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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912760/update-on-recent-preclinical-and-clinical-studies-of-t790m-mutant-specific-irreversible-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#1
REVIEW
Bin-Chi Liao, Chia-Chi Lin, Jih-Hsiang Lee, James Chih-Hsin Yang
The first- and second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (1/2G EGFR-TKIs) gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib have all been approved as standard first-line treatments for advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer. The third-generation (3G) EGFR-TKIs have been developed to overcome the EGFR T790M mutation, which is the most common mechanism of acquired resistance to 1/2G EGFR-TKI treatment. This resistance mutation develops in half of the patients who respond to 1/2G EGFR-TKI therapy...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908060/individual-differences-in-the-perception-of-regional-nonnative-and-disordered-speech-varieties
#2
Tessa Bent, Melissa Baese-Berk, Stephanie A Borrie, Megan McKee
Speech perception abilities vary substantially across listeners, particularly in adverse conditions including those stemming from environmental degradation (e.g., noise) or from talker-related challenges (e.g., nonnative or disordered speech). This study examined adult listeners' recognition of words in phrases produced by six talkers representing three speech varieties: a nonnative accent (Spanish-accented English), a regional dialect (Irish English), and a disordered variety (ataxic dysarthria). Semantically anomalous phrases from these talkers were presented in a transcription task and intelligibility scores, percent words correct, were compared across the three speech varieties...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907963/optimizing-medication-outcomes-in-neurocritical-care-focus-on-clinical-pharmacology
#3
Denise H Rhoney, Kathryn Morbitzer, Jimmi Hatton-Kolpek
Drug dosing in neurocritically ill patients presents enormous challenges for clinicians due to the complex pathophysiological alterations. These alterations are dynamic both between and within patients. Unpredictable exposure from standard dosing regimens, which were extrapolated to intensive care unit patients from healthy volunteer studies, may influence medication outcomes. Knowledge of potential alterations in pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics in these patients could be applied to maximize the clinical response and minimize adverse effects...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904965/chitosan-hydrogel-microspheres-an-effective-covalent-matrix-for-crosslinking-of-soluble-dextranase-to-increase-stability-and-recycling-efficiency
#4
Faiza Shahid, Afsheen Aman, Muhammad Asif Nawaz, Asad Karim, Shah Ali Ul Qader
Dextranase is a unique biocatalyst that has high specificity and stereo-selectivity towards a complex biopolymer known as dextran. Dextranase has wide industrial application, but most of the time harsh environmental conditions adversely affect the functionality and stability of the enzyme. To overcome this issue, a covalent cross-linking immobilization method was adapted in the current study utilizing a nontoxic and biocompatible matrix known as chitosan. Chitosan hydrogel microspheres were synthesized using chitosan which exhibited noteworthy physical and mechanical strength...
November 30, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904526/new-agents-approved-for-treatment-of-acute-staphylococcal-skin-infections
#5
Jan Tatarkiewicz, Anna Staniszewska, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrożny
Vancomycin has been a predominant treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections for decades. However, growing reservations about its efficacy led to an urgent need for new antibiotics effective against MRSA and other drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. This review covers three new anti-MRSA antibiotics that have been recently approved by the FDA: dalbavancin, oritavancin, and tedizolid. The mechanism of action, indications, antibacterial activity profile, microbial resistance, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, interactions as well as available formulations and administration of each of these new antibiotics are described...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900074/afatinib-induced-acute-fatal-pneumonitis-in-metastatic-lung-adenocarcinoma
#6
Sang Hoon Yoo, Jin Ah Ryu, Seo Ree Kim, Su Yun Oh, Gu Sung Jung, Dong Jae Lee, Bong Gyu Kwak, Yu Hyun Nam, Kyung Hyun Kim, Young Jun Yang
Afatinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that inhibit Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2), and HER4. The common side effects of EGFR TKI are rash, acne, diarrhea, stomatitis, pruritus, nausea, and loss of appetite. Drug induced pneumonitis is the less common adverse effects of EGFR TKI. Afatinib, 2nd generation EGFR TKI is anticipated to overcome drug resistance from 1st generation EGFR TKI according to preclinical study, and several studies are being conducted to compare clinical efficacy between 1st and 2nd EGFR TKI...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894271/effectiveness-of-a-physical-exercise-intervention-program-in-improving-functional-mobility-in-older-adults-after-hip-fracture-in-later-stage-rehabilitation-protocol-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial-reative-study
#7
Camila Astolphi Lima, Catherine Sherrington, Adriana Guaraldo, Suzana Albuquerque de Moraes, Renata Dos Ramos Varanda, Juliana de Araújo Melo, Kodi Edson Kojima, Monica Perracini
BACKGROUND: Hip fractures resulting from falls increase substantially with advancing age and less than half of older hip fracture survivors regain their former levels of mobility. There is increasing evidence that rehabilitation interventions with exercises that goes beyond the sub-acute phase or even in a later stage of care have a positive impact on various functional abilities. The purpose of this study is to determine if exercise program training for people who have suffered a fall-related hip fracture will improve functional mobility when compared with usual care...
November 29, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885975/hearing-benefit-and-rated-satisfaction-in-children-with-unilateral-conductive-hearing-loss-using-a-transcutaneous-magnetic-coupled-bone-conduction-hearing-aid
#8
Melissa J Polonenko, Lora Carinci, Karen A Gordon, Blake C Papsin, Sharon L Cushing
BACKGROUND: Bilateral hearing is important for learning, development, and function in complex everyday environments. Children with conductive and mixed hearing loss (HL) have been treated for years with percutaneous coupling through an abutment, which achieves powerful output, but the implant site is susceptible to skin reactions and trauma. To overcome these complications, transcutaneous magnetic coupling systems were recently introduced. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether the new transcutaneous magnetic coupling is an effective coupling paradigm for bone-conduction hearing aids (BCHAs)...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884218/the-current-state-of-perioperative-pain-management-challenges-and-potential-opportunities-for-nurses
#9
Melanie H Simpson, Patricia Bruckenthal
Achievement of adequate postoperative pain management is a critical challenge in health care, with an estimated three out of four adult surgical patients reporting moderate to extreme pain after surgery. Overreliance on opioids in acute care settings has persisted, despite well-known adverse side effects frequently associated with this class of drugs. Furthermore, patients with a history of chronic opioid use present additional challenges in terms of postsurgical pain management. Advances in the development of newer analgesic agents and anesthetic techniques may be useful in surgical patients with a history of chronic opioid use and in the overall surgical patient population...
December 2016: AORN Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883086/an-in-silico-study-of-tio2-nanoparticles-interaction-with-twenty-standard-amino-acids-in-aqueous-solution
#10
Shengtang Liu, Xuan-Yu Meng, Jose Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Ruhong Zhou
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is probably one of the most widely used nanomaterials, and its extensive exposure may result in potentially adverse biological effects. Yet, the underlying mechanisms of interaction involving TiO2 NPs and macromolecules, e.g., proteins, are still not well understood. Here, we perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interactions between TiO2 NPs and the twenty standard amino acids in aqueous solution exploiting a newly developed TiO2 force field. We found that charged amino acids play a dominant role during the process of binding to the TiO2 surface, with both basic and acidic residues overwhelmingly preferred over the non-charged counterparts...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883060/environmental-intervention-as-a-therapy-for-adverse-programming-by-ancestral-stress
#11
J Keiko McCreary, Zachary T Erickson, YongXin Hao, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Igor Kovalchuk, Gerlinde A S Metz
Ancestral stress can program stress sensitivity and health trajectories across multiple generations. While ancestral stress is uncontrollable to the filial generations, it is critical to identify therapies that overcome transgenerational programming. Here we report that prenatal stress in rats generates a transgenerationally heritable endocrine and epigenetic footprint and elevated stress sensitivity which can be alleviated by beneficial experiences in later life. Ancestral stress led to downregulated glucocorticoid receptor and prefrontal cortex neuronal densities along with precocious development of anxiety-like behaviours...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876467/a-review-on-tacrine-based-scaffolds-as-multi-target-drugs-mtdls-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Bilqees Sameem, Mina Saeedi, Mohammad Mahdavi, Abbas Shafiee
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurological disorder among elderly people and combinatorial factors such as genetic, lifestyle, and environmental are involved in onset and disease progression. It has been demonstrated that loss of cholinergic transmission is one of the most significant causes of AD. One strategy currently being investigated for the development of new therapeutics relates to the enhancement of cholinergic system through several ways. At this juncture, anticholinesterase inhibitors have absorbed lots of attention and different marketed drugs such as donepezil, rivastigmine, tacrine, and galantamine have been developed...
October 28, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856369/outcomes-of-maintenance-therapy-with-bortezomib-post-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-for-patients-with-multiple-myeloma
#13
Dharshan Sivaraj, Michael M Green, Zhiguo Li, Anthony D Sung, Stefanie Sarantopoulos, Yubin Kang, Gwynn D Long, Mitchell E Horwitz, Richard D Lopez, Keith M Sullivan, David A Rizzieri, Nelson J Chao, Cristina Gasparetto
Comprehensive recommendations for maintenance therapy post-autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have yet to be defined. Bortezomib has been utilized as maintenance therapy after ASCT, but data attesting to the safety and efficacy of this agent compared to lenalidomide in the post-ASCT setting are limited. Therefore we retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 102 MM patients who received maintenance therapy with bortezomib post-ASCT at Duke University's Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Clinic (ABMT) between 2005 and 2015...
November 14, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853097/utility-of-high-resolution-magnetocardiography-to-predict-later-cardiac-events-in-nonischemic-cardiomyopathy-patients-with-normal-qrs-duration
#14
Shoji Kawakami, Hiroshi Takaki, Shuji Hashimoto, Yoshitaka Kimura, Takahiro Nakashima, Takeshi Aiba, Kengo F Kusano, Shiro Kamakura, Satoshi Yasuda, Masaru Sugimachi
BACKGROUND: Nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) patients, even those with a narrow QRS, are at increased risk for major adverse cardiac events (MACE). We hypothesized that 64-channel magnetocardiography (MCG) would be useful to detect prognostic left intraventricular disorganized conduction (LiDC) by overcoming the limitations of fragmented QRS (fQRS, qualitative definitions, low specificity) and late potential (abnormality undetectable in earlier QRS).Methods and Results:We evaluated LiDC on MCG, defined as significant deviation from a global clockwise left ventricular (LV) activation pattern, and conventional noninvasive predictors of MACE, including fQRS and late potential, in 51 NIDCM patients with narrow QRS (LV ejection fraction, 22±7%; QRS duration, 99±11 ms)...
November 17, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852999/immunotherapy-in-viral-warts-with-intradermal-bacillus-calmette-guerin-vaccine-versus-intradermal-tuberculin-purified-protein-derivative-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-effectiveness-and-safety-in-a-tertiary-care-center-in-eastern-india
#15
Indrashis Podder, Sabari Bhattacharya, Vivek Mishra, Tushar Kanti Sarkar, Somodyuti Chandra, Amrita Sil, Santasmita Pal, Dhiraj Kumar, Abanti Saha, Koushik Shome, Debabrata Bandyopadhyay, Nilay Kanti Das
BACKGROUND: Current therapeutic modalities for viral warts are mostly ablative and are limited by high recurrence rates besides being unsuitable for numerous lesions. Immunotherapy has the potential to overcome these limitations. AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine versus tuberculin purified protein derivative in the immunotherapy of warts. METHODS: Patients received three doses of 0...
November 11, 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848137/combined-braf-v600e-and-mek-blockade-for-braf-v600e-mutant-gliomas
#16
Jie Zhang, Tsun-Wen Yao, Rintaro Hashizume, Sujatmi Hariono, Krister J Barkovich, Qi-Wen Fan, Michael Prados, C David James, William A Weiss, Theodore Nicolaides
BRAF(V600E) is a common finding in glioma (about 10-60% depending on histopathologic subclassification). BRAF(V600E) monotherapy shows modest preclinical efficacy against BRAF(V600E) gliomas and also induces adverse secondary skin malignancies. Here, we examine the molecular mechanism of intrinsic resistance to BRAF(V600E) inhibition in glioma. Furthermore, we investigate BRAF(V600E)/MEK combination therapy that overcomes intrinsic resistance to BRAF(V600E) inhibitor and also prevents BRAF(V600E) inhibitor induced secondary malignancies...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847138/a-comparative-evaluation-of-the-effect-of-the-addition-of-pachymic-acid-on-the-cytotoxicity-of-4-different-root-canal-sealers-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-study
#17
Senthamilselvan Arun, Vidhya Sampath, Sekar Mahalaxmi, Kothandaraman Rajkumar
INTRODUCTION: Root canal sealers exhibit varying degrees of cytotoxicity to periapical tissues. This in turn results in inflammation, delayed wound healing, and even bone resorption. This study aimed to explore the effect of the addition of an antioxidant like pachymic acid on the cytotoxicity of 4 root canal sealers, namely, Tubliseal (Kerr, Romulus, MI), a zinc oxide eugenol-based sealer; AH Plus (Dentsply De Trey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany), an epoxy resin-based sealer; Sealapex (Kerr), a calcium hydroxide-based sealer; and EndoREZ (Ultradent Products, South Jordan, UT), a methacrylate resin-based sealer...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830947/bioactive-compounds-as-an-alternative-for-drug-co-therapy-overcoming-challenges-in-cardiovascular-disease-prevention
#18
Bianca Scolaro, Hellen Soo Jin Kim, Inar Alves de Castro
Different pharmacological interventions have been applied with success to reduce the progression of atherosclerosis. However, many patients are not good responders or must interrupt treatment due to adverse effects. Bioactive compounds such as omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA), plant sterol esters (PSE) and phenolic compounds (PHC) are natural molecules with great potential to reduce the atherosclerosis burden by reducing inflammation, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and oxidative stress, respectively. Although their physiological effects on biomarkers are much lower than those expected by drugs used for the same purpose, bioactive compounds can easily be incorporated into the daily diet and present no adverse effects...
November 10, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830226/new-unintended-adverse-consequences-of-electronic-health-records
#19
D F Sittig, A Wright, J Ash, H Singh
Although the health information technology industry has made considerable progress in the design, development, implementation, and use of electronic health records (EHRs), the lofty expectations of the early pioneers have not been met. In 2006, the Provider Order Entry Team at Oregon Health & Science University described a set of unintended adverse consequences (UACs), or unpredictable, emergent problems associated with computer-based provider order entry implementation, use, and maintenance. Many of these originally identified UACs have not been completely addressed or alleviated, some have evolved over time, and some new ones have emerged as EHRs became more widely available...
November 10, 2016: Yearbook of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826131/preconception-care-education-for-women-with-diabetes-a-systematic-review-of-conventional-and-digital-health-interventions
#20
REVIEW
Chidiebere Hope Nwolise, Nicola Carey, Jill Shawe
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, 199.5 million women have diabetes mellitus (DM). Preconception care (PCC) education starting from adolescence has been recommended as an effective strategy for safeguarding maternal and child health. However, traditional preconception care advice provided by health care professionals (HCPs) within clinic settings is hindered by inadequate resources, suboptimal coverage, and busy clinics. Electronic health (eHealth), which is instrumental in solving problems around scarce health resources, could be of value in overcoming these limitations and be used to improve preconception care and pregnancy outcomes for women with DM...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
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