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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750076/enhancing-sensitivity-of-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-of-peptides-and-proteins-using-supercharging-agents
#1
Michael Nshanian, Rajeswari Lakshmanan, Hao Chen, Rachel R Ogorzalek Loo, Joseph A Loo
Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is often used as a mobile phase modifier to enhance reversed phase chromatographic performance. TFA adjusts solution pH and is an ion-pairing agent, but it is not typically suitable for electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and liquid chromatography/MS (LC/MS) because of its significant signal suppression. Supercharging agents elevate peptide and protein charge states in ESI, increasing tandem MS (MS/MS) efficiency. Here, LC/MS protein supercharging was effected by adding agents to LC mobile phase solvents...
April 2018: International Journal of Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707711/tightly-bound-polyelectrolytes-enhance-enzyme-proteolysis-and-destroy-amyloid-aggregates
#2
Diana B Evstafyeva, Vladimir A Izumrudov, Vladimir I Muronetz, Pavel I Semenyuk
The use of polyelectrolytes is a prospective approach to form nanocomplexes to transport different compounds including proteins. In many cases, the bound protein should be digested after delivery to the target. In the present work, we studied proteolysis of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in the complexes with polyelectrolytes. We have found polyanions to enhance the proteolytic degradation of GAPDH by proteinase K and thermolysin. This effect seems to be caused by destabilization of the protein structure...
April 30, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664599/bioinspired-materials-for-controlling-ice-nucleation-growth-and-recrystallization
#3
Zhiyuan He, Kai Liu, Jianjun Wang
Ice formation, mainly consisting of ice nucleation, ice growth, and ice recrystallization, is ubiquitous and crucial in wide-ranging fields from cryobiology to atmospheric physics. Despite active research for more than a century, the mechanism of ice formation is still far from satisfactory. Meanwhile, nature has unique ways of controlling ice formation and can provide resourceful avenues to unravel the mechanism of ice formation. For instance, antifreeze proteins (AFPs) protect living organisms from freezing damage via controlling ice formation, for example, tuning ice nucleation, shaping ice crystals, and inhibiting ice growth and recrystallization...
April 17, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549971/combinatorial-library-of-chalcogen-containing-lipidoids-for-intracellular-delivery-of-genome-editing-proteins
#4
Yamin Li, Tao Yang, Yingjie Yu, Nicola Shi, Liu Yang, Zachary Glass, Justin Bolinger, Isaac James Finkel, Wenhan Li, Qiaobing Xu
Protein based therapeutics with high specificities and low off-target effects are used for transient and accurate manipulation of cell functions. However, developing safe and efficient carriers for intracellular delivery of active therapeutic proteins is a long-standing challenge. Here we report a combinatorial library of chalcogen (O, S, Se) containing lipidoid nanoparticles (LNPs) as efficient nanocarriers for intracellular delivery of negatively supercharged Cre recombinase ((-30)GFP-Cre) and anionic Cas9:single-guide RNA (Cas9:sgRNA) ribonucleoprotein (RNP) for genome editing...
March 8, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489334/crown-ether-effects-on-the-location-of-charge-carriers-in-electrospray-droplets-implications-for-the-mechanism-of-protein-charging-and-supercharging
#5
Haidy Metwally, Lars Konermann
"Native" electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) aims to transfer proteins from solution into the gas phase while maintaining solution-like structures and interactions. The ability to control the charge states of protein ions produced in these experiments is of considerable importance. Supercharging agents (SCAs) such as sulfolane greatly elevate charge states without significantly affecting the protein structure in bulk aqueous solution. The origin of native ESI supercharging remains contentious...
March 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317023/supercharging-protein-ions-in-native-mass-spectrometry-using-theta-capillary-nanoelectrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-and-cyclic-alkylcarbonates
#6
Huixin Wang, Grace Yong, Susannah L Brown, Hyun Eui Lee, Muhammad A Zenaidee, Claudiu T Supuran, William A Donald
Theta nanoelectrospray ionization of protein ions formed from aqueous buffer solutions that are mixed with denaturing solutions containing cyclic alkylcarbonates (e.g., vinyl ethylene carbonate; VEC) results in a significant increase in the extent of ion charging compared to native mass spectrometry. For six proteins, the extent of ion charging can be significantly higher than that obtained using denaturing solutions and alternative native "supercharging" methods. In theta nanoelectrospray supercharging, the extent of charging scales with protein mass in agreement with an analytical scaling relationship for ions with elongated structures...
March 20, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278496/substrate-sorting-by-a-supercharged-nanoreactor
#7
Yusuke Azuma, Daniel L V Bader, Donald Hilvert
Compartmentalization of proteases enables spatially and temporally controlled protein degradation in cells. Here we show that an engineered lumazine synthase protein cage, which possesses a negatively supercharged lumen, can exploit electrostatic effects to sort substrates for an encapsulated protease. This proteasome-like nanoreactor preferentially cleaves positively charged polypeptides over both anionic and zwitterionic substrates, inverting the inherent substrate specificity of the guest enzyme approximately 480 fold...
January 24, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273425/supercharged-green-fluorescent-protein-delivers-hpv16e7-dna-and-protein-into-mammalian-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#8
Fatemeh Motevalli, Azam Bolhassani, Shilan Hesami, Sepideh Shahbazi
Macromolecules including DNA and proteins serve as important human therapeutics but are limited by their general inability to cross cell membranes. Supercharged proteins have been known as potent tools for delivery of macromolecules into mammalian cells. Thus, the use of these delivery systems is important to reduce the human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated malignancies through improvement of vaccine modalities. In this study, we used a supercharged green fluorescent protein (+36 GFP) for delivery of the full-length HPV16 E7 DNA and protein into mammalian cells and evaluated immune responses, and protective/therapeutic effects of different formulations in C57BL/6 tumor mice model...
February 2018: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210575/phase-separation-behavior-of-supercharged-proteins-and-polyelectrolytes
#9
Chad S Cummings, Allie C Obermeyer
Membraneless organelles, like membrane-bound organelles, are essential to cell homeostasis and provide discrete cellular subcompartments. Unlike classical organelles, membraneless organelles possess no physical barrier but rather arise by phase separation of the organelle components from the surrounding cytoplasm or nucleoplasm. Complex coacervation, the liquid-liquid phase separation of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, is one of several phenomena that are hypothesized to drive the formation and regulation of some membraneless organelles...
January 23, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038564/a-quantitative-comparison-of-cytosolic-delivery-via-different-protein-uptake-systems
#10
Wouter P R Verdurmen, Marigona Mazlami, Andreas Plückthun
Over many years, a variety of delivery systems have been investigated that have the capacity to shuttle macromolecular cargoes, especially proteins, into the cytosol. Due to the lack of an objective way to quantify cytosolic delivery, relative delivery efficiencies of the various transport systems have remained unclear. Here, we demonstrate the use of the biotin ligase assay for a quantitative comparison of protein transport to the cytosol via cell-penetrating peptides, supercharged proteins and bacterial toxins in four different cell lines...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972172/a-lower-isoelectric-point-increases-signal-sequence-mediated-secretion-of-recombinant-proteins-through-a-bacterial-abc-transporter
#11
Hyunjong Byun, Jiyeon Park, Sun Chang Kim, Jung Hoon Ahn
Efficient protein production for industrial and academic purposes often involves engineering microorganisms to produce and secrete target proteins into the culture. Pseudomonas fluorescens has a TliDEF ATP-binding cassette transporter, a type I secretion system, which recognizes C-terminal LARD3 signal sequence of thermostable lipase TliA. Many proteins are secreted by TliDEF in vivo when recombined with LARD3, but there are still others that cannot be secreted by TliDEF even when LARD3 is attached. However, the factors that determine whether or not a recombinant protein can be secreted through TliDEF are still unknown...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902449/enzyme-encapsulation-by-a-ferritin-cage
#12
Stephan Tetter, Donald Hilvert
Ferritins, conserved across all kingdoms of life, are protein nanocages that evolved to mineralize iron. The last several decades have shown that these cages have considerable technological and medical potential owing to their stability and tolerance to modification, as well as their ability to template nanoparticle synthesis and incorporate small molecules. Here we show that it is possible to encapsulate proteins in a ferritin cage by exploiting electrostatic interactions with its negatively charged interior...
November 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870080/charge-shielding-prevents-aggregation-of-supercharged-gfp-variants-at-high-protein-concentration
#13
Joshua R Laber, Barton J Dear, Matheus L Martins, Devin E Jackson, Andrea DiVenere, Jimmy D Gollihar, Andrew D Ellington, Thomas M Truskett, Keith P Johnston, Jennifer A Maynard
Understanding protein stability is central to combatting protein aggregation diseases and developing new protein therapeutics. At the high concentrations often present in biological systems, purified proteins can exhibit undesirable high solution viscosities and poor solubilities mediated by short-range electrostatic and hydrophobic protein-protein interactions. The interplay between protein amino acid sequence, protein structure, and solvent conditions to minimize protein-protein interactions is key to designing well-behaved pharmaceutical proteins...
October 2, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742233/controlled-supramolecular-self-assembly-of-super-charged-%C3%AE-lactoglobulin-a-peg-conjugates-into-nanocapsules
#14
Amit Kumar Khan, Sushanth Gudlur, Hans-Peter M de Hoog, Winna Siti, Bo Liedberg, Madhavan Nallani
The synthesis and characterization of a new protein-polymer conjugate composed of β lactoglobulin A (βLG A) and poly(ethylene glycol) PEG is described. βLG A was selectively modified to self-assemble by super-charging via amination or succinylation followed by conjugation with PEG. An equimolar mixture of the oppositely charged protein-polymer conjugates self-assemble into spherical capsules of 80-100 nm in diameter. The self-assembly proceeds by taking simultaneous advantage of the amphiphilicity and polyelectrolyte nature of the protein-polymer conjugate...
September 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692103/supercharging-spycatcher-toward-an-intrinsically-disordered-protein-with-stimuli-responsive-chemical-reactivity
#15
Yang Cao, Dong Liu, Wen-Bin Zhang
We report a supercharged, intrinsically disordered protein, SpyCatcher(-), possessing stimuli-responsive reactivity toward SpyTag with tunable yields ranging from 4% to 98% depending on pH, temperature, ionic strength, etc. The CD and NMR studies reveal that the reaction occurs through a folded intermediate formed probably via a different mechanism from that of SpyCatcher.
August 3, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686014/efficient-dual-sirna-and-drug-delivery-using-engineered-lipoproteoplexes
#16
Che Fu Liu, Raymond Chen, Joseph A Frezzo, Priya Katyal, Lindsay K Hill, Liming Yin, Nikita Srivastava, Haresh T More, P Douglas Renfrew, Richard Bonneau, Jin Kim Montclare
An engineered supercharged coiled-coil protein (CSP) and the cationic transfection reagent Lipofectamine 2000 are combined to form a lipoproteoplex for the purpose of dual delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin. CSP, bearing an external positive charge and axial hydrophobic pore, demonstrates the ability to condense siRNA and encapsulate the small-molecule chemotherapeutic, doxorubicin. The lipoproteoplex demonstrates improved doxorubicin loading relative to Lipofectamine 2000. Furthermore, it induces effective transfection of GAPDH (60% knockdown) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells with efficiencies comparing favorably to Lipofectamine 2000...
August 4, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616951/direct-characterization-of-the-native-structure-and-mechanics-of-cyanobacterial-carboxysomes
#17
Matthew Faulkner, Jorge Rodriguez-Ramos, Gregory F Dykes, Siân V Owen, Selene Casella, Deborah M Simpson, Robert J Beynon, Lu-Ning Liu
Carboxysomes are proteinaceous organelles that play essential roles in enhancing carbon fixation in cyanobacteria and some proteobacteria. These self-assembling organelles encapsulate Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and carbonic anhydrase using a protein shell structurally resembling an icosahedral viral capsid. The protein shell serves as a physical barrier to protect enzymes from the cytosol and a selectively permeable membrane to mediate transport of enzyme substrates and products...
August 3, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585364/supercharging-proteins-how-many-charges-can-a-protein-carry
#18
Nicolas C Polfer
Very highly charged proteins, so-called "supercharged" ions, can lose (excess) protons to background gases like N2 . It is remarkable that such extremely acidic species can be generated in electrospray ionization, in the presence of not just N2 but also much higher-basicity solvents. What mechanism(s) can explain such high charging, and what is the ultimate limit?
June 6, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391065/novel-lipoproteoplex-delivers-keap1-sirna-based-gene-therapy-to-accelerate-diabetic-wound-healing
#19
Piul S Rabbani, Anna Zhou, Zachary M Borab, Joseph A Frezzo, Nikita Srivastava, Haresh T More, William J Rifkin, Joshua A David, Samuel J Berens, Raymond Chen, Sophia Hameedi, Muhammad H Junejo, Camille Kim, Rita A Sartor, Che F Liu, Pierre B Saadeh, Jin K Montclare, Daniel J Ceradini
Therapeutics utilizing siRNA are currently limited by the availability of safe and effective delivery systems. Cutaneous diseases, specifically ones with significant genetic components are ideal candidates for topical siRNA based therapy but the anatomical structure of skin presents a considerable hurdle. Here, we optimized a novel liposome and protein hybrid nanoparticle delivery system for the topical treatment of diabetic wounds with severe oxidative stress. We utilized a cationic lipid nanoparticle (CLN) composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) and the edge activator sodium cholate (NaChol), in a 6:1 ratio of DOTAP:NaChol (DNC)...
July 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368095/extended-protein-ions-are-formed-by-the-chain-ejection-model-in-chemical-supercharging-electrospray-ionization
#20
Micah T Donor, Simon A Ewing, Muhammad A Zenaidee, William A Donald, James S Prell
Supercharging electrospray ionization can be a powerful tool for increasing charge states in mass spectra and generating unfolded ion structures, yet key details of its mechanism remain unclear. The structures of highly extended protein ions and the mechanism of supercharging were investigated using ion mobility-mass spectrometry. Head-to-tail-linked polyubiquitins (Ubq1-11) were used to determine size and charge state scaling laws for unfolded protein ions formed by supercharging while eliminating amino acid composition as a potential confounding factor...
April 12, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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