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mental illness prevention

Shu-Fang Chang
PURPOSE: We investigated the relationships among geriatric syndrome, physiological functions, and body composition in community-dwelling older people with varying nutritional statuses. Other factors correlated with nutritional status in community-dwelling older people were also explored. BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has initiated preventive programs for addressing malnutrition. However, few studies have focused on the correlations among geriatric syndrome, physiological functions, and body composition in older people at risk of malnutrition...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Marvin S Swartz, Sayanti Bhattacharya, Allison G Robertson, Jeffrey W Swanson
OBJECTIVE: Involuntary outpatient commitment (OPC)-also referred to as 'assisted outpatient treatment' or 'community treatment orders'-are civil court orders whereby persons with serious mental illness and repeated hospitalisations are ordered to adhere to community-based treatment. Increasingly, in the United States, OPC is promoted to policy makers as a means to prevent violence committed by persons with mental illness. This article reviews the background and context for promotion of OPC for violence prevention and the empirical evidence for the use of OPC for this goal...
October 24, 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Michael B MacIsaac, Lyndal C Bugeja, George A Jelinek
OBJECTIVE: To review the association between exposure to interpersonal violence and suicide among women. METHODS: In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocol (PRISMA-P), this review examined articles identified by using the key terms 'interpersonal violence', 'suicide' and 'death'. Of 5,536 articles identified, 38 met the a priori inclusion criteria. These required that studies examined interpersonal violence, included women and completed suicide was a measured outcome...
October 23, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Jennifer L Pilgrim, Elizabeth L Jenkins, Yeliena Baber, David Caldicott, Olaf H Drummer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fatal poisonings in children comprise a small proportion of cases investigated by an Australian coroner; however, they present a major opportunity for death prevention. This study aimed to examine fatal child poisonings in Australia to 1) estimate the rate of acute poisoning deaths in children; 2) describe the key characteristics of the cohort; and 3) describe the outcomes of coronial recommendations made as a death prevention measure. DESIGN: Retrospective case series...
October 21, 2016: Addiction
Marisa Elena Domino, Mona Kilany, Rebecca Wells, Joseph P Morrissey
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether medical homes have heterogeneous effects in different subpopulations, leveraging the interpretations from a variety of statistical techniques. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Secondary claims data from the NC Medicaid program for 2004-2007. The sample included all adults with diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression who were not dually enrolled in Medicare or in a nursing facility. STUDY DESIGN: We modeled a number of monthly service use, adherence, and expenditure outcomes using fixed effects, generalized estimating equation with and without inverse probability of treatment weights, and instrumental variables analyses...
October 21, 2016: Health Services Research
C U Okeafor, I N Okeafor, C I Tobin-West
This study aimed to examine the relationship between exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the occurrence of mental illness in adulthood in Nigeria. An age- and gender-matched case-control study was conducted in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, from January to March 2014. Cases were defined as individuals aged 18 to 60 years diagnosed with mental illness while controls were aged 18 to 60 years who did not have mental illness. The study had 304 subjects comprised of 152 case-control pairs...
October 5, 2016: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
Carl Elliott
In the spring of 2015, 11 years after a mentally ill young man named Dan Markingson stabbed himself to death in an industry-sponsored drug study, officials at the University of Minnesota suspended recruitment of subjects into drug trials in its Department of Psychiatry. University officials agreed to act only after a scathing investigation by Minnesota Office of the Legislative Auditor found damning evidence of coerced recruitment, inadequate clinical care, superficial research oversight, a web of serious, disturbing conflicts of interest, and a pattern of misleading public statements by university officials aimed at deflecting scrutiny...
October 18, 2016: Accountability in Research
Jagnoor Jagnoor, Annelies De Wolf, Michael Nicholas, Chris G Maher, Petrina Casey, Fiona Blyth, Ian A Harris, Ian D Cameron
BACKGROUND: We sought to identify the role of pre-injury socio-demographic and health characteristics, and injury severity in determining health-related quality-of-life outcomes for mild to moderate injuries 2 months after a motor vehicle crash in a compensable setting. METHODS: People aged 17 years and older, injured with a New Injury Severity Score of 8 or less, in a motor vehicle crash in New South Wales and who had registered a claim with the Compulsory Third Party Insurance scheme from March to December 2010 were contacted to participate in the study...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Wanjie Tang, Jingdong Zhao, Yi Lu, Tingting Yan, Lijuan Wang, Jun Zhang, Jiuping Xu
OBJECTIVE: Millions of children were exposed to major earthquake in China, with serious psychological and developmental consequences. To obtain accurate rate of post-disaster related disorder and identify predictors may help inform post-disaster rescue and rehabilitation efforts. The present longitudinal study explored correlations of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of juvenile survivors of the Ya'an and Wenchuan earthquakes in China with their trajectories of post-disaster related disorder...
September 13, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Cynthia Lien, Tony Rosen, Elizabeth M Bloemen, Robert C Abrams, Maria Pavlou, Mark S Lachs
OBJECTIVES: To identify patterns of personal experience or behavior in self-neglect by exploring narratives of cognitively intact older adults. DESIGN: Descriptive study involving semistructured interviews and unstructured narratives. SETTING: A parent study of self-neglect characteristics. PARTICIPANTS: Cognitively intact, self-neglecting older adults referred from 11 community-based senior services agencies (N = 69)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Jisha Myalil Lucca, Madhan Ramesh, Gurumurthy Parthasarathi, Dushad Ram
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: Psychotropic drugs are associated with significant short-term and long-term safety issues which may affect patients' mental health, physical health and cost of care. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS: This was a prospective study conducted in psychiatry department of a tertiary care hospital. Study included patients of any age and either sex who presented with psychiatric illness as diagnosed by ICD-10 and were receiving at least one psychotropic agent. The study involved both intensive and spontaneous reporting methods to identify ADRs...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Rosaria Di Lorenzo, Michela Cameli, Marisa Bolondi, Giulia Landi, Valentina Moretti, Chiara Piemonte, Gabriella Pollutri
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate paliperidone palmitate (PP) effectiveness, safety and adherence to treatment. METHODS: We collected data of all patients (n = 50) affected by Schizophrenia Disorders, treated with PP for a 3 month minimum period in the outpatient setting of Mental Health Department in Modena, from 01/01/2014 to 31/01/2015. We evaluated reasons and modality for PP implementation, improvement in symptom and functioning scales, adverse effects, discontinuations and relapses...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Donna Gillies, Licia Maiocchi, Abhishta P Bhandari, Fiona Taylor, Carl Gray, Louise O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents who have experienced trauma are at high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes, all of which are associated with high personal and health costs. A wide range of psychological treatments are used to prevent negative outcomes associated with trauma in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychological therapies in preventing PTSD and associated negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents who have undergone a traumatic event...
October 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Yukiyoshi Hyo, Kenji Fukutsuji, Hisaki Fukushima, Tamotsu Harada
Cases of thermal burns of the larynx in infants and in patients with mental illness have been reported, but those in older people are rare. We report two cases of thermal burns of the larynx in older people caused by ingestion of microwave-heated food (meat and potato stew or a bean-jam filled bun). Both patients were users of full dentures. Conservative therapy was effective in one patient, while tracheotomy was performed in the other patient at the time of the initial examination. Hot food is expelled from the mouth as a reflective response, preventing thermal burns of the larynx...
October 6, 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Marta Martin-Subero, Crisanto Diez-Quevedo
This paper aims to review the epidemiology and management of mental disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected patients, the need for antiviral therapy in this specific population, and current treatment strategies for HIV/HCV patients with psychiatric and/or substance use disorders. This is a narrative review. Data was sourced from electronic databases and was not limited by language or date of publication. HIV infection has become a survivable chronic illness. Prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected patients is high ranging from 50% to 90%...
September 26, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Andrea Murru, Bernardo Carpiniello
The first psychotic episode is classically viewed as a critical period which management is important in determining the long-term outcome of the schizophrenia (SCZ). For this reason, the duration of untreated illness (DUI), defined as the interval between the onset of the psychiatric disorder and the administration of the first pharmacological treatment, is a clinical variable that has been increasingly investigated due to its potentially modifiable nature and its value as a predictor of outcome. DUI is poorly applicable and highly unreliable in psychosis...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Fredrick E Vars, Cheryl B McCullumsmith, Richard C Shelton, Karen L Cropsey
The study goal was to determine whether a significant number of high suicide risk individuals would confidentially put their own names onto a list to prevent future gun purchases. An anonymous written survey was administered in an inpatient psychiatric unit and two outpatient psychiatric clinics at an academic medical center. Two hundred forty individuals were approached to fill out the survey, of whom 200 (83.3%) did so. Forty-six percent of participants stated that they would put their own name onto the list...
October 5, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Glenn S Pransky, Jean-Baptise Fassier, Elyssa Besen, Peter Blanck, Kerstin Ekberg, Michael Feuerstein, Fehmidah Munir
Introduction Many disability prevention strategies are focused on acute injuries and brief illness episodes, but there will be growing challenges for employers to manage circumstances of recurrent, chronic, or fluctuating symptoms in an aging workforce. The goal of this article is to summarize existing peer-review research in this area, compare this with employer discourse in the grey literature, and recommend future research priorities. Methods The authors participated in a year-long sponsored collaboration that ultimately led to an invited 3-day conference, "Improving Research of Employer Practices to Prevent Disability", held October 14-16, 2015, in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, USA...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
S Halder, A K Mahato
INTRODUCTION: Suicide has become an important public health concern with a high number of deaths and increasing number of attempted suicides every year. There are multiple factors that underlie a suicide attempt. Although mental illness and severe stress have long been known to be associated with suicide, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of those attempting suicide can also provide indications of suicidal intent. The present study aimed to explore the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients in Kolkata, India who attempted suicide...
September 2016: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
Nicholette D Palmer Allred, Laura M Raffield, Joycelyn C Hardy, Fang-Chi Hsu, Jasmin Divers, Jianzhao Xu, S Carrie Smith, Christina E Hugenschmidt, Benjamin C Wagner, Christopher T Whitlow, Kaycee M Sink, Joseph A Maldjian, Jeff D Williamson, Donald W Bowden, Barry I Freedman
OBJECTIVE: Dementia is a debilitating illness with a disproportionate burden in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Among the contributors, genetic variation at the apolipoprotein E locus (APOE) is posited to convey a strong effect. This study compared and contrasted the association of APOE with cognitive performance and cerebral structure in the setting of T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: European Americans from the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) MIND (n = 754) and African Americans from the African American (AA)- DHS MIND (n = 517) were examined...
October 4, 2016: Diabetes Care
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