriptive norms (e.g., the ideal). Four studies suggest that people's notion of normality incorporates both of these types of norms. In particular, people's representations of what is normal were found to be influenced both by what they believed to be descriptively average and by what they believed to be prescriptively ideal...
November 10, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833583/what-makes-children-defy-majorities-the-role-of-dissenters-in-chinese-and-spanish-preschoolers-social-judgments
#8
Ileana Enesco, Carla Sebastián-Enesco, Silvia Guerrero, Siyu Quan, Sonia Garijo
When many people say the same thing, the individual is more likely to endorse this information than when just a single person says the same. Yet, the influence of consensus information may be modulated by many personal, contextual and cultural variables. Here, we study the sensitivity of Chinese (N = 68) and Spanish (N = 82) preschoolers to consensus in social decision making contexts. Children faced two different types of peer-interaction events, which involved (1) uncertain or ambiguous scenarios open to interpretation (social interpretation context), and (2) explicit scenarios depicting the exclusion of a peer (moral judgment context)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797544/do-psychopathic-individuals-possess-a-misaligned-moral-compass-a-meta-analytic-examination-of-psychopathy-s-relations-with-moral-judgment
#9
Julia Marshall, Ashley L Watts, Scott O Lilienfeld
Psychopathic individuals are often characterized as lacking a moral sense. Although this hypothesis has received ample experimental attention over the past decade, findings have been inconsistent. To elucidate the relationship between psychopathy and abnormal moral judgment, we conducted a meta-analysis of the research on psychopathy and morality-related variables (k = 23, N = 4376). A random effects model indicated a small but statistically significant relation between psychopathy and moral decision-making (rw = ...
October 31, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795700/corrigendum-mental-state-understanding-and-moral-judgment-in-children-with-autistic-spectrum-disorder
#10
Francesco Margoni, Luca Surian
[This corrects the article on p. 1478 in vol. 7, PMID: 27729894.].
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783704/intuition-and-moral-decision-making-the-effect-of-time-pressure-and-cognitive-load-on-moral-judgment-and-altruistic-behavior
#11
Gustav Tinghög, David Andersson, Caroline Bonn, Magnus Johannesson, Michael Kirchler, Lina Koppel, Daniel Västfjäll
Do individuals intuitively favor certain moral actions over others? This study explores the role of intuitive thinking-induced by time pressure and cognitive load-in moral judgment and behavior. We conduct experiments in three different countries (Sweden, Austria, and the United States) involving over 1,400 subjects. All subjects responded to four trolley type dilemmas and four dictator games involving different charitable causes. Decisions were made under time pressure/time delay or while experiencing cognitive load or control...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745112/what-makes-moral-dilemma-judgments-utilitarian-or-deontological
#12
Bertram Gawronski, Jennifer S Beer
The distinction between utilitarianism and deontology has become a prevailing framework for conceptualizing moral judgment. According to the principle of utilitarianism, the morality of an action depends on its outcomes. In contrast, the principle of deontology states that the morality of an action depends on its consistency with moral norms. To identify the processes underlying utilitarian and deontological judgments, research in psychology and neuroscience has investigated responses to moral dilemmas that pit one principle against the other (e...
October 15, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736131/the-road-to-heaven-is-paved-with-effort-perceived-effort-amplifies-moral-judgment
#13
Yochanan E Bigman, Maya Tamir
If good intentions pave the road to hell, what paves the road to heaven? We propose that moral judgments are based, in part, on the degree of effort exerted in performing the immoral or moral act. Because effort can serve as an index of goal importance, greater effort in performing immoral acts would lead to more negative judgments, whereas greater effort in performing moral acts would lead to more positive judgments. In support of these ideas, we found that perceived effort intensified judgments of both immoral (Studies 1-2) and moral (Studies 2-7) agents...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729894/mental-state-understanding-and-moral-judgment-in-children-with-autistic-spectrum-disorder
#14
Francesco Margoni, Luca Surian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727246/data-from-a-pre-publication-independent-replication-initiative-examining-ten-moral-judgement-effects
#15
Warren Tierney, Martin Schweinsberg, Jennifer Jordan, Deanna M Kennedy, Israr Qureshi, S Amy Sommer, Nico Thornley, Nikhil Madan, Michelangelo Vianello, Eli Awtrey, Luke Lei Zhu, Daniel Diermeier, Justin E Heinze, Malavika Srinivasan, David Tannenbaum, Eliza Bivolaru, Jason Dana, Clintin P Davis-Stober, Christilene du Plessis, Quentin F Gronau, Andrew C Hafenbrack, Eko Yi Liao, Alexander Ly, Maarten Marsman, Toshio Murase, Michael Schaerer, Christina M Tworek, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Lynn Wong, Tabitha Anderson, Christopher W Bauman, Wendy L Bedwell, Victoria Brescoll, Andrew Canavan, Jesse J Chandler, Erik Cheries, Sapna Cheryan, Felix Cheung, Andrei Cimpian, Mark A Clark, Diana Cordon, Fiery Cushman, Peter H Ditto, Alice Amell, Sarah E Frick, Monica Gamez-Djokic, Rebecca Hofstein Grady, Jesse Graham, Jun Gu, Adam Hahn, Brittany E Hanson, Nicole J Hartwich, Kristie Hein, Yoel Inbar, Lily Jiang, Tehlyr Kellogg, Nicole Legate, Timo P Luoma, Heidi Maibeucher, Peter Meindl, Jennifer Miles, Alexandra Mislin, Daniel C Molden, Matt Motyl, George Newman, Hoai Huong Ngo, Harvey Packham, P Scott Ramsay, Jennifer L Ray, Aaron M Sackett, Anne-Laure Sellier, Tatiana Sokolova, Walter Sowden, Daniel Storage, Xiaomin Sun, Jay J Van Bavel, Anthony N Washburn, Cong Wei, Erik Wetter, Carlos T Wilson, Sophie-Charlotte Darroux, Eric Luis Uhlmann
We present the data from a crowdsourced project seeking to replicate findings in independent laboratories before (rather than after) they are published. In this Pre-Publication Independent Replication (PPIR) initiative, 25 research groups attempted to replicate 10 moral judgment effects from a single laboratory's research pipeline of unpublished findings. The 10 effects were investigated using online/lab surveys containing psychological manipulations (vignettes) followed by questionnaires. Results revealed a mix of reliable, unreliable, and culturally moderated findings...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723826/virtual-morality-transitioning-from-moral-judgment-to-moral-action
#16
Kathryn B Francis, Charles Howard, Ian S Howard, Michaela Gummerum, Giorgio Ganis, Grace Anderson, Sylvia Terbeck
The nature of moral action versus moral judgment has been extensively debated in numerous disciplines. We introduce Virtual Reality (VR) moral paradigms examining the action individuals take in a high emotionally arousing, direct action-focused, moral scenario. In two studies involving qualitatively different populations, we found a greater endorsement of utilitarian responses-killing one in order to save many others-when action was required in moral virtual dilemmas compared to their judgment counterparts...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709981/deontological-coherence-a-framework-for-commonsense-moral-reasoning
#17
Keith J Holyoak, Derek Powell
We review a broad range of work, primarily in cognitive and social psychology, that provides insight into the processes of moral judgment. In particular, we consider research on pragmatic reasoning about regulations and on coherence in decision making, both areas in which psychological theories have been guided by work in legal philosophy. Armed with these essential prerequisites, we sketch a psychological framework for how ordinary people make judgments about moral issues. Based on a literature review, we show how the framework of deontological coherence unifies findings in moral psychology that have often been explained in terms of a grab-bag of heuristics and biases...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709976/boredom-begs-to-differ-differentiation-from-other-negative-emotions
#18
Wijnand A P van Tilburg, Eric R Igou
Boredom research is booming. Nonetheless, a comprehensive understanding of boredom in relation to other negative emotions is lacking. This ambiguity impedes accurate interpretation of boredom's causes and consequences. To gain more insights into boredom, we examined in detail how it differs from a range of other negative experiences, namely sadness, anger, frustration, fear, disgust, depression, guilt, shame, regret, and disappointment. Our research indicates that the appraisals associated with boredom distinguish it clearly from other negative emotions; conceptually (Study 1), in terms of state experiences (Study 2), and in terms of individual differences in these experiences (Study 3)...
October 6, 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708460/respectability-morality-and-disgust-in-the-night-time-economy-exploring-reactions-to-lap-dance-clubs-in-england-and-wales
#19
Phil Hubbard, Rachela Colosi
The night-time economy is often described as repelling consumers fearful of the 'undesirable Others' imagined dominant within such time-spaces. In this paper we explore this by describing attitudes towards, and reactions to, one particularly contentious site: the 'lap dance' club. Often targeted by campaigners in England and Wales as a source of criminality and anti-sociality, in this paper we shift the focus from fear to disgust, and argue that Sexual Entertainment Venues (SEVs) are opposed on the basis of moral judgments that reflect distinctions of both class and gender...
November 2015: Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688764/rawlsian-maximin-rule-operates-as-a-common-cognitive-anchor-in-distributive-justice-and-risky-decisions
#20
Tatsuya Kameda, Keigo Inukai, Satomi Higuchi, Akitoshi Ogawa, Hackjin Kim, Tetsuya Matsuda, Masamichi Sakagami
Distributive justice concerns the moral principles by which we seek to allocate resources fairly among diverse members of a society. Although the concept of fair allocation is one of the fundamental building blocks for societies, there is no clear consensus on how to achieve "socially just" allocations. Here, we examine neurocognitive commonalities of distributive judgments and risky decisions. We explore the hypothesis that people's allocation decisions for others are closely related to economic decisions for oneself at behavioral, cognitive, and neural levels, via a concern about the minimum, worst-off position...
September 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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