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Moral judgment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914136/protecting-the-innocence-of-youth-moral-sanctity-values-underlie-censorship-from-young-children
#1
Rajen A Anderson, E J Masicampo
Three studies examined the relationship between people's moral values (drawing on moral foundations theory) and their willingness to censor immoral acts from children. Results revealed that diverse moral values did not predict censorship judgments. It was not the case that participants who valued loyalty and authority, respectively, sought to censor depictions of disloyal and disobedient acts. Rather, censorship intentions were predicted by a single moral value-sanctity. The more people valued sanctity, the more willing they were to censor from children, regardless of the types of violations depicted (impurity, disloyalty, disobedience, etc...
August 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912618/moral-theological-analysis-of-direct-versus-indirect-abortion
#2
John M Haas
Cases of a vital conflict, where the lives of both the mother and child are at risk during pregnancy, have been the subject of recent vigorous debate. The basic principles put forth in the Ethical and Religious Directives are reviewed, as is the principle of double effect. An illustrative case of severe cardiomyopathy in a pregnant woman is described and it is noted that the principle of double effect would not apply. Counter arguments are noted, focusing on Martin Rhonheimer who posits that in the case of vital conflicts, such as performing a craniotomy on a baby stuck in the birth canal, taking the baby's life does not constitute a direct abortion because moral norms do not apply in the extreme conflict situation where both mother and child will die...
August 2017: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903702/information-acquisition-processes-in-moral-judgments-of-blame
#3
Steve Guglielmo, Bertram F Malle
When people make moral judgments, what information do they look for? Despite its theoretical and practical implications, this question has largely been neglected by prior literature. The recent Path Model of Blame predicts a canonical order in which people acquire information when judging blame. Upon discovering a negative event, perceivers consider information about causality, then intentionality, then (if the event is intentional) reasons or (if the event is unintentional) preventability. Three studies, using two novel paradigms, assessed and found support for these predictions: In constrained (Study 1) and open-ended (Study 2) information-acquisition contexts, participants were most likely, and fastest, to seek information in the canonical order, even when under time pressure (Study 3)...
July 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900390/genetically-driven-enhancement-of-dopaminergic-transmission-affects-moral-acceptability-in-females-but-not-in-males-a-pilot-study
#4
Silvia Pellegrini, Sara Palumbo, Caterina Iofrida, Erika Melissari, Giuseppina Rota, Veronica Mariotti, Teresa Anastasio, Andrea Manfrinati, Rino Rumiati, Lorella Lotto, Michela Sarlo, Pietro Pietrini
Moral behavior has been a key topic of debate for philosophy and psychology for a long time. In recent years, thanks to the development of novel methodologies in cognitive sciences, the question of how we make moral choices has expanded to the study of neurobiological correlates that subtend the mental processes involved in moral behavior. For instance, in vivo brain imaging studies have shown that distinct patterns of brain neural activity, associated with emotional response and cognitive processes, are involved in moral judgment...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893160/relationship-between-ethical-ideology-and-moral-judgment-academic-nurse-educators-perception
#5
Ebtsam Aly Abou Hashish, Nadia Hassan Ali Awad
BACKGROUND: Ascertaining the relationship between ethical ideology, moral judgment, and ethical decision among academic nurse educators at work appears to be a challenge particularly in situations when they are faced with a need to solve an ethical problem and make a moral decision. PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the relationship between ethical ideology, moral judgment, and ethical decision as perceived by academic nurse educators. METHODS: A descriptive correlational research design was conducted at Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891657/the-role-of-a-common-is-moral-heuristic-in-the-stability-and-change-of-moral-norms
#6
Björn Lindström, Simon Jangard, Ida Selbing, Andreas Olsson
Moral norms are fundamental for virtually all social interactions, including cooperation. Moral norms develop and change, but the mechanisms underlying when, and how, such changes occur are not well-described by theories of moral psychology. We tested, and confirmed, the hypothesis that the commonness of an observed behavior consistently influences its moral status, which we refer to as the common is moral (CIM) heuristic. In 9 experiments, we used an experimental model of dynamic social interaction that manipulated the commonness of altruistic and selfish behaviors to examine the change of peoples' moral judgments...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890739/towards-a-moral-ecology-of-pharmacological-cognitive-enhancement-in-british-universities
#7
Meghana Kasturi Vagwala, Aude Bicquelet, Gabija Didziokaite, Ross Coomber, Oonagh Corrigan, Ilina Singh
Few empirical studies in the UK have examined the complex social patterns and values behind quantitative estimates of the prevalence of pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE). We conducted a qualitative investigation of the social dynamics and moral attitudes that shape PCE practices among university students in two major metropolitan areas in the UK. Our thematic analysis of eight focus groups (n = 66) suggests a moral ecology that operates within the social infrastructure of the university. We find that PCE resilience among UK university students is mediated by normative and cultural judgments disfavoring competitiveness and prescription drug taking...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883626/moral-judgment-modulation-by-disgust-priming-via-altered-fronto-temporal-functional-connectivity
#8
Julian Lim, Yoanna A Kurnianingsih, How Hwee Ong, O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman
Moral judgments are not just the product of conscious reasoning, but also involve the integration of social and emotional information. Irrelevant disgust stimuli modulate moral judgments, with individual sensitivity determining the direction and size of effects across both hypothetical and incentive-compatible experimental designs. We investigated the neural circuitry underlying this modulation using fMRI in 19 individuals performing a moral judgment task with subliminal priming of disgust facial expressions...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873328/how-to-map-theory-reliable-methods-are-fruitless-without-rigorous-theory
#9
Kurt Gray
Good science requires both reliable methods and rigorous theory. Theory allows us to build a unified structure of knowledge, to connect the dots of individual studies and reveal the bigger picture. Some have criticized the proliferation of pet "Theories," but generic "theory" is essential to healthy science, because questions of theory are ultimately those of validity. Although reliable methods and rigorous theory are synergistic, Action Identification suggests psychological tension between them: The more we focus on methodological details, the less we notice the broader connections...
August 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872334/disgust-sensitivity-is-primarily-associated-with-purity-based-moral-judgments
#10
Fieke M A Wagemans, Mark J Brandt, Marcel Zeelenberg
Individual differences in disgust sensitivity are associated with a range of judgments and attitudes related to the moral domain. Some perspectives suggest that the association between disgust sensitivity and moral judgments will be equally strong across all moral domains (i.e., purity, authority, loyalty, care, fairness, and liberty). Other perspectives predict that disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with judgments of specific moral domains (e.g., primarily purity). However, no study has systematically tested if disgust sensitivity is associated with moral judgments of the purity domain specifically, more generally to moral judgments of the binding moral domains, or to moral judgments of all of the moral domains equally...
September 4, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826577/preschoolers-but-not-adults-treat-instrumental-norms-as-categorical-imperatives
#11
Audun Dahl, Marco F H Schmidt
Hypothetical norms apply only when agents have specific goals, whereas categorical norms apply regardless of what agents want. Deciding whether a rule is hypothetical or categorical is crucial for navigating many social situations encountered by children and adults. The current research investigated whether preschoolers viewed instrumental norms (about how to accomplish practical tasks), prudential norms (pertaining to agent welfare), and moral norms (pertaining to others' welfare) as hypothetical or categorical...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822880/children-s-developing-metaethical-judgments
#12
Marco F H Schmidt, Ivan Gonzalez-Cabrera, Michael Tomasello
Human adults incline toward moral objectivism but may approach things more relativistically if different cultures are involved. In this study, 4-, 6-, and 9-year-old children (N=136) witnessed two parties who disagreed about moral matters: a normative judge (e.g., judging that it is wrong to do X) and an antinormative judge (e.g., judging that it is okay to do X). We assessed children's metaethical judgment, that is, whether they judged that only one party (objectivism) or both parties (relativism) could be right...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822295/preschoolers-social-and-moral-judgments-of-third-party-helpers-and-hinderers-align-with-infants-social-evaluations
#13
Julia W Van de Vondervoort, J Kiley Hamlin
Two experiments explored preschoolers' social preferences and moral judgments of prosocial and antisocial others. In Experiment 1, 3- to 5-year-olds (N=74) observed helping and hindering scenarios previously used to explore sociomoral evaluation in preverbal infants. Whereas 3-year-olds in Experiment 1 did not reliably distinguish between the helper and hinderer when reporting social preferences or moral judgments, both 4- and 5-year-olds preferred the helper, judged the helper to be "nicer" than the hinderer, selectively allocated punishment to the hinderer, and were able to justify their punishment allocations...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818632/the-views-of-clergy-regarding-ethical-controversies-in-care-at-the-end-of-life
#14
Michael J Balboni, Adam Sullivan, Patrick T Smith, Danish Zaidi, Christine Mitchell, James A Tulsky, Daniel Sulmasy, Tyler J VanderWeele, Tracy A Balboni
CONTEXT: While religion often informs ethical judgments, little is known about the views of American clergy regarding controversial end-of-life ethical issues including allowing to die and physician-aid in dying or physician-assisted suicide (PAD/PAS). OBJECTIVE: To describe the views of U.S. clergy concerning allowing to die and PAD/PAS. METHODS: A survey was mailed to 1665 nationally representative clergy between 8/2014 to 3/2015 (60% response rate)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816493/consequences-norms-and-generalized-inaction-in-moral-dilemmas-the-cni-model-of-moral-decision-making
#15
Bertram Gawronski, Joel Armstrong, Paul Conway, Rebecca Friesdorf, Mandy Hütter
Research on moral dilemma judgments has been fundamentally shaped by the distinction between utilitarianism and deontology. According to the principle of utilitarianism, the moral status of behavioral options depends on their consequences; the principle of deontology states that the moral status of behavioral options depends on their consistency with moral norms. To identify the processes underlying utilitarian and deontological judgments, researchers have investigated responses to moral dilemmas that pit one principle against the other (e...
September 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806137/thinking-more-or-feeling-less-explaining-the-foreign-language-effect-on-moral-judgment
#16
Sayuri Hayakawa, David Tannenbaum, Albert Costa, Joanna D Corey, Boaz Keysar
Would you kill one person to save five? People are more willing to accept such utilitarian action when using a foreign language than when using their native language. In six experiments, we investigated why foreign-language use affects moral choice in this way. On the one hand, the difficulty of using a foreign language might slow people down and increase deliberation, amplifying utilitarian considerations of maximizing welfare. On the other hand, use of a foreign language might stunt emotional processing, attenuating considerations of deontological rules, such as the prohibition against killing...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805441/examining-overlap-in-behavioral-and-neural-representations-of-morals-facts-and-preferences
#17
Jordan Theriault, Adam Waytz, Larisa Heiphetz, Liane Young
Metaethical judgments refer to judgments about the information expressed by moral claims. Moral objectivists generally believe that moral claims are akin to facts, whereas moral subjectivists generally believe that moral claims are more akin to preferences. Evidence from developmental and social psychology has generally favored an objectivist view; however, this work has typically relied on few examples, and analyses have disallowed statistical generalizations beyond these few stimuli. The present work addresses whether morals are represented as fact-like or preference-like, using behavioral and neuroimaging methods, in combination with statistical techniques that can (a) generalize beyond our sample stimuli, and (b) test whether particular item features are associated with neural activity...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803616/unfounded-dumbfounding-how-harm-and-purity-undermine-evidence-for-moral-dumbfounding
#18
Steve Guglielmo
Two paradigm-shifting ideas have gained widespread influence in current accounts of moral cognition: (a) that moral judgments are pluralistic, extending beyond domains of harm and fairness, and (b) that people's judgments are driven primarily by intuition, such that people are "morally dumbfounded" about the reasons behind their own judgments. An ongoing debate has emerged regarding the former claim of moral pluralism, with opposing sides in disagreement about whether moral judgments are best understood as reflecting multiple moral domains vs...
August 10, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797007/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-of-pediatric-hydrocephalus
#19
David D Limbrick, Leandro Castaneyra-Ruiz, Roland H Han, Daniel Berger, James P McAllister, Diego M Morales
Hydrocephalus (HC) is a common, debilitating neurological condition that requires urgent clinical decision-making. At present, neurosurgeons rely heavily on a patient's history, physical examination findings, neuroimaging, and clinical judgment to make the diagnosis of HC or treatment failure (e.g., shunt malfunction). Unfortunately, these tools, even in combination, do not eliminate subjectivity in clinical decisions. In order to improve the management of infants and children with HC, there is an urgent need for new biomarkers to complement currently available tools and enable clinicians to confidently establish the diagnosis of HC, assess therapeutic efficacy/treatment failure, and evaluate current and future developmental challenges, so that every child has access to the resources they need to optimize their outcome and quality of life...
August 11, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776840/pro-environmental-behavior-and-adolescent-moral-development
#20
Tobias Krettenauer
Previous research has demonstrated that children take a strong moral stance toward protecting the natural environment. However, the question of how this moralization of pro-environmental behavior develops in adolescence has been rarely investigated. This study investigated age-related differences in adolescents' pro-environmental behavior as it relates to moral judgments about environmental issues and emotions. The study was based on a cross-sectional sample of 325 Canadian adolescents from early, middle, and late adolescence...
September 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
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