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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431573/a-highly-pathogenic-simian-human-immunodeficiency-virus-effectively-produces-infectious-virions-compared-with-a-less-pathogenic-virus-in-cell-culture
#1
Shoya Iwanami, Yusuke Kakizoe, Satoru Morita, Tomoyuki Miura, Shinji Nakaoka, Shingo Iwami
BACKGROUND: The host range of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is quite narrow. Therefore, analyzing HIV-1 pathogenesis in vivo has been limited owing to lack of appropriate animal model systems. To overcome this, chimeric simian and human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) that encode HIV-1 Env and are infectious to macaques have been developed and used to investigate the pathogenicity of HIV-1 in vivo. So far, we have many SHIV strains that show different pathogenesis in macaque experiments...
April 21, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430411/2-methylimidazole-derived-ni-co-layered-double-hydroxide-nanosheets-as-high-rate-capability-and-high-energy-density-storage-material-in-hybrid-supercapacitors
#2
Teng Wang, Shengli Zhang, Xingbin Yan, Miaoqiang Lyu, Lianzhou Wang, John M Bell, Hongxia Wang
A new method based on one-step solvothermal reaction is demonstrated to synthesize ultrathin Ni-Co layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets which grow directly on a flexible carbon fiber cloth (NiCo-LDH/CFC). Through using 2-methylimidazole as complex and methanol as solvent, the as-prepared NiCo-LDH/CFC shows a (003) facet preferential growth and an expanded interlayer spacing structure, resulting in a unique 3D porous nanostructure with the thickness of nanosheets around 5-7 nm that shows high energy storage performance...
April 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429049/dysregulation-of-haematopoietic-stem-cell-regulatory-programs-in-acute-myeloid-leukaemia
#3
REVIEW
Silvia Basilico, Berthold Göttgens
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are situated at the apex of the haematopoietic differentiation hierarchy, ensuring the life-long supply of mature haematopoietic cells and forming a reservoir to replenish the haematopoietic system in case of emergency such as acute blood loss. To maintain a balanced production of all mature lineages and at the same time secure a stem cell reservoir, intricate regulatory programs have evolved to control multi-lineage differentiation and self-renewal in haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427224/ponatinib-promotes-a-g1-cell-cycle-arrest-of-merlin-nf2-deficient-human-schwann-cells
#4
Alejandra M Petrilli, Jeanine Garcia, Marga Bott, Stephani Klingeman Plati, Christine T Dinh, Olena R Bracho, Denise Yan, Bing Zou, Rahul Mittal, Fred F Telischi, Xue-Zhong Liu, Long-Sheng Chang, D Bradley Welling, Alicja J Copik, Cristina Fernández-Valle
Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a genetic syndrome that predisposes individuals to multiple benign tumors of the central and peripheral nervous systems, including vestibular schwannomas. Currently, there are no FDA approved drug therapies for NF2. Loss of function of merlin encoded by the NF2 tumor suppressor gene leads to activation of multiple mitogenic signaling cascades, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and SRC in Schwann cells. The goal of this study was to determine whether ponatinib, an FDA-approved ABL/SRC inhibitor, reduced proliferation and/or survival of merlin-deficient human Schwann cells (HSC)...
March 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422322/pentraxin-3-modulates-lps-induced-inflammatory-response-and-attenuates-liver-injury
#5
Luis Perea, Mar Coll, Lucia Sanjurjo, Delia Blaya, Adil El Taghdouini, Daniel Rodrigo-Torres, José Altamirano, Isabel Graupera, Beatriz Aguilar-Bravo, Marta Llopis, Julia Vallverdú, Joan Caballeria, Leo A van Grunsven, Maria-Rosa Sarrias, Pere Ginès, Pau Sancho-Bru
Acute-on-chronic liver injury is characterized by an important inflammatory response frequently associated with endotoxemia. In this context, acute phase proteins such as Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) are released, however, little is known about their role in chronic liver disease. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of PTX3 in liver injury. Role of PTX3 was evaluated in cultured human cells, liver tissue slices and mice with acute-on-chronic liver injury. PTX3 expression was assessed in tissue and serum samples from 54 patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH)...
April 19, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422285/hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cell-differentiation-towards-myeloid-lineage-is-modulated-by-light-light-receptor-signaling
#6
Weikai Chen, Xin Lv, Changlong Liu, Ruoping Chen, Jianhe Liu, Haiyan Dai, Gang-Ming Zou
The cytokine LT-related inducible ligand that competes for glycoprotein D binding to herpesvirus entry mediator on T cells (LIGHT) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. It is expressed primarily on activated T lymphocytes, and detectable on monocytes, granulocytes, and immune dendritic cells. It mainly plays a role in immune regulation including T cell activation and dendritic cell maturation. We recently reported its role as an inducer in embryonic stem cell differentiation, but its role in regulation of adult stem cell has not been defined...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418996/mobilizing-immune-cells-with-exercise-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#7
Richard J Simpson, Austin B Bigley, Nadia Agha, Patrick J Hanley, Catherine M Bollard
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation and adoptive transfer immunotherapy are effective in treating blood cancers and post-transplant infections, but low circulating cell numbers in patients and donors is oftentimes a limiting factor. We postulate that a single exercise bout will increase the yield of patient and donor-derived HSC's and cytotoxic lymphocytes to improve this form of treatment for cancer patients.
April 17, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416577/normal-and-neoplastic-stem-cells
#8
Melissa N McCracken, Benson M George, Kevin S Kao, Kristopher D Marjon, Tal Raveh, Irving L Weissman
A stem cell is broadly defined as a cell that retains the capacity to self-renew, a feature that confers the ability to continuously make identical daughter cells or additional cells that will differentiate into downstream progeny. This highly regulated genetic program to retain "stemness" is under active investigation. Research in our laboratory has explored similarities and differences in embryonic, tissue-specific, and neoplastic stem cells and their terminally differentiated counterparts. In this review, we will focus on the contributions of our laboratory, in particular on the studies that identified the mouse hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and the human leukemic stem cell...
April 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416286/in%C3%A2-vivo-rnai-screen-unveils-ppar%C3%AE-as-a-regulator-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-homeostasis
#9
Mathieu Sertorio, Wei Du, Surya Amarachintha, Andrew Wilson, Qishen Pang
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) defects can cause repopulating impairment leading to hematologic diseases. To target HSC deficiency in a disease setting, we exploited the repopulating defect of Fanconi anemia (FA) HSCs to conduct an in vivo short hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen. We exposed Fancd2(-/-) HSCs to a lentiviral shRNA library targeting 947 genes. We found enrichment of shRNAs targeting genes involved in the PPARγ pathway that has not been linked to HSC homeostasis. PPARγ inhibition by shRNA or chemical compounds significantly improves the repopulating ability of Fancd2(-/-) HSCs...
April 12, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415569/interleukin-2-regulatory-t-cell-axis-critically-regulates-maintenance-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#10
Sabrina Giampaolo, Gabriela Wójcik, Edgar Serfling, Amiya K Patra
The role of IL-2 in HSC maintenance is unknown. Here we show that Il2-/- mice develop severe anomalies in HSC maintenance leading to defective hematopoiesis. Whereas, lack of IL-2 signaling was detrimental for lympho- and erythropoiesis, myelopoiesis was enhanced in Il2-/- mice. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of dysregulated hematopoiesis in Il2-/- mice shows that the IL-2-Treg cell axis is indispensable for HSC maintenance and normal hematopoiesis. Lack of Treg activity resulted in increased IFN-γ production by activated T cells and an expansion of the HSCs in the bone marrow (BM)...
March 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413739/genetic-modulation-therapy-through-stem-cell-transplantation-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection
#11
REVIEW
Varshil Mehta, Divya Chandramohan, Shivika Agarwal
Highly active anti-retroviral treatment has changed the dimensions of the outcomes for patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, HIV infection is still an ailment which is spreading throughout the world extensively. Given the confinements of the present restorative methodologies and the non-availability of any strategic vaccination against HIV, there is a squeezing need to build a therapeutic treatment. Viral tropism for HIV includes CD4+ cells, macrophages, and microglial cells, and it is through binding with co-receptors C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)...
March 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412299/toll-like-receptor-4-independent-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-fibrosis-and-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-liver-injury-in-mice-role-of-hepatic-stellate-cells
#12
Sudhir Kumar, Jiang Wang, Shiva Kumar Shanmukhappa, Chandrashekhar R Gandhi
Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is implicated in acute and chronic liver injury; its effects are mediated predominantly via the membrane receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, TLR4-independent effects of LPS may play important role in hepatic pathophysiology. We investigated carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced fibrosis and LPS-induced acute liver injury in wild-type (WT) and B6.B10ScN-Tlr4(lps-del)/JthJ [TLR4-knockout (KO)] mice. Effects of LPS on fibrogenic hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) from WT and TLR4-KO mice were assessed in vitro...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408459/epcr-expression-marks-um171-expanded-cd34-cord-blood-stem-cells
#13
Iman Fares, Jalila Chagraoui, Bernhard Lehnertz, Tara MacRae, Nadine Mayotte, Elisa Tomellini, Léo Aubert, Philippe P Roux, Guy Sauvageau
A small subset of human cord blood CD34(+) cells express endothelial protein c receptor (EPCR/CD201/PROCR) when exposed to hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal agonist UM171. Here we show that EPCR-positive UM171-treated cells, as opposed to EPCR-negative cells, exhibit robust multi-lineage repopulation and serial reconstitution ability in immunocompromised mice. In contrast to other stem cell markers such as CD38, EPCR expression is maintained when cells are introduced in culture, irrespective of UM171 treatment...
April 13, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408418/hsc-niche-ample-room-for-every-guest-stem-cell
#14
Lei Ding
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406452/suppression-of-hepatic-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-by-melittin-via-blocking-of-tgf%C3%AE-smad-and-mapk-jnk-signaling-pathways
#15
Ji-Hyun Park, Byoungduck Park, Kwan-Kyu Park
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 plays a crucial role in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSC), which contributes to the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Melittin (MEL) is a major component of bee venom and is effective in rheumatoid arthritis, pain relief, cancer cell proliferation, fibrosis and immune modulating activity. In this study, we found that MEL inhibits hepatic EMT in vitro and in vivo, regulating the TGFβ/Smad and TGFβ/nonSmad signaling pathways...
April 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405682/apamin-suppresses-biliary-fibrosis-and-activation-of-hepatic-stellate-cells
#16
Jung-Yeon Kim, Hyun-Jin An, Woon-Hae Kim, Yoon-Yub Park, Kyung Duck Park, Kwan-Kyu Park
Cholestatic liver disease is characterized by the progressive destruction of biliary epithelial cells (BECs) followed by fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver failure. Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and portal fibroblasts are the major cellular effectors of enhanced collagen deposition in biliary fibrosis. Apamin, an 18 amino acid peptide neurotoxin found in apitoxin (bee venom), is known to block Ca2+-activated K+ channels and prevent carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis. In the present study, we aimed to ascertain whether apamin inhibits biliary fibrosis and the proliferation of HSCs...
May 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405618/efficacy-of-alk5-inhibition-in-myelofibrosis
#17
Lanzhu Yue, Matthias Bartenstein, Wanke Zhao, Wanting Tina Ho, Ying Han, Cem Murdun, Adam W Mailloux, Ling Zhang, Xuefeng Wang, Anjali Budhathoki, Kith Pradhan, Franck Rapaport, Huaquan Wang, Zonghong Shao, Xiubao Ren, Ulrich Steidl, Ross L Levine, Zhizhuang Joe Zhao, Amit Verma, Pearlie K Epling-Burnette
Myelofibrosis (MF) is a bone marrow disorder characterized by clonal myeloproliferation, aberrant cytokine production, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and bone marrow fibrosis. Although somatic mutations in JAK2, MPL, and CALR have been identified in the pathogenesis of these diseases, inhibitors of the Jak2 pathway have not demonstrated efficacy in ameliorating MF in patients. TGF-β family members are profibrotic cytokines and we observed significant TGF-β1 isoform overexpression in a large cohort of primary MF patient samples...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403524/human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-cd34-hematopoietic-stem-cell-proliferation-with-preserved-red-blood-cell-differentiation-capacity
#18
Show Xuan Lau, Yin Yee Leong, Wai Hoe Ng, Albert Wee Po Ng, Ida Shazrina Ismail, Narazah Mohd Yusoff, Rajesh Ramasamy, Jun Jie Tan
Studies showed that co-transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cord blood-derived CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) offered greater therapeutic effects but little is known regarding the effects of human Wharton's jelly-derived MSCs on HSC expansion and red blood cell (RBC) generation in vitro. This study aimed to investigate the effects of MSCs on HSC expansion and differentiation. HSCs were co-cultured with MSCs or with 10% MSCs-derived conditioned medium, with HSCs cultured under standard medium served as a control...
April 12, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401154/cytotoxicity-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-oral-rinses-in-vitro
#19
Heinz-Dieter Müller, Sigrun Eick, Andreas Moritz, Adrian Lussi, Reinhard Gruber
While oral rinses used for cosmetic purposes only do not necessarily have to be antiseptic, antimicrobial activity is required for medical indications, including oral and periodontal surgery. So the question arises-is the antimicrobial activity of oral rinses associated with any destructive changes in cell viability in vitro? To answer this question, we examined twelve oral rinses with respect to their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. Antimicrobial activity was screened against five bacterial strains using disc diffusion...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401100/generation-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-using-a-defined-stepwise-serum-free-and-serum-replacement-free-monolayer-culture-method
#20
So-Jung Kim, Ji-Won Jung, Hye-Yeong Ha, Soo Kyung Koo, Eung-Gook Kim, Jung-Hyun Kim
BACKGROUND: Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be expanded infinitely in vitro and have the potential to differentiate into hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs); thus, they are considered a useful source of cells for HSC production. Although several technical in vitro methods for engineering HSCs from pluripotent stem cells have been developed, clinical application of HSCs engineered from pluripotent stem cells is restricted because of the possibility of xenogeneic contamination resulting from the use of murine materials...
March 2017: Blood Research
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