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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820071/antibody-fragments-as-potential-biopharmaceuticals-for-cancer-therapy-success-and-limitations
#1
Roman V Kholodenko, Daniel V Kalinovsky, Igor I Doronin, Eugene D Ponomarev, Irina V Kholodenko
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are an important class of therapeutic agents approved for the therapy of many types of malignancies. However, in certain cases applications of conventional mAbs have several limitations in anticancer immunotherapy. These limitations include insufficient efficacy and adverse effects. The antigen-binding fragments of antibodies have a considerable potential to overcome the disadvantages of conventional mAbs, such as poor penetration into solid tumors and Fc-mediated bystander activation of the immune system...
August 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806861/impact-of-joint-attention-on-social-communication-skills-in-internationally-adopted-children
#2
Stephanie A Moberg, Rowena Ng, Dana E Johnson, Maria G Kroupina
Internationally adopted (IA) children have often experienced early adversity and are at risk for long-term deficiencies in multiple developmental domains. This study examined the association between IA children's joint attention (JA) soon after arrival and later cognitive, communicative, and socioemotional competency 6 months' postadoption. We expected a child's initial JA would positively predict later cognitive, communication, and social ability. IA children (n = 63) adopted from Eastern Europe were seen soon after their arrival into the United States to assess their JA...
August 14, 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803075/the-palliative-care-chaplain-as-story-catcher
#3
Rhonda S Cooper
The role of the professional chaplain on the palliative care team in the health care setting formalizes the concern for the emotional, spiritual and social well-being of the care recipients and their caregivers. The chaplain also has a peculiar role on the team, in that her most fundamental task is her intentional listening-and-hearing of the other person's story. One palliative chaplain introduces herself as a Story Catcher to care recipients, in an effort both to overcome the resistance some may have to her presence on the team and communicate her essential role and intent in providing spiritual care...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802075/overcoming-severe-adverse-reactions-to-venom-immunotherapy-by-using-anti-ige-antibodies-in-combination-with-a-high-maintenance-dose
#4
Eva Stretz, Eva Maria Oppel, Räwer Helen-Caroline, René Chatelain, Sebastian Mastnik, Bernhard Przybilla, Franziska Ruëff
BACKGROUND: An omalizumab treatment and a high maintenance venom dose may both help to prevent recurrent systemic allergic reactions (SAR) to venom immunotherapy (VIT). The effectiveness of this combination therapy, however, is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We wanted to explore the possibility whether a temporary treatment with the anti-IgE antibody omalizumab, combined with a VIT using an elevated maintenance dose of >100 μg venom may establish a permanent tolerance of maintenance VIT...
August 12, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798270/a-phase-i-dose-escalation-study-of-the-safety-and-pharmacokinetics-of-pictilisib-in-combination-with-erlotinib-in-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumors
#5
Stephen Leong, Rebecca A Moss, Daniel W Bowles, Joseph A Ware, Jing Zhou, Jill M Spoerke, Mark R Lackner, Geetha Shankar, Jennifer L Schutzman, Ruud van der Noll, Emile E Voest, Jan H M Schellens
BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) are involved in the proliferation and survival of many cancer types. Enhanced antitumor activity may be achieved through combined inhibition of these pathways. We report results for pictilisib (GDC-0941, a class I pan-PI3K inhibitor) plus erlotinib (an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) in patients with advanced solid tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 3 + 3 dose-escalation study was carried out at a starting daily dose of 60 mg pictilisib on days 1-21 of a 28-day cycle and 150 mg erlotinib from day 2 of cycle 1...
August 10, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794069/phase-i-study-of-the-anti-cd22-immunotoxin-moxetumomab-pasudotox-for-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#6
Alan S Wayne, Nirali N Shah, Deepa Bhojwani, Lewis B Silverman, James A Whitlock, Maryalice Stetler-Stevenson, Weili Sun, Meina Liang, Jie Yang, Robert J Kreitman, Mark C Lanasa, Ira Pastan
Novel therapies are needed to overcome chemotherapy resistance for children with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Moxetumomab pasudotox is a recombinant anti-CD22 immunotoxin. A multicenter, phase I study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated cumulative dose (MTCD) and evaluate safety, activity, pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity of moxetumomab pasudotox in children, adolescents, and young adults with ALL (n=55). Moxetumomab pasudotox was administered as a 30-minute intravenous infusion at doses of 5 to 50 µg/kg every other day (QOD) for six (Cohorts A and B) or 10 (Cohort C) doses, on 21-day cycles...
August 9, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783013/managing-urban-stormwater-for-urban-sustainability-barriers-and-policy-solutions-for-green-infrastructure-application
#7
Krishna P Dhakal, Lizette R Chevalier
Green infrastructure (GI) revitalizes vegetation and soil, restores hydro-ecological processes destroyed by traditional urbanization, and naturally manages stormwater on-site, offering numerous sustainability benefits. However, despite being sustainable and despite being the object of unrelenting expert advocacy for more than two decades, GI implementation remains slow. On the other hand, the practice of traditional gray infrastructure, which is known to have significant adverse impacts on the environment, is still ubiquitous in urban areas throughout the world...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778096/intravascular-ultrasound-guidance-in-drug-eluting-stents-implantation-a-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
Cheng Qian, Hong Feng, Jianlei Cao, Guangyu Zhang, Yanggan Wang
OBJECTIVE: Previous evidence suggested that intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance could improve outcomes after drug-eluting stents (DES) placement, largely driven by data from observational studies. We, therefore, performed a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized controlled trials to overcome this limitation. RESULTS: The retrieval process yielded 7 RCTs with 3,192 patients. Compared to the angiography guidance, IVUS-guided DES implantation was associated with a significant reduction in the major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (OR 0...
July 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774561/personalized-vaccinology-a-review
#9
G A Poland, I G Ovsyannikova, R B Kennedy
At the current time, the field of vaccinology remains empirical in many respects. Vaccine development, vaccine immunogenicity, and vaccine efficacy have, for the most part, historically been driven by an empiric "isolate-inactivate-inject" paradigm. In turn, a population-level public health paradigm of "the same dose for everyone for every disease" model has been the normative thinking in regard to prevention of vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. In addition, up until recently, no vaccines had been designed specifically to overcome the immunosenescence of aging, consistent with a post-WWII mentality of developing vaccines and vaccine programs for children...
July 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765817/allergen-specific-intralymphatic-immunotherapy-in-human-and-animal-studies
#10
REVIEW
Seon Tae Kim, So Hyun Park, Sang Min Lee, Sang Pyo Lee
Clinical trials of intralymphatic immunotherapy (ILIT) have been performed to overcome the limitations of long-term therapy and the local or systemic hypersensitivity reactions in conventional allergen-specific immunotherapy, including subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy. Additionally, several animal studies of ILIT have been conducted in the form of translational or veterinary research. We conducted a literature review to examine the treatment efficacy and adverse effects of ILIT.
July 2017: Asia Pacific Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764748/a-phase-i-trial-of-ganetespib-in-combination-with-paclitaxel-and-trastuzumab-in-patients-with-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-her2-positive-metastatic-breast-cancer
#11
Komal Jhaveri, Rui Wang, Eleonora Teplinsky, Sarat Chandarlapaty, David Solit, Karen Cadoo, James Speyer, Gabriella D'Andrea, Sylvia Adams, Sujata Patil, Sofia Haque, Tara O'Neill, Kent Friedman, Francisco J Esteva, Clifford Hudis, Shanu Modi
BACKGROUND: Targeted therapies in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer significantly improve outcomes but efficacy is limited by therapeutic resistance. HER2 is an acutely sensitive Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) client and HSP90 inhibition can overcome trastuzumab resistance. Preclinical data suggest that HSP90 inhibition is synergistic with taxanes with the potential for significant clinical activity. We therefore tested ganetespib, a HSP90 inhibitor, in combination with paclitaxel and trastuzumab in patients with trastuzumab-refractory HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer...
August 2, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762560/ambient-mass-spectrometry-direct-analysis-of-dimethoate-tebuconazole-and-trifloxystrobin-on-olive-and-vine-leaves-by-desorption-electrospray-ionization-interface
#12
Lucia Mainero Rocca, Juri Cecca, Nunziata L'Episcopo, Giovanni Fabrizi
A new field of application for a relatively new mass-spectrometric interface such as desorption electrospray ionization was evaluated. For this purpose, its behavior was tested versus quantitative analysis of dimethoate, trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole directly on olive and vine leaves surface. The goal was workers exposure assessment during field re-entry operations since evidence suggests an association between chronic occupational exposure to some agrochemicals and severe adverse effects. DESI gave good response working in positive ionization mode, while numerous test were necessary for the choice of a unique blend of spray solvents suitable for all three substances...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762186/laparoscopic-liver-resection-using-the-lateral-approach-from-intercostal-ports-in-segments-vi-vii-and-viii
#13
Yoshihiro Inoue, Yusuke Suzuki, Kensuke Fujii, Nao Kawaguchi, Masatsugu Ishii, Shinsuke Masubuchi, Masashi Yamamoto, Fumitoshi Hirokawa, Michihiro Hayashi, Kazuhisa Uchiyama
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) has been developed as a minimally invasive surgery. However, challenges such as difficulty securing visibility and limited control of forceps make it difficult to complete LLR in hepatic segments VI, VII, and VIII. To overcome these challenges, we devised a surgical technique using intercostal ports. We termed this approach the lateral approach. This work describes our experience performing LLR using this approach and discusses the safety and effectiveness of this approach...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756942/identifying-incipient-dementia-individuals-using-machine-learning-and-amyloid-imaging
#14
Sulantha Mathotaarachchi, Tharick A Pascoal, Monica Shin, Andrea L Benedet, Min Su Kang, Thomas Beaudry, Vladimir S Fonov, Serge Gauthier, Pedro Rosa-Neto
Identifying individuals destined to develop Alzheimer's dementia within time frames acceptable for clinical trials constitutes an important challenge to design studies to test emerging disease-modifying therapies. Although amyloid-β protein is the core pathologic feature of Alzheimer's disease, biomarkers of neuronal degeneration are the only ones believed to provide satisfactory predictions of clinical progression within short time frames. Here, we propose a machine learning-based probabilistic method designed to assess the progression to dementia within 24 months, based on the regional information from a single amyloid positron emission tomography scan...
July 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754568/quantifying-ischemic-risk-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-attributable-to-high-platelet-reactivity-on-clopidogrel-from-the-assessment-of-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-with-drug-eluting-stents-study
#15
Björn Redfors, Ori Ben-Yehuda, Sheng-Hsuan Lin, Ariel Furer, Ajay J Kirtane, Bernhard Witzenbichler, Giora Weisz, Thomas D Stuckey, Akiko Maehara, Philippe Généreux, Gennaro Giustino, Michael J Rinaldi, Franz-Josef Neumann, D Christopher Metzger, Timothy D Henry, David A Cox, Peter L Duffy, Ernest L Mazzaferri, Girma Minalu Ayele, Roxana Mehran, Gary S Mintz, Gregg W Stone
Patients at high risk of thrombotic events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may potentially benefit from intensified antiplatelet therapy. However, more potent antiplatelet therapy would be expected to only overcome risk that is mediated by high platelet reactivity (PR). We used mediation analysis to determine the contribution of residual PR to the 2-year risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE; the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or stent thrombosis) associated with clinical risk factors after PCI with drug-eluting stents (DES) in 8,374 patients from the prospective, multicenter Assessment of Dual AntiPlatelet Therapy with Drug-Eluting Stents (ADAPT-DES) registry...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750681/drug-induced-amino-acid-deprivation-as-strategy-for-cancer-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Marcus Kwong Lam Fung, Godfrey Chi-Fung Chan
Cancer is caused by uncontrollable growth of neoplastic cells, leading to invasion of adjacent and distant tissues resulting in death. Cancer cells have specific nutrient(s) auxotrophy and have a much higher nutrient demand compared to normal tissues. Therefore, different metabolic inhibitors or nutrient-depleting enzymes have been tested for their anti-cancer activities. We review recent available laboratory and clinical data on using various specific amino acid metabolic pathways inhibitors in treating cancers...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750500/endoscopic-ultrasound-core-needle-for-diagnosing-of-solid-pancreatic-lesions-is-rapid-on-site-evaluation-really-necessary
#17
Monica Arena, Leonardo H Eusebi, Rinaldo Pellicano, Maria A Palamara, Giuseppe Iabichino, Pierluigi Consolo, Sharmila Fagoonee, Enrico Opocher, Matteo Barabino, Carmelo Luigiano
INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) has a crucial role in the diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions and rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) can increase its diagnostic yield. Rapid on-site evaluation is not always available and after EUS-FNA provides a cytology specimen with scant cellularity. Fine needle biopsy (FNB) specimens containing core tissue may theoretically overcome the limitations of EUS-FNA sampling. It could be hypothesized that EUS-FNB without ROSE could achieve the same adequacy and accuracy of EUS-FNB with ROSE...
July 27, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749739/nanomedicine-formulations-for-the-delivery-of-antiviral-drugs-a-promising-solution-for-the-treatment-of-viral-infections
#18
David Lembo, Manuela Donalisio, Andrea Civra, Monica Argenziano, Roberta Cavalli
Viral infections represent a public health problem and one of the leading causes of global mortality. Nanomedicine strategies can be considered a powerful tool to enhance the effectiveness of antiviral drugs, often associated with solubility and bioavailability issues. Consequently, high doses and frequent administrations are required, resulting in adverse side effects. To overcome these limitations, various nanomedicine platforms have been designed. Area covered. This review focuses on the state of the art of organic-based nanoparticles for the delivery of approved antivirals...
July 27, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742712/specialist-physicians-attitudes-and-practice-patterns-regarding-disclosure-of-pre-referral-medical-errors
#19
Lesly A Dossett, Rondi M Kauffmann, Jay S Lee, Harkamal Singh, M Catherine Lee, Arden M Morris, Reshma Jagsi, Gwendolyn P Quinn, Justin B Dimick
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine specialist physicians' attitudes and practices regarding disclosure of pre-referral errors. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Physicians are encouraged to disclose their own errors to patients. However, no clear professional norms exist regarding disclosure when physicians discover errors in diagnosis or treatment that occurred at other institutions before referral. METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews of cancer specialists from 2 National Cancer Institute-designated Cancer Centers...
July 24, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735010/maternal-age-affects-offspring-nutrient-dynamics
#20
Doriane Muller, David Giron, Emmanuel Desouhant, Benjamin Rey, Jérôme Casas, Nicolas Lefrique, Bertanne Visser
The internal physiological state of a mother can have major effects on her fitness and that of her offspring. We show that maternal effects in the parasitic wasp Eupelmus vuilleti become apparent when old mothers provision their eggs with less protein, sugar and lipid. Feeding from a host after hatching allows the offspring of old mothers to overcome initial shortages in sugars and lipids, but adult offspring of old mothers still emerged with lower protein and glycogen quantities. Reduced egg provisioning by old mothers had adverse consequences for the nutrient composition of adult female offspring, despite larval feeding from a high-quality host...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
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