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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456454/putting-trapped-populations-into-place-climate-change-and-inter-district-migration-flows-in-zambia
#1
Raphael J Nawrotzki, Jack DeWaard
Research shows that the association between adverse climate conditions and human migration is heterogeneous. One reason for this heterogeneity is the differential vulnerability of populations to climate change. This includes highly vulnerable, "trapped" populations that are too poor to migrate given deep and persistent poverty, the financial costs of migrating, and the erosion of already fragile economic livelihoods under climate change. Another reason for this heterogeneity is the differential vulnerability of places ...
February 2018: Regional Environmental Change
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454078/looking-for-capacities-rather-than-vulnerabilities-the-moderating-effect-of-health-assets-on-the-associations-between-adverse-social-position-and-health
#2
Mathieu Roy, Mélanie Levasseur, Isabelle Doré, France St-Hilaire, Bernard Michallet, Yves Couturier, Danielle Maltais, Bengt Lindström, Mélissa Généreux
To increase capacities and control over health, it is necessary to foster assets (i.e. factors enhancing abilities of individuals or communities). Acting as a buffer, assets build foundations for overcoming adverse conditions and improving health. However, little is known about the distribution of assets and their associations with social position and health. In this study, we documented the distribution of health assets and examined whether these assets moderate associations between adverse social position and self-reported health...
February 14, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453308/sex-specific-mechanisms-of-resistance-vessel-endothelial-dysfunction-induced-by-cardiometabolic-risk-factors
#3
Ana P Davel, Qing Lu, M Elizabeth Moss, Sitara Rao, Imran J Anwar, Jennifer J DuPont, Iris Z Jaffe
BACKGROUND: The incidence of obesity is rising, particularly among women. Microvascular dysfunction is more common with female sex, obesity, and hyperlipidemia and predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but the molecular mechanisms are unclear. Because obesity is associated with mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation, we tested the hypothesis that MR in endothelial cells contribute to sex differences in resistance vessel dysfunction in response to cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male and female endothelial cell-specific MR knockout mice and MR-intact littermates were randomized to high-fat-diet-induced obesity or obesity with hyperlipidemia induced by adeno-associated virus-based vector targeting transfer of the mutant stable form (DY mutation) of the human PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) gene and compared with control diet...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447071/a-social-media-intervention-to-improve-hypoglycaemia-management-at-a-multi-centre-hospital-a-quality-improvement-pilot-for-clinical-nurses
#4
Filomena De Sousa, Jennifer Jackson, Ruth Knight, Edith Cloutier, Rosemary Basa, Anne Fourney, Kathleen Devecseri
BACKGROUND: Hypoglycaemia is associated with increased mortality, length of stay, readmission and adverse events. Nursing management of hypoglycaemia is a challenge, despite established best practice guidelines. Social media is an effective tool for sharing information, and had potential to overcome barriers to clinical education at a multi-centre hospital. AIMS: The purpose of this quality improvement intervention was to create and disseminate social media posts about best practices in hypoglycaemia management...
February 15, 2018: Contemporary Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442897/development-of-targeted-nanoscale-drug-delivery-system-for-osteoarthritic-cartilage-tissue
#5
Tao Jiang, Ho-Man Kan, Komal Rajpura, Erica J Carbone, Yingcui Li, Kevin W-H Lo
Osteoarthritis is a severe and debilitating joint disease, which is characterized as results from damage and degeneration of the articular cartilage of the joint surfaces. The incidence of osteoarthritis is growing increasingly high while current treatment methods remain suboptimal. The major issue for current osteoarthritic medications is that patients frequently experience adverse, nonspecific side effects that are not a direct result of the specific pharmacological action of the drug. The treatment processes could be made more effective, safe, and comfortable if it were possible to deliver the drugs specifically to cartilage tissue...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432400/treatment-of-coronary-artery-disease-with-a-new-generation-drug-coated-balloon-final-results-of-the-italian-elutax-sv-registry-dcb-rise
#6
Bernardo Cortese, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo, Raffaela Fetiveau, Vruyr Balian, Simonetta Blengino, Massimo Fineschi, Renata Rogacka, Corrado Lettieri, Andrea Pavei, Maurizio D'Amico, Arnaldo Poli, Gaetano Di Palma, Roberto A Latini, Pedro S Orrego, Romano Seregni
AIMS: Drug-coated balloons (DCBs) are a recognized alternative to stents for the treatment of in-stent restenosis (ISR), and there is some initial clinical evidence about their efficacy for the treatment of small coronary vessels. Newer-generation DCBs were developed to overcome the reduced deliverability of the previous generation, also warranting a more effective drug delivery to vessel wall. However, the vast majority of new-generation DCBs still lack of reliability due to paucity of clinical data...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428347/optimizing-the-management-of-spasticity-in-people-with-spinal-cord-damage-a-clinical-care-pathway-for-assessment-and-treatment-decision-making-from-the-ability-network-an-international-initiative
#7
Indira Lanig, Peter New, Anthony S Burns, Gerald Bilsky, Jesus Benito-Penalva, Djamel Bensmail, Michael Yochelson
The recognition, evaluation and management of disabling spasticity in persons with spinal cord damage (SCD) is a challenge for healthcare providers, health systems and patients. To guide the assessment and management of disabling spasticity in individuals with SCD, the Ability Network, an international panel of clinical experts, developed a clinical care pathway. The aim of this pathway is to facilitate treatment decisions that take into account the impact of disabling spasticity on health status, individual preferences and treatment goals, tolerance for adverse events, and burden on caregivers...
February 8, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421929/drug-evaluation-studies-in-neonates-how-to-overcome-the-current-limitations
#8
Karel Allegaert, Anne Smits, John van den Anker
Introduction Regulatory initiatives have stimulated drug research in infants, but the potential impact of drugs to improve health outcome in neonates remains underexplored. Areas covered In this review, we focus on current limitations in drug evaluation studies and how to overcome these. The low volume of studies has additional weaknesses such as single center studies, non-commercial sponsorship, overrepresentation of high postulated risk reductions, and underrepresentation of therapeutic exploratory studies...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421425/a-custom-made-treovance%C3%A2-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-endograft-to-correct-late-failure-of-trombone-technique-with-a-tube-endograft
#9
George S Georgiadis, Christos Argyriou, Christina D Valsamidou, Alexandrina S Nikova, Miltos K Lazarides
PURPOSE: Unfavorable anatomy is one of the major limitations of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) with specifically, adverse proximal neck morphology excluding many patients from receiving the standard endograft devices. Thoracic tube endografts have been used to overcome the issue of wide infrarenal necks, either as a sole device (single tubes or double tubes using the trombone technique) or as the proximal part of a bifurcated device fixed to the aortic bifurcation or infrarenally oriented...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420336/lenalidomide-at-the-dose-of-25%C3%A2-mg-every-other-day-in-patients-affected-by-multiple-myeloma-and-renal-failure-a-real-life-experience
#10
Claudio Cerchione, Davide Nappi, Anna E Pareto, Alessandra Romano, Vincenzo Martinelli, Marco Picardi, Fabrizio Pane, Lucio Catalano
Renal impairment (RI) is a relevant complication of patients affected by multiple myeloma (MM); it can be present in up to 30-35% of newly diagnosed MM and is linked to a poor outcome. However, early recognition and early treatment with novel agents can overcome the negative impact of RI and even reverse kidney damage in most cases. Lenalidomide, available as an oral compound, is an immunomodulatory drug with both antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activity that is largely used in the management of MM. Dose reduction is mandatory in RI; however, there is no theoretical assumption against the possibility that protracting the time of full standard doses can be equally effective and tolerated by patients requiring reduced doses...
February 7, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419807/barriers-and-facilitators-of-partner-treatment-of-chlamydia-a-qualitative-investigation-with-prescribers-and-community-pharmacists
#11
Helen Wood, Caroline Hall, Emma Ioppolo, Renée Ioppolo, Ella Scacchia, Rhonda Clifford, Sajni Gudka
Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequently-notified sexually transmitted infection in Australia. Effective and timely partner treatment of chlamydia is essential to reduce overall prevalence and the burden of infection. Currently in most of Australia, the only avenue for partner treatment of chlamydia ("standard partner therapy") is a tedious, and often inconvenient, process. The barriers and facilitators of standard partner therapy, and newer models of accelerated partner therapy (APT), need to be identified in the Australian setting...
February 8, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409124/current-developments-in-immunotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-myeloma
#12
REVIEW
Martin Köhler, Christine Greil, Michael Hudecek, Sagar Lonial, Noopur Raje, Ralph Wäsch, Monika Engelhardt
Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy and represents approximately 10% of all hematological neoplasms. Standard therapy consists of induction therapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) or, if ASCT cannot be performed, standard doublet, triplet, or quadruplet, novel agent-containing induction treatment until progression. Although MM is still regarded as mostly incurable by current standards, the development of several novel compounds, combination therapies, and immunotherapy approaches has raised great hopes about transforming MM into an indolent, chronic disease and possibly achieving a cure for individual patients...
February 6, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407978/new-hydrazides-derivatives-of-isoniazid-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-higher-potency-and-lower-hepatocytotoxicity
#13
Frederico Silva Castelo-Branco, Evanoel Crizanto de Lima, Jorge Luiz de Oliveira Domingos, Angelo C Pinto, Maria Cristina S Lourenço, Karen Machado Gomes, Mariana Marques Costa-Lima, Carlos Fernando Araujo-Lima, Claudia Alessandra Fortes Aiub, Israel Felzenszwalb, Thadeu Estevam M M Costa, Carmen Penido, Maria G Henriques, Nubia Boechat
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The emergence of multi-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and TB-HIV co-infection are major public health challenges. The anti-TB drugs of first choice were developed more than 4 decades ago and present several adverse effects, making the treatment of TB even more complicated and the development of new chemotherapeutics for this disease imperative. In this work, we synthesized two series of new acylhydrazides and evaluated their activity against different strains of Mtb...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399891/a-hybrid-procedure-combining-endoscopic-gallbladder-lavage-and-internal-drainage-with-elective-cholecystectomy-for-acute-cholecystitis-a-prospective-pilot-study-the-blade-study
#14
Shinpei Doi, Ichiro Yasuda, Masatoshi Mabuchi, Keisuke Iwata, Nobuhiro Ando, Takuji Iwashita, Shinya Uemura, Mitsuru Okuno, Tsuyoshi Mukai, Seiji Adachi, Keizo Taniguchi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Percutaneous transhepatic drainage is the most common method for nonoperative gallbladder drainage, but the technique does have several disadvantages due to its invasive nature and requirement for continuous drainage. To overcome these disadvantages, we developed a novel procedure, endoscopic gallbladder lavage followed by stent placement, performed in a single endoscopic session. Our aim was to prospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of this procedure in patients with acute cholecystitis...
February 5, 2018: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399346/the-evolution-of-proton-beam-therapy-current-and-future-status
#15
Xiufang Tian, Kun Liu, Yong Hou, Jian Cheng, Jiandong Zhang
Proton beam therapy (PBT) has been increasingly used in a variety of cancers due to its excellent physical properties and superior dosimetric parameters. PBT may improve patient survival by improving the local tumor treatment rate while reducing injury to normal organs, which may result in fewer radiation-induced adverse effects. However, the significant cost of establishing and maintaining proton facilities cannot be overlooked. In addition, there has been significant controversy regarding routine application of this treatment in certain types of cancer...
January 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398843/phytotoxicity-of-pesticides-mancozeb-and-chlorpyrifos-correlation-with-the-antioxidative-defence-system-in-allium-cepa
#16
Firdos Fatma, Sonam Verma, Aisha Kamal, Alka Srivastava
Pesticides are a group of chemical substances which are widely used to improve agricultural production. However, these substances could be persistent in soil and water, accumulative in sediment or bio-accumulative in biota depending on their solubility, leading to different types of environmental pollution. The present study was done to assess the impact of pesticides-mancozeb and chlorpyrifos, via morphological and physiological parameters using Allium cepa test system. Phytotoxic effects of pesticides were examined via germination percentage, survival percentage, root and shoot length, root shoot length ratio, seedling vigor index, percentage of phytotoxicity and tolerance index...
February 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395793/case-a-second-victim-support-program-in-pediatrics-successes-and-challenges-to-implementation
#17
Vadim Dukhanin, Hanan H Edrees, Cheryl A Connors, Eric Kang, Matt Norvell, Albert W Wu
PURPOSE: While there is growing attention to making health care safer, there has been less emphasis on helping health care workers to cope with stressful patient related events (these workers are commonly referred to as second victims). We used the RISE (Resilience In Stressful Events) peer support program at the Johns Hopkins Hospital as a case study for evaluating effectiveness, and identifying barriers to addressing the needs of second victims. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study used a mixed-method approach that included: 1) quantitative analysis of surveys of health care workers in the Department of Pediatrics before RISE implementation and four years after, and 2) content analysis of open-ended commentaries about respondents' experience with seeking second victim support, as well as feedback on RISE...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393159/current-status-of-endoscopic-resection-for-superficial-nonampullary-duodenal-epithelial-tumors
#18
Yasushi Yamasaki, Noriya Uedo, Yoji Takeuchi, Ryu Ishihara, Hiroyuki Okada, Hiroyasu Iishi
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic resection (ER) is becoming the first choice of treatment for treating superficial nonampullary duodenal epithelial tumors (SNADETs), but ER procedures for SNADETs remain challenging because of the difficulty experienced in maneuvering the endoscope toward the thin duodenal wall, which results in a high rate of adverse events. Although several ER methods were used to overcome these technical difficulties and complications, ER methods for SNADETs are not standardized...
February 1, 2018: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389682/is-acute-kidney-injury-a-harbinger-for-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
David T Selewski, Dylan M Hyatt, Kevin M Bennett, Jennifer R Charlton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite abundant evidence in adults, the relationship between acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unanswered in pediatrics. Obstacles to overcome include the challenges defining these entities and the lack of long-term follow-up studies. This review focuses on pediatric populations at high-risk for AKI, the evidence of the long-term effect of AKI on renal health, and biomarkers to detect renal disease. RECENT FINDINGS: AKI in critically ill children and neonates is common and independently associated with adverse outcomes...
January 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388387/safety-and-efficacy-of-ulnar-artery-approach-for-percutaneous-cardiac-catheterization-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Ritin Fernandez, Fady Zaky, Avedis Ekmejian, Elizabeth Curtis, Astin Lee
BACKGROUND: Trans-radial access has rapidly become the standard for percutaneous coronary procedures in the last decade. As proceduralists overcome the learning curve and become more competent in trans-radial access, alternative safe access sites such as the ulnar artery have been increasingly used for emergent and elective procedures. The aim of this study was to synthesize the best available evidence of the impact on major adverse cardiac events (MACE) of ulnar artery compared to radial artery cardiac catheterization...
February 1, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
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