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Laura C Bonney, Robert J Watson, Babak Afrough, Manija Mullojonova, Viktoriya Dzhuraeva, Farida Tishkova, Roger Hewson
BACKGROUND: Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever Virus (CCHFV) is a rapidly emerging vector-borne pathogen and the cause of a virulent haemorrhagic fever affecting large parts of Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: An isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay was successfully developed for molecular detection of CCHFV. The assay showed rapid (under 10 minutes) detection of viral extracts/synthetic virus RNA of all 7 S-segment clades of CCHFV, with high target specificity...
October 13, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Lisa Schubert, Teresa Ho, Saskia Hoffmann, Peter Haahr, Claire Guérillon, Niels Mailand
Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) regions form as an intermediate in many DNA-associated transactions. Multiple cellular proteins interact with ssDNA via the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold domain. The heterotrimeric, multi-OB fold domain-containing Replication Protein A (RPA) complex has an essential genome maintenance role, protecting ssDNA regions from nucleolytic degradation and providing a recruitment platform for proteins involved in responses to replication stress and DNA damage. Here, we identify the uncharacterized protein RADX (CXorf57) as an ssDNA-binding factor in human cells...
October 11, 2017: EMBO Reports
Preethi Rajagopal, Sian L Goddard, David J Templeton
Background: A substantial increase in gonorrhoea notifications in New South Wales has been observed in recent years. Methods: We assessed yield of testing and characteristics of those diagnosed with gonorrhoea from January 2008 to December 2013 at RPA Sexual Health in the inner-west of Sydney. Yield was defined as the proportion of testing occasions which were positive for gonorrhoea. Generalised estimating equations were used to calculate trends in yield over time. Results: During the 6-year study period, 6456 individuals (4308 males, 2124 females, 24 transgender individuals) were tested on 12799 occasions; this included 2441 gay and bisexual men (GBM) who were tested on 6945 occasions...
October 12, 2017: Sexual Health
Anant Dixit, Julien Claudot, Sébastien Lebègue, Dario Rocca
Within a formalism based on dielectric matrices, the electron-hole time-dependent Hartree-Fock (eh-TDHF) and the adiabatic connection second-order screened exchange (AC-SOSEX) are promising approximations to improve ground-state correlation energies by including exchange effects beyond the random phase approximation (RPA). We introduce here an algorithm based on a Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization (GSO) procedure that significantly reduce the number of matrix elements to be computed to evaluate the response functions that enter in the formulation of these two methods...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Christian Hoffmann, Luitpold Distel, Stefan Knippen, Thomas Gryc, Manuel Alexander Schmidt, Rainer Fietkau, Florian Putz
Background: Recent studies have questioned the value of adding whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) to stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastasis treatment. Neurotoxicity, including radiation-induced brain volume reduction, could be one reason why not all patients benefit from the addition of WBRT. In this study, we quantified brain volume reduction after WBRT and assessed its prognostic significance. Methods: Brain volumes of 91 patients with cerebral metastases were measured during a 150-day period after commencing WBRT, and were compared to their pretreatment volumes...
August 8, 2017: Neuro-oncology
Yong Guo, Xiaowei Liu, Xiaoyan Gu, Ye Zhang, Lin Sun, Yihua He
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that congenital heart disease with decreased pulmonary blood flow (CHD-DPBF) may affect postnatal lung morphogenesis and function. However, there has been a lack of information regarding the impact of CHD-DPBF on prenatal fetal lung development. METHODS: Fifty-four fetuses with CHD-DPBF were compared with 110 controls. Fetal lung volume (FLV) was estimated using three-dimensional ultrasonography (3D-US). Estimated fetal weight (EFW) and McGoon index (MGI) were estimated using two-dimensional ultrasonography (2D-US)...
October 10, 2017: Echocardiography
Christian R Mejia, Araseli Verastegui-Díaz, Dante M Quiñones-Laveriano, Germán Aranzabal-Alegría, Virgilio E Failoc-Rojas
Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de actividad física y su asociación con enfermedades crónicas en ancianos de 11 ciudades del Perú. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal analítico de datos secundarios. La variable dependiente fue la no realización de actividad física, y las independientes fueron las enfermedades crónicas y otras variables fisioantropométricas. Para el análisis bivariado y multivariado se usaron los modelos lineales generalizados...
2017: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
Ye Jin, Yang Yang, Du Zhang, Degao Peng, Weitao Yang
The optimized effective potential (OEP) that gives accurate Kohn-Sham (KS) orbitals and orbital energies can be obtained from a given reference electron density. These OEP-KS orbitals and orbital energies are used here for calculating electronic excited states with the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA). Our calculations allow the examination of pp-RPA excitation energies with the exact KS density functional theory (DFT). Various input densities are investigated. Specifically, the excitation energies using the OEP with the electron densities from the coupled-cluster singles and doubles method display the lowest mean absolute error from the reference data for the low-lying excited states...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Jia Yang, Wenming Zhan, Haibo Zhang, Tao Song, Yongshi Jia, Hongen Xu, Baihua Lin, Shiliang Lv, Xiaodong Liang
The prognosis is extremely poor for patients with brain metastases in recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class 3. It is not clear whether dose elevation for brain lesions in addition to whole-brain radiotherapy could improve survival for those patients. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of dose elevation with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases in RPA class 3.From January 2013 to December 2015, 24 patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases in RPA class 3 were included in this study...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Andrey Leonidovich Kutepov
Self consistent GW approach (scGW) has been applied to calculate the ground state properties (equilibrium Wigner-Seitz radius S<sub>WZ</sub> and bulk modulus B) of 3d transition metals Sc, Ti, V, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. The approach systematically underestimates S<sub>WZ</sub> with average relative deviation from the experimental data about 1\% and it overestimates the calculated bulk modulus with relative error about 25\%. It is shown that scGW is superior in accuracy as compared to the local density approximation (LDA) but it is less accurate than the generalized gradient approach (GGA) for the materials studied...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Georgios Tsakonas, Fatou Hellman, Michael Gubanski, Signe Friesland, Salomon Tendler, Rolf Lewensohn, Simon Ekman, Luigi de Petris
BACKGROUND: Whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) has been the standard of care for multiple NSCLC brain metastases but due to its toxicity and lack of survival benefit, its use in the palliative setting is being questioned. PATIENT AND METHODS: This was a single institution cohort study including brain metastasized lung cancer patients who received WBRT at Karolinska University Hospital. Information about Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) and Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) scores, demographics, histopathological results and received oncological therapy were collected...
October 6, 2017: Acta Oncologica
Madison B Adolph, Robin P Love, Yuqing Feng, Linda Chelico
The single-stranded DNA cytidine deaminases APOBEC3B, APOBEC3H haplotype I, and APOBEC3A can contribute to cancer through deamination of cytosine to form promutagenic uracil in genomic DNA. The enzymes must access single-stranded DNA during the dynamic processes of DNA replication or transcription, but the enzymatic mechanisms enabling this activity are not known. To study this, we developed a method to purify full length APOBEC3B and characterized it in comparison to APOBEC3A and APOBEC3H on substrates relevant to cancer mutagenesis...
September 18, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Sharad C Paudyal, Shan Li, Hong Yan, Tony Hunter, Zhongsheng You
Nucleolytic resection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is essential for both checkpoint activation and homology-mediated repair; however, the precise mechanism of resection, especially the initiation step, remains incompletely understood. Resection of blocked ends with protein or chemical adducts is believed to be initiated by the MRN complex in conjunction with CtIP through internal cleavage of the 5' strand DNA. However, it is not clear whether resection of clean DSBs with free ends is also initiated by the same mechanism...
September 14, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Ivona Necasová, Eliška Janoušková, Tomáš Klumpler, Ctirad Hofr
Telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) folds human telomeres into loops to prevent unwanted DNA repair and chromosome end-joining. The N-terminal basic domain of TRF2 (B-domain) protects the telomeric displacement loop (D-loop) from cleavage by endonucleases. Repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1) binds TRF2 and improves telomeric DNA recognition. We found that the B-domain of TRF2 stabilized the D-loop and thus reduced unwinding by BLM and RPA, whereas the formation of the Rap1-TRF2 complex restored DNA unwinding...
September 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Artem M Rumyantsev, Igor I Potemkin
A polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) of oppositely charged linear chains is considered within the Random Phase Approximation (RPA). We study the salt-free case and use the continuous model assuming a homogeneous distribution of the charges throughout the polyions. The RPA correction to the PEC free energy is renormalized via subtraction of polyion self-energy in order to find the correlation free energy of the complex. An analogous procedure is usually carried out in the case of the Debye-Hückel (DH) plasma (a gas of point-like ions), where the infinite self-energy of point-like charges is subtracted from the diverging RPA correction...
October 5, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Vanessa W Simonds, Adam Omidpanah, Dedra Buchwald
BACKGROUND: According to the Risk Perception Attitude (RPA) framework, classifying people according to their perceptions of disease risk and their self-efficacy beliefs allows us to predict their likelihood for engaging in preventive behaviors. Health interventions can then be targeted according to RPA group. We applied the framework to type 2 diabetes prevention behaviors among American Indians and expanded it to include culture and numeracy. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, we surveyed a sample of Northern Plains American Indians in a reservation community setting on self-reported perceptions of diabetes risk, objective diabetes risk, self-efficacy, engagement in healthy behaviors, knowledge of diabetes risk factors, and covariates including demographics, numeracy, and cultural identity...
October 2, 2017: BMC Public Health
Jianchang Wang, Yongning Zhang, Ruoxi Zhang, Qingan Han, Jinfeng Wang, Libing Liu, Ruiwen Li, Wanzhe Yuan
The objective of this study was to develop a real-time recombinase polymerase amplification (rt-RPA) assay for the rapid detection of porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3). Specific RPA primers and exo probes were designed for the cap gene of PCV3 within the conserved region of viral genome. The amplification was performed at 38 °C for 20 min. The rt-RPA was specific for PCV3, as there was no cross-reaction with other pathogens tested. Using the recombinant plasmid pUC57-PCV3 as template, the analytical sensitivity was 23 copies...
September 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Chirag G Patil, Katie Pricola, J Manuel Sarmiento, Sachin K Garg, Andrew Bryant, Keith L Black
BACKGROUND: Historically, whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) has been the main treatment for brain metastases. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) delivers high-dose focused radiation and is being increasingly utilized to treat brain metastases. The benefit of adding SRS to WBRT is unclear. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in Issue 9, 2012. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of WBRT plus SRS versus WBRT alone in the treatment of adults with brain metastases...
September 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kore Schlottau, Conrad M Freuling, Thomas Müller, Martin Beer, Bernd Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: As rabies still represents a major public threat with tens of thousands of deaths per year, particularly in developing countries, adequate surveillance based on rapid and reliable rabies diagnosis for both humans and animals is essential. Rabies diagnosis relies on highly sensitive and specific laboratory tests for detection of viral antigens. Among those tests, at present the immunofluorescence antibody test is the "gold standard test" for rabies diagnosis, followed by virus isolation in either mice or cell culture...
September 22, 2017: Virology Journal
Nilisha Pokhrel, Sofia Origanti, Eric Parker Davenport, Disha Gandhi, Kyle Kaniecki, Ryan A Mehl, Eric C Greene, Chris Dockendorff, Edwin Antony
An essential coordinator of all DNA metabolic processes is Replication Protein A (RPA). RPA orchestrates these processes by binding to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and interacting with several other DNA binding proteins. Determining the real-time kinetics of single players such as RPA in the presence of multiple DNA processors to better understand the associated mechanistic events is technically challenging. To overcome this hurdle, we utilized non-canonical amino acids and bio-orthogonal chemistry to site-specifically incorporate a chemical fluorophore onto a single subunit of heterotrimeric RPA...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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