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Moral judgment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806137/thinking-more-or-feeling-less-explaining-the-foreign-language-effect-on-moral-judgment
#1
Sayuri Hayakawa, David Tannenbaum, Albert Costa, Joanna D Corey, Boaz Keysar
Would you kill one person to save five? People are more willing to accept such utilitarian action when using a foreign language than when using their native language. In six experiments, we investigated why foreign-language use affects moral choice in this way. On the one hand, the difficulty of using a foreign language might slow people down and increase deliberation, amplifying utilitarian considerations of maximizing welfare. On the other hand, use of a foreign language might stunt emotional processing, attenuating considerations of deontological rules, such as the prohibition against killing...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805441/examining-overlap-in-behavioral-and-neural-representations-of-morals-facts-and-preferences
#2
Jordan Theriault, Adam Waytz, Larisa Heiphetz, Liane Young
Metaethical judgments refer to judgments about the information expressed by moral claims. Moral objectivists generally believe that moral claims are akin to facts, whereas moral subjectivists generally believe that moral claims are more akin to preferences. Evidence from developmental and social psychology has generally favored an objectivist view; however, this work has typically relied on few examples, and analyses have disallowed statistical generalizations beyond these few stimuli. The present work addresses whether morals are represented as fact-like or preference-like, using behavioral and neuroimaging methods, in combination with statistical techniques that can (a) generalize beyond our sample stimuli, and (b) test whether particular item features are associated with neural activity...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803616/unfounded-dumbfounding-how-harm-and-purity-undermine-evidence-for-moral-dumbfounding
#3
Steve Guglielmo
Two paradigm-shifting ideas have gained widespread influence in current accounts of moral cognition: (a) that moral judgments are pluralistic, extending beyond domains of harm and fairness, and (b) that people's judgments are driven primarily by intuition, such that people are "morally dumbfounded" about the reasons behind their own judgments. An ongoing debate has emerged regarding the former claim of moral pluralism, with opposing sides in disagreement about whether moral judgments are best understood as reflecting multiple moral domains vs...
August 10, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797007/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-of-pediatric-hydrocephalus
#4
David D Limbrick, Leandro Castaneyra-Ruiz, Roland H Han, Daniel Berger, James P McAllister, Diego M Morales
Hydrocephalus (HC) is a common, debilitating neurological condition that requires urgent clinical decision-making. At present, neurosurgeons rely heavily on a patient's history, physical examination findings, neuroimaging, and clinical judgment to make the diagnosis of HC or treatment failure (e.g., shunt malfunction). Unfortunately, these tools, even in combination, do not eliminate subjectivity in clinical decisions. In order to improve the management of infants and children with HC, there is an urgent need for new biomarkers to complement currently available tools and enable clinicians to confidently establish the diagnosis of HC, assess therapeutic efficacy/treatment failure, and evaluate current and future developmental challenges, so that every child has access to the resources they need to optimize their outcome and quality of life...
August 11, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776840/pro-environmental-behavior-and-adolescent-moral-development
#5
Tobias Krettenauer
Previous research has demonstrated that children take a strong moral stance toward protecting the natural environment. However, the question of how this moralization of pro-environmental behavior develops in adolescence has been rarely investigated. This study investigated age-related differences in adolescents' pro-environmental behavior as it relates to moral judgments about environmental issues and emotions. The study was based on a cross-sectional sample of 325 Canadian adolescents from early, middle, and late adolescence...
September 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769072/post-conventional-moral-reasoning-is-associated-with-increased-ventral-striatal-activity-at-rest-and-during-task
#6
Zhuo Fang, Wi Hoon Jung, Marc Korczykowski, Lijuan Luo, Kristin Prehn, Sihua Xu, John A Detre, Joseph W Kable, Diana C Robertson, Hengyi Rao
People vary considerably in moral reasoning. According to Kohlberg's theory, individuals who reach the highest level of post-conventional moral reasoning judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals rather than self-interest or adherence to laws and rules. Recent research has suggested the involvement of the brain's frontostriatal reward system in moral judgments and prosocial behaviors. However, it remains unknown whether moral reasoning level is associated with differences in reward system function...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758780/the-development-of-intention-based-morality-the-influence-of-intention-salience-and-recency-negligence-and-outcome-on-children-s-and-adults-judgments
#7
Gavin Nobes, Georgia Panagiotaki, Paul E Engelhardt
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the influences on 4-8 year-olds' and adults' moral judgments. In both, participants were told stories from previous studies that had indicated that children's judgments are largely outcome-based. Building on recent research in which one change to these studies' methods resulted in substantially more intention-based judgment, in Experiment 1 (N = 75) the salience and recency of intention information were increased, and in Experiment 2 (N = 99) carefulness information (i...
July 31, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755538/how-ought-exceeds-but-implies-can-description-and-encouragement-in-moral-judgment
#8
John Turri
This paper tests a theory about the relationship between two important topics in moral philosophy and psychology. One topic is the function of normative language, specifically claims that one "ought" to do something. Do these claims function to describe moral responsibilities, encourage specific behavior, or both? The other topic is the relationship between saying that one "ought" to do something and one's ability to do it. In what respect, if any, does what one "ought" to do exceed what one "can" do? The theory tested here has two parts: (1) "ought" claims function to both describe responsibilities and encourage people to fulfill them (the dual-function hypothesis); (2) the two functions relate differently to ability, because the encouragement function is limited by the person's ability, but the descriptive function is not (the interaction hypothesis)...
July 26, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743987/empathy-for-others-suffering-and-its-mediators-in-mental-health-professionals
#9
Hernando Santamaría-García, Sandra Baez, Adolfo M García, Daniel Flichtentrei, María Prats, Ricardo Mastandueno, Mariano Sigman, Diana Matallana, Marcelo Cetkovich, Agustín Ibáñez
Empathy is a complex cognitive and affective process that allows humans to experience concern for others, comprehend their emotions, and eventually help them. In addition to studies with healthy subjects and various neuropsychiatric populations, a few reports have examined this domain focusing on mental health workers, whose daily work requires the development of a saliently empathic character. Building on this research line, the present population-based study aimed to (a) assess different dimensions of empathy for pain in mental health workers relative to general-physicians and non-medical workers; and (b) evaluate their relationship with relevant factors, such as moral profile, age, gender, years of experience, and workplace type...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743459/illuminating-the-conceptual-structure-of-the-space-of-moral-violations-with-searchlight-representational-similarity-analysis
#10
E A Wasserman, A Chakroff, R Saxe, L Young
Characterizing how representations of moral violations are organized, cognitively and neurally, is central to understanding how people conceive and judge them. Past work has identified brain regions that represent morally relevant features and distinguish moral domains, but has not yet advanced a broader account of where and on what basis neural representations of moral violations are organized. With searchlight representational similarity analysis, we investigate where category membership drives similarity in neural patterns during moral judgment of violations from two key moral domains: Harm and Purity...
July 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742469/when-fairness-clashes-with-personal-autonomy-and-parental-authority-a-comparison-of-daughters-and-mothers-reasoning-in-two-cultural-contexts-in-turkey
#11
Melike Acar
The author examined religious and secular daughters' and mothers' reasoning about personal autonomy, maternal authority, and moral concepts in family decision-making situations in urban Turkey. Sixty-eight daughters and 34 mothers were individually interviewed about decision-making autonomy in general issues and hypothetical daughter-mother conflicts. Results indicated participants regardless of their family status and religious background assigned more decision-making autonomy to mothers when evaluating general issues...
May 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736770/classification-of-helpful-comments-on-online-suicide-watch-forums
#12
Ramakanth Kavuluru, Amanda G Williams, María Ramos-Morales, Laura Haye, Tara Holaday, Julie Cerel
Among social media websites, Reddit has emerged as a widely used online message board for focused mental health topics including depression, addiction, and suicide watch (SW). In particular, the SW community/subreddit has nearly 40,000 subscribers and 13 human moderators who monitor for abusive comments among other things. Given comments on posts from users expressing suicidal thoughts can be written from any part of the world at any time, moderating in a timely manner can be tedious. Furthermore, Reddit's default comment ranking does not involve aspects that relate to the "helpfulness" of a comment from a suicide prevention (SP) perspective...
October 2016: ACM-BCB: ACM Conference on Bioinformatics, Computational Biology and Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727735/we-perceive-a-mind-in-a-robot-when-we-help-it
#13
Tetsushi Tanibe, Takaaki Hashimoto, Kaori Karasawa
People sometimes perceive a mind in inorganic entities like robots. Psychological research has shown that mind perception correlates with moral judgments and that immoral behaviors (i.e., intentional harm) facilitate mind perception toward otherwise mindless victims. We conducted a vignette experiment (N = 129; Mage = 21.8 ± 6.0 years) concerning human-robot interactions and extended previous research's results in two ways. First, mind perception toward the robot was facilitated when it received a benevolent behavior, although only when participants took the perspective of an actor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725188/using-virtual-reality-to-assess-ethical-decisions-in-road-traffic-scenarios-applicability-of-value-of-life-based-models-and-influences-of-time-pressure
#14
Leon R Sütfeld, Richard Gast, Peter König, Gordon Pipa
Self-driving cars are posing a new challenge to our ethics. By using algorithms to make decisions in situations where harming humans is possible, probable, or even unavoidable, a self-driving car's ethical behavior comes pre-defined. Ad hoc decisions are made in milliseconds, but can be based on extensive research and debates. The same algorithms are also likely to be used in millions of cars at a time, increasing the impact of any inherent biases, and increasing the importance of getting it right. Previous research has shown that moral judgment and behavior are highly context-dependent, and comprehensive and nuanced models of the underlying cognitive processes are out of reach to date...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718086/erratum-to-a-brief-assessment-tool-for-investigating-facets-of-moral-judgment-from-realistic-vignettes
#15
Michael Kruepke, Erin K Molloy, Konrad Bresin, Aron K Barbey, Edelyn Verona
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701703/the-behavioral-and-neural-basis-of-empathic-blame
#16
Indrajeet Patil, Marta Calò, Federico Fornasier, Fiery Cushman, Giorgia Silani
Mature moral judgments rely both on a perpetrator's intent to cause harm, and also on the actual harm caused-even when unintended. Much prior research asks how intent information is represented neurally, but little asks how even unintended harms influence judgment. We interrogate the psychological and neural basis of this process, focusing especially on the role of empathy for the victim of a harmful act. Using fMRI, we found that the 'empathy for pain' network was involved in encoding harmful outcomes and integrating harmfulness information for different types of moral judgments, and individual differences in the extent to which this network was active during encoding and integration of harmfulness information determined severity of moral judgments...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690572/utilitarian-moral-judgment-exclusively-coheres-with-inference-from-is-to-ought
#17
Shira Elqayam, Meredith R Wilkinson, Valerie A Thompson, David E Over, Jonathan St B T Evans
Faced with moral choice, people either judge according to pre-existing obligations (deontological judgment), or by taking into account the consequences of their actions (utilitarian judgment). We propose that the latter coheres with a more general cognitive mechanism - deontic introduction, the tendency to infer normative ('deontic') conclusions from descriptive premises (is-ought inference). Participants were presented with vignettes that allowed either deontological or utilitarian choice, and asked to draw a range of deontic conclusions, as well as judge the overall moral rightness of each choice separately...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685842/two-models-of-moral-judgment
#18
Shane Bretz, Ron Sun
This paper compares two theories and their two corresponding computational models of human moral judgment. In order to better address psychological realism and generality of theories of moral judgment, more detailed and more psychologically nuanced models are needed. In particular, a motivationally based theory of moral judgment (and its corresponding computational model) is developed in this paper that provides a more accurate account of human moral judgment than an existing emotion-reason conflict theory...
July 7, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682099/moral-development-in-context-associations-of-neighborhood-and-maternal-discipline-with-preschoolers-moral-judgments
#19
Courtney L Ball, Judith G Smetana, Melissa L Sturge-Apple, Jennifer H Suor, Michael A Skibo
Associations among moral judgments, neighborhood risk, and maternal discipline were examined in 118 socioeconomically diverse preschoolers (Mage = 41.84 months, SD = 1.42). Children rated the severity and punishment deserved for 6 prototypical moral transgressions entailing physical and psychological harm and unfairness. They also evaluated 3 criteria for assessing maturity in moral judgments: whether acts were considered wrong regardless of rules and wrong independent of authority, as well as whether moral rules were considered unacceptable to alter (collectively called criterion judgments)...
July 6, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652361/free-will-beliefs-predict-attitudes-toward-unethical-behavior-and-criminal-punishment
#20
Nathan D Martin, Davide Rigoni, Kathleen D Vohs
Do free will beliefs influence moral judgments? Answers to this question from theoretical and empirical perspectives are controversial. This study attempted to replicate past research and offer theoretical insights by analyzing World Values Survey data from residents of 46 countries (n = 65,111 persons). Corroborating experimental findings, free will beliefs predicted intolerance of unethical behaviors and support for severe criminal punishment. Further, the link between free will beliefs and intolerance of unethical behavior was moderated by variations in countries' institutional integrity, defined as the degree to which countries had accountable, corruption-free public sectors...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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