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Moral judgment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727735/we-perceive-a-mind-in-a-robot-when-we-help-it
#1
Tetsushi Tanibe, Takaaki Hashimoto, Kaori Karasawa
People sometimes perceive a mind in inorganic entities like robots. Psychological research has shown that mind perception correlates with moral judgments and that immoral behaviors (i.e., intentional harm) facilitate mind perception toward otherwise mindless victims. We conducted a vignette experiment (N = 129; Mage = 21.8 ± 6.0 years) concerning human-robot interactions and extended previous research's results in two ways. First, mind perception toward the robot was facilitated when it received a benevolent behavior, although only when participants took the perspective of an actor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725188/using-virtual-reality-to-assess-ethical-decisions-in-road-traffic-scenarios-applicability-of-value-of-life-based-models-and-influences-of-time-pressure
#2
Leon R Sütfeld, Richard Gast, Peter König, Gordon Pipa
Self-driving cars are posing a new challenge to our ethics. By using algorithms to make decisions in situations where harming humans is possible, probable, or even unavoidable, a self-driving car's ethical behavior comes pre-defined. Ad hoc decisions are made in milliseconds, but can be based on extensive research and debates. The same algorithms are also likely to be used in millions of cars at a time, increasing the impact of any inherent biases, and increasing the importance of getting it right. Previous research has shown that moral judgment and behavior are highly context-dependent, and comprehensive and nuanced models of the underlying cognitive processes are out of reach to date...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718086/erratum-to-a-brief-assessment-tool-for-investigating-facets-of-moral-judgment-from-realistic-vignettes
#3
Michael Kruepke, Erin K Molloy, Konrad Bresin, Aron K Barbey, Edelyn Verona
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701703/the-behavioral-and-neural-basis-of-empathic-blame
#4
Indrajeet Patil, Marta Calò, Federico Fornasier, Fiery Cushman, Giorgia Silani
Mature moral judgments rely both on a perpetrator's intent to cause harm, and also on the actual harm caused-even when unintended. Much prior research asks how intent information is represented neurally, but little asks how even unintended harms influence judgment. We interrogate the psychological and neural basis of this process, focusing especially on the role of empathy for the victim of a harmful act. Using fMRI, we found that the 'empathy for pain' network was involved in encoding harmful outcomes and integrating harmfulness information for different types of moral judgments, and individual differences in the extent to which this network was active during encoding and integration of harmfulness information determined severity of moral judgments...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690572/utilitarian-moral-judgment-exclusively-coheres-with-inference-from-is-to-ought
#5
Shira Elqayam, Meredith R Wilkinson, Valerie A Thompson, David E Over, Jonathan St B T Evans
Faced with moral choice, people either judge according to pre-existing obligations (deontological judgment), or by taking into account the consequences of their actions (utilitarian judgment). We propose that the latter coheres with a more general cognitive mechanism - deontic introduction, the tendency to infer normative ('deontic') conclusions from descriptive premises (is-ought inference). Participants were presented with vignettes that allowed either deontological or utilitarian choice, and asked to draw a range of deontic conclusions, as well as judge the overall moral rightness of each choice separately...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685842/two-models-of-moral-judgment
#6
Shane Bretz, Ron Sun
This paper compares two theories and their two corresponding computational models of human moral judgment. In order to better address psychological realism and generality of theories of moral judgment, more detailed and more psychologically nuanced models are needed. In particular, a motivationally based theory of moral judgment (and its corresponding computational model) is developed in this paper that provides a more accurate account of human moral judgment than an existing emotion-reason conflict theory...
July 7, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682099/moral-development-in-context-associations-of-neighborhood-and-maternal-discipline-with-preschoolers-moral-judgments
#7
Courtney L Ball, Judith G Smetana, Melissa L Sturge-Apple, Jennifer H Suor, Michael A Skibo
Associations among moral judgments, neighborhood risk, and maternal discipline were examined in 118 socioeconomically diverse preschoolers (Mage = 41.84 months, SD = 1.42). Children rated the severity and punishment deserved for 6 prototypical moral transgressions entailing physical and psychological harm and unfairness. They also evaluated 3 criteria for assessing maturity in moral judgments: whether acts were considered wrong regardless of rules and wrong independent of authority, as well as whether moral rules were considered unacceptable to alter (collectively called criterion judgments)...
July 6, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652361/free-will-beliefs-predict-attitudes-toward-unethical-behavior-and-criminal-punishment
#8
Nathan D Martin, Davide Rigoni, Kathleen D Vohs
Do free will beliefs influence moral judgments? Answers to this question from theoretical and empirical perspectives are controversial. This study attempted to replicate past research and offer theoretical insights by analyzing World Values Survey data from residents of 46 countries (n = 65,111 persons). Corroborating experimental findings, free will beliefs predicted intolerance of unethical behaviors and support for severe criminal punishment. Further, the link between free will beliefs and intolerance of unethical behavior was moderated by variations in countries' institutional integrity, defined as the degree to which countries had accountable, corruption-free public sectors...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651546/allocating-health-care-resources-a-questionnaire-experiment-on-the-predictive-success-of-rules
#9
Marlies Ahlert, Lars Schwettmann
BACKGROUND: The topic of this paper is related to equity in health within a country. In public health care sectors of many countries decisions on priority setting with respect to treatment of different types of diseases or patient groups are implicitly or explicitly made. Priorities are realized by allocation decisions for medical resources where moral judgments play an important role with respect to goals and measures that should be applied. The aim of this study is to explore the moral intuitions held in the German society related to priorities in medical treatment...
June 26, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650997/disambiguating-authenticity-interpretations-of-value-and-appeal
#10
Kieran O'Connor, Glenn R Carroll, Balázs Kovács
While shaping aesthetic judgment and choice, socially constructed authenticity takes on some very different meanings among observers, consumers, producers and critics. Using a theoretical framework positing four distinct meanings of socially constructed authenticity-type, moral, craft, and idiosyncratic-we aim to document empirically the unique appeal of each type. We develop predictions about the relationships between attributed authenticity and corresponding increases in the value ascribed to it through: (1) consumer value ratings, (2) willingness to pay, and (3) behavioral choice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647290/effect-of-professional-expertise-and-exposure-to-everyday-life-decision-making-on-moral-choices
#11
Maddalena Boccia, Paola Verde, Gregorio Angelino, Paolo Carrozzo, Diego Vecchi, Laura Piccardi, Stefano Colangeli, Pierluigi Cordellieri, Fabio Ferlazzo, Anna Maria Giannini
Moral sense is defined as a feeling of fairness or unfairness of an action that knowingly causes harm to people other than the subject. It is crucial in determining human behavior and becomes pivotal in operational environments. Here we assessed whether professional daily life experience in an operational environment affects moral judgment by asking 41 military pilots of the Italian Air Force (P) and 69 controls (C) to solve 40 moral dilemmas. We found that P gave more morally acceptable utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas...
June 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646400/a-brief-assessment-tool-for-investigating-facets-of-moral-judgment-from-realistic-vignettes
#12
Michael Kruepke, Erin K Molloy, Konrad Bresin, Aron K Barbey, Edelyn Verona
Humans make moral judgments every day, and research demonstrates that these evaluations are based on a host of related event features (e.g., harm, legality). In order to acquire systematic data on how moral judgments are made, our assessments need to be expanded to include real-life, ecologically valid stimuli that take into account the numerous event features that are known to influence moral judgment. To facilitate this, Knutson et al. (in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 5(4), 378-384, 2010) developed vignettes based on real-life episodic memories rated concurrently on key moral features; however, the method is time intensive (~1...
June 23, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632770/men-women%C3%A2-who-cares-a-population-based-study-on-sex-differences-and-gender-roles-in-empathy-and-moral-cognition
#13
Sandra Baez, Daniel Flichtentrei, María Prats, Ricardo Mastandueno, Adolfo M García, Marcelo Cetkovich, Agustín Ibáñez
Research on sex differences in empathy has revealed mixed findings. Whereas experimental and neuropsychological measures show no consistent sex effect, self-report data consistently indicates greater empathy in women. However, available results mainly come from separate populations with relatively small samples, which may inflate effect sizes and hinder comparability between both empirical corpora. To elucidate the issue, we conducted two large-scale studies. First, we examined whether sex differences emerge in a large population-based sample (n = 10,802) when empathy is measured with an experimental empathy-for-pain paradigm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630539/theorizing-time-in-abortion-law-and-human-rights
#14
Joanna N Erdman
The legal regulation of abortion by gestational age, or length of pregnancy, is a relatively undertheorized dimension of abortion and human rights. Yet struggles over time in abortion law, and its competing representations and meanings, are ultimately struggles over ethical and political values, authority and power, the very stakes that human rights on abortion engage. This article focuses on three struggles over time in abortion and human rights law: those related to morality, health, and justice. With respect to morality, the article concludes that collective faith and trust should be placed in the moral judgment of those most affected by the passage of time in pregnancy and by later abortion-pregnant women...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629599/moral-learning-psychological-and-philosophical-perspectives
#15
EDITORIAL
Fiery Cushman, Victor Kumar, Peter Railton
The past 15years occasioned an extraordinary blossoming of research into the cognitive and affective mechanisms that support moral judgment and behavior. This growth in our understanding of moral mechanisms overshadowed a crucial and complementary question, however: How are they learned? As this special issue of the journal Cognition attests, a new crop of research into moral learning has now firmly taken root. This new literature draws on recent advances in formal methods developed in other domains, such as Bayesian inference, reinforcement learning and other machine learning techniques...
June 16, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627916/individual-differences-in-reliance-on-intuition-predict-harsher-moral-judgments
#16
Sarah J Ward, Laura A King
The notion that intuition guides moral judgment is widely accepted. Yet, there is a dearth of research examining whether individual differences in reliance on intuition influence moral judgment. Five studies provided evidence that faith in intuition (FI) predicts higher condemnation of moral transgressions. Studies 1 and 2 (combined N = 543) demonstrated that FI predicted higher moral condemnation of strange actions characterized by ambiguous harm. This association maintained controlling for a host of relevant ideological and emotional "third" variables...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599166/the-means-side-effect-distinction-in-moral-cognition-a-meta-analysis
#17
Adam Feltz, Joshua May
Experimental research suggests that people draw a moral distinction between bad outcomes brought about as a means versus a side effect (or byproduct). Such findings have informed multiple psychological and philosophical debates about moral cognition, including its computational structure, its sensitivity to the famous Doctrine of Double Effect, its reliability, and its status as a universal and innate mental module akin to universal grammar. But some studies have failed to replicate the means/byproduct effect especially in the absence of other factors, such as personal contact...
September 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597324/gender-differences-in-moral-judgment-and-the-evaluation-of-gender-specified-moral-agents
#18
Valerio Capraro, Jonathan Sippel
Whether, and if so, how exactly gender differences are manifested in moral judgment has recently been at the center of much research on moral decision making. Previous research suggests that women are more deontological than men in personal, but not impersonal, moral dilemmas. However, typical personal and impersonal moral dilemmas differ along two dimensions: Personal dilemmas are more emotionally salient than impersonal ones and involve a violation of Kant's practical imperative that humans must never be used as a mere means, but only as ends...
June 9, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586086/young-children-s-moral-judgments-justifications-and-emotion-attributions-in-peer-relationship-contexts
#19
Judith G Smetana, Courtney L Ball
Children (n = 160, 4- to 9-year-olds; Mage  = 6.23 years, SD = 1.46) judged, justified, attributed emotions, and rated intent for hypothetical physical harm, psychological harm, and resource distribution transgressions against close friends, acquaintances, disliked peers, or bullies. Transgressions against bullies were judged more acceptable than against friends and disliked peers and less deserving of punishment than against acquaintances and disliked peers. Transgressions against friends were judged least intended and resulting in more negative emotions for transgressors; actors transgressing against disliked peers, as compared to bullies or acquaintances, were happy victimizers...
June 6, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585596/sexual-self-esteem-in-mothers-of-normal-and-mentally-retarded-children
#20
Jahanshir Tavakolizadeh, Mostafa Amiri, Fahimeh Rastgoo Nejad
Sexual self-esteem is negatively influenced by the stressful experiences in lifetime. This study compared the sexual self-esteem and its components in mothers with normal and mentally-retarded children in Qaen city, in 2014. A total of 120 mothers were selected and assigned into two groups of 60 samples based on convenient sampling method and randomized multiple stage sampling. Both groups completed sexual self-esteem questionnaire. The data were analyzed employing t-test through SPSS software version15. The results showed that the rate of sexual self-esteem in mothers of mentally-retarded children decreased significantly compared with that of mothers with normal children (p<0...
June 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
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