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Koutatsu Nagaia, Toshiaki Miyamato, Akio Okamae, Akira Tamaki, Hiroyuki Fujioka, Yosuke Wada, Yuki Uchiyama, Ken Shinmura, Kazuhisa Domen
INTRODUCTION: Increased physical activity (PA) is a crucial factor in the prevention of physical deterioration, and resistance training (RT) is also a common and effective intervention for older adults. However, the effects of PA as an adjunct to RT on frailty status remains unclear; therefore, we clarified the effect of a PA intervention with feedback, as an adjunct to resistance strength training, on the physical and mental outcomes of frail older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We employed a randomized controlled trial...
February 13, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
A Castellanos-Gonzalez, A C White, P Melby, B Travi
Infections caused by protozoan parasites affect millions of people around the world. Traditionally, diagnosis was made by microscopy, which is insensitive and in some cases not specific. Molecular methods are highly sensitive and specific, but equipment costs and personnel training limit its availability only to specialized centers, usually far from populations with the highest risk of infection. Inexpensive methods that can be applied at the point of care (POC), especially in places with limited health infrastructure, would be a major advantage...
February 13, 2018: Acta Tropica
Luck Tosan Ereku, Ruth E Mackay, Pascal Craw, Angel Naveenathayalan, Thomas Stead, Manorharanehru Branavan, Wamadeva Balachandran
A point of care device utilising Lab-on-a-Chip technologies that is applicable for biological pathogens was designed, fabricated and tested showing sample in to answer out capabilities. The purpose of the design was to develop a cartridge with the capability to perform nucleic acid extraction and purification from a sample using a chitosan membrane at an acidic pH. Waste was stored within the cartridge with the use of sodium polyacrylate to solidify or gelate the sample in a single chamber. Nucleic acid elution was conducted using the RPA amplification reagents (alkaline pH)...
February 12, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Khalid Shahin, Jose Gustavo Ramirez-Paredes, Graham Harold, Benjamin Lopez-Jimena, Alexandra Adams, Manfred Weidmann
Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is the causative agent of piscine francisellosis in warm water fish including tilapia. The disease induces chronic granulomatous inflammation with high morbidity and can result in high mortality. Early and accurate detection of Fno is crucial to set appropriate outbreak control measures in tilapia farms. Laboratory detection of Fno mainly depends on bacterial culture and molecular techniques. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a novel isothermal technology that has been widely used for the molecular diagnosis of various infectious diseases...
2018: PloS One
Woo Sung Jang, Jae Bum Kim, Jae Hyun Kim, Hee Jeong Choi
Left main bronchus compression occasionally occurs in patients with cardiac disease. A 19-month-old female patient weighing 6.7 kg was admitted for recurrent pneumonia and desaturation. She had an a trial septal defect (AS D) with a right aortic arch. Her left main bronchus had been compressed between the enlarged right pulmonary artery (RPA) and the descending thoracic aorta for 14 months. We conducted ASD closure and RPA anterior translocation via sternotomy. The left main bronchus compression was relieved despite the medium-term duration of compression...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Fang Gao, Jing-Zhe Jiang, Jiang-Yong Wang, Hong-Ying Wei
Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1) is a well-known pathogen associated with high mortality rates in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of different bivalve species worldwide. Early, rapid and accurate diagnosis plays a fundamental role in disease prevention and control in aquaculture. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a novel isothermal amplification method, which can amplify detectable amount of DNA at 37 °C~39 °C within 20 min. In the present study, two sets of specific primers and probes were designed for the real-time quantitative RPA (qRPA) detection of OsHV-1 DNA...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Mariela Vargas, Lincolth Talledo-Ulfe, Paula Heredia, Sarita Quispe-Colquepisco, Christian R Mejia
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of habits on depression in medical students from 7 Peruvian Regions. METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study of a secondary data analysis. The diagnosis of depression was obtained according to the Zung test result, with any level of this condition being considered positive. This was also compared with other social and educational variables that were important according to previous literature. RESULTS: Of the 1922 respondents, 54...
January 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
Kate Poulton, Bonnie Webster
Infection with Schistosoma mansoni causes intestinal schistosomiasis, a major health problem across Africa. The accurate diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis is vital to inform surveillance/control programs. Diagnosis mainly relies on microscopic detection of eggs in faecal samples but many factors affect sensitivity. Molecular diagnostics are sensitive and specific but application is limited as necessary infrastructure, financial resources and skilled personnel are often lacking in endemic settings. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) is an isothermal DNA amplification/detection technology that is practical in nearly any setting...
February 6, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Feifei Wang, Songli Zhu, Laura A Fisher, Weidong Wang, Gregory G Oakley, Chunling Li, Aimin Peng
The specific function of PP2A, a major serine/threonine phosphatase, is mediated by regulatory targeting subunits, such as members of the B55 family. Although implicated in cell division and other pathways, the specific substrates and functions of B55 targeting subunits are largely undefined. In this study we identified over 100 binding proteins of B55α and B55β in Xenopus egg extracts that are involved in metabolism, mitochondria function, molecular trafficking, cell division, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell signaling...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Manal S Zaher, Fahad Rashid, Bo Song, Luay I Joudeh, Mohamed A Sobhy, Muhammad Tehseen, Manju M Hingorani, Samir M Hamdan
RNA-DNA hybrid primers synthesized by low fidelity DNA polymerase α to initiate eukaryotic lagging strand synthesis must be removed efficiently during Okazaki fragment (OF) maturation to complete DNA replication. In this process, each OF primer is displaced and the resulting 5'-single-stranded flap is cleaved by structure-specific 5'-nucleases, mainly Flap Endonuclease 1 (FEN1), to generate a ligatable nick. At least two models have been proposed to describe primer removal, namely short- and long-flap pathways that involve FEN1 or FEN1 along with Replication Protein A (RPA) and Dna2 helicase/nuclease, respectively...
February 6, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Ariungerel Gerelchuluun, Junko Maeda, Eri Manabe, Colleen A Brents, Takeji Sakae, Akira Fujimori, David J Chen, Koji Tsuboi, Takamitsu A Kato
Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor, which has been widely utilized throughout the cancer research field. SAHA-induced radiosensitization in normal human fibroblasts AG1522 and lung carcinoma cells A549 were evaluated with a combination of γ-rays, proton, and carbon ion exposure. Growth delay was observed in both cell lines during SAHA treatment; 2 μM SAHA treatment decreased clonogenicity and induced cell cycle block in G1 phase but 0.2 μM SAHA treatment did not show either of them...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Binoy Babu, Francisco M Ochoa-Corona, Mathews L Paret
Several isothermal techniques for the detection of plant pathogens have been developed with the advent of molecular techniques. Among them, Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) is becoming an important technique for the rapid, sensitive and cost-effective detection of plant viruses. The RPA technology has the advantage to be implemented in field-based scenarios because the method requires a minimal sample preparation, and is performed at constant low temperature (37-42 °C). The RPA technique is rapidly becoming a promising tool for use in rapid detection and further diagnostics in plant clinics and monitoring quarantine services...
January 30, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Yongning Zhang, Jianchang Wang, Zhou Zhang, Lin Mei, Jinfeng Wang, Shaoqiang Wu, Xiangmei Lin
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a severe infectious disease of small ruminants caused by PPR virus (PPRV). Rapid and sensitive detection of PPRV is critical for controlling PPR. This report describes the development and evaluation of a conventional reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay and a real-time RT-RPA assay, targeting the PPRV N gene. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the conventional RT-RPA assay could detect 852 copies of standard PPRV RNA per reaction at 95% probability within 20 min at 41 °C, and the real-time RT-RPA assay could detect 103 copies of RNA molecules per reaction at 95% probability...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Yang Zhang, Guohua Jiang, Weijiang Yu, Depeng Liu, Bin Xu
To reduce the inconvenient and painful of subcutaneous needle injection, the calcium ion cross-linked alginate/maltose (Ca2+/Alg-Mal) composite microneedles have been fabricated by a template method. The as-prepared microneedles exhibited strong mechanical properties with the highest failure force around 0.41N/needle. The biological activity and stability of loaded insulin in microneedles were investigated. Due to the good mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility, the as-prepared microneedles have been applied for transdermal delivery of insulin on diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat models in vivo...
April 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Hendrik Glauninger, Yifan Zhang, Khadine A Higgins, Alexander D Jacobs, Julia E Martin, Yue Fu, H Jerome Coyne Rd, Kevin E Bruce, Michael J Maroney, David E Clemmer, Daiana A Capdevila, David P Giedroc
Resistance to copper (Cu) toxicity in the respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is regulated by the Cu-specific metallosensor CopY. CopY is structurally related to the antibiotic-resistance regulatory proteins MecI and BlaI from Staphylococcus aureus, but is otherwise poorly characterized. Here we employ a multi-pronged experimental strategy to define the Spn CopY coordination chemistry and the unique mechanism of allosteric activation by Zn(ii) and allosteric inhibition by Cu(i) of cop promoter DNA binding...
January 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Suman Das, Adam Eisen, Yi-Hsuan Lin, Hue Sun Chan
In view of recent intense experimental and theoretical interests in the biophysics of liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), heteropolymer models with chain molecules configured as self-avoiding walks on the simple cubic lattice are constructed to study how phase behaviors depend on the sequence of monomers along the chains. To address pertinent general principles, we focus primarily on two fully charged 50-monomer sequences with significantly different charge patterns...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Junko Murai, Sai-Wen Tang, Elisabetta Leo, Simone A Baechler, Christophe E Redon, Hongliang Zhang, Muthana Al Abo, Vinodh N Rajapakse, Eijiro Nakamura, Lisa M Miller Jenkins, Mirit I Aladjem, Yves Pommier
SLFN11 sensitizes cancer cells to a broad range of DNA-targeted therapies. Here we show that, in response to replication stress induced by camptothecin, SLFN11 tightly binds chromatin at stressed replication foci via RPA1 together with the replication helicase subunit MCM3. Unlike ATR, SLFN11 neither interferes with the loading of CDC45 and PCNA nor inhibits the initiation of DNA replication but selectively blocks fork progression while inducing chromatin opening across replication initiation sites. The ATPase domain of SLFN11 is required for chromatin opening, replication block, and cell death but not for the tight binding of SLFN11 to chromatin...
February 1, 2018: Molecular Cell
Yusuke Okamoto, Watal M Iwasaki, Kazuto Kugou, Kazuki K Takahashi, Arisa Oda, Koichi Sato, Wataru Kobayashi, Hidehiko Kawai, Ryo Sakasai, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo, Takashi Yamamoto, Masato T Kanemaki, Masato Taoka, Toshiaki Isobe, Hitoshi Kurumizaka, Hideki Innan, Kunihiro Ohta, Masamichi Ishiai, Minoru Takata
During mild replication stress provoked by low dose aphidicolin (APH) treatment, the key Fanconi anemia protein FANCD2 accumulates on common fragile sites, observed as sister foci, and protects genome stability. To gain further insights into FANCD2 function and its regulatory mechanisms, we examined the genome-wide chromatin localization of FANCD2 in this setting by ChIP-seq analysis. We found that FANCD2 mostly accumulates in the central regions of a set of large transcribed genes that were extensively overlapped with known CFS...
January 31, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
C Saintomé, P Alberti, N Guinot, P Lejault, J Chatain, P Mailliet, J-F Riou, A Bugaut
Here, we report on the in vitro binding properties of the known pyridine dicarboxamide G-quadruplex ligand 360A and a new dimeric analogue (360A)2A to human telomeric DNA higher-order G-quadruplex (G4) structures. This study points to original binding features never reported for G4 ligands, and reveals a greater efficiency for the dimeric ligand to displace RPA (a ssDNA binding protein involved in telomere replication) from telomeric DNA.
February 2, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Ajay Niranjan, Edward A Monaco Iii, Hideyuki Kano, John C Flickinger, L Dade Lunsford
Management options for residual or recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are limited despite advances in surgical, chemotherapeutic, and radiotherapeutic techniques. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is often beneficial in such cases providing improved survival of patients, but still remains underutilized as part of the multimodality management of malignant gliomas. During the last 20 years, 297 patients with histologically proven residual or recurrent GBM underwent Gamma Knife surgery in the University of Pittsburgh...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
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