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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526201/viral-exploitation-of-the-mek-erk-pathway-a-tale-of-vaccinia-virus-and-other-viruses
#1
REVIEW
Cláudio A Bonjardim
The VACV replication cycle is remarkable in the sense that it is performed entirely in the cytoplasmic compartment of vertebrate cells, due to its capability to encode enzymes required either for regulating the macromolecular precursor pool or the biosynthetic processes. Although remarkable, this gene repertoire is not sufficient to confer the status of a free-living microorganism to the virus, and, consequently, the virus relies heavily on the host to successfully generate its progeny. During the complex virus-host interaction, viruses must deal not only with the host pathways to accomplish their temporal demands but also with pathways that counteract viral infection, including the inflammatory, innate and acquired immune responses...
July 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523522/vaccinia-virus-g1-protein-absence-of-autocatalytic-self-processing
#2
F G G Leite, A Bergthaler, T Skern
Vaccinia virus relies on a series of proteolytic cleavage events involving two viral proteins, I7 and G1, to complete its life cycle. Furthermore, G1 itself is cleaved during vaccinia virus infection. However, convincing evidence is lacking to show whether G1 participates in autoproteolysis or is a substrate of another protease. We employed both biochemical and cell-based approaches to investigate G1 cleavage. G1, when expressed in bacteria, rabbit reticulocyte lysates or HeLa cells, was not processed. Moreover, G1 was cleaved in infected cells, but only in the presence of virus late gene expression; cleavage was strongly inhibited by proteasome inhibitors...
May 18, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518030/serologic-and-molecular-evidence-of-vaccinia-virus-circulation-among-small-mammals-from-different-biomes-brazil
#3
Júlia B Miranda, Iara A Borges, Samantha P S Campos, Flávia N Vieira, Tatiana M F de Ázara, Fernanda A Marques, Galileu B Costa, Ana Paula M F Luis, Jaqueline S de Oliveira, Paulo César P Ferreira, Cláudio Antônio Bonjardim, Silvio L M da Silva, Álvaro E Eiras, Jônatas S Abrahão, Erna G Kroon, Betânia P Drumond, Adriano P Paglia, Giliane de S Trindade
Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a zoonotic agent that causes a disease called bovine vaccinia, which is detected mainly in milking cattle and humans in close contact with these animals. Even though many aspects of VACV infection have been described, much is still unknown about its circulation in the environment and its natural hosts/reservoirs. To investigate the presence of Orthopoxvirus antibodies or VACV DNA, we captured small rodents and marsupials in 3 areas of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and tested their samples in a laboratory...
June 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516287/spread-of-poxviruses-in-livestock-in-brazil-associated-with-cases-of-double-and-triple-infection
#4
Mateus Laguardia-Nascimento, Ana Paula Ferreira de Oliveira, Isabela Ciarlini Azevedo, Anselmo Vasconcelos Rivetti Júnior, Marcelo Fernandes Camargos, Antônio Augusto Fonseca Júnior
The objective of this work is to describe the distribution of outbreaks of vaccinia virus (VACV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BSPV) in Brazil. The Official Laboratory of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture received 89 samples from different locations in Brazil in 2015 and 2016 for diagnosis of vesicular and exanthematous disease. Poxvirus coinfections occurred in 11 out of 33 outbreaks, including the first reported triple infection by BPSV, PCPV, and VACV. This occurrence may be associated with the circulation of these viruses in Brazilian cattle...
May 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515294/deletion-of-the-vaccinia-b1-kinase-reveals-essential-functions-of-this-enzyme-complemented-partly-by-the-homologous-cellular-kinase-vrk2
#5
Annabel T Olson, Amber B Rico, Zhigang Wang, Gustavo Delhon, Matthew S Wiebe
The vaccinia B1 kinase is highly conserved among poxviruses and is essential for the viral lifecycle. B1 exhibits a remarkable degree of similarity to VRKs, a family of cellular kinases, suggesting that the viral enzyme has evolved to mimic VRK activity. Indeed, B1 and VRKs have been demonstrated to target a shared substrate, the DNA binding protein BAF, elucidating a signaling pathway important for both mitosis and the antiviral response. In this study, we further characterize the role of B1 during vaccinia infection to gain novel insights into its regulation and integration with cellular signaling pathways...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515292/molluscum-contagiosum-virus-mc159-abrogates-ciap1-nemo-interactions-and-inhibits-nemo-polyubiquitination
#6
Sunetra Biswas, Joanna L Shisler
Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is a dermatotropic poxvirus that causes benign skin lesions. MCV lesions persist because of virally-encoded immune evasion molecules that inhibit anti-viral responses. The MCV MC159 protein suppresses NF-κB activation, a powerful anti-viral response, via interactions with the NEMO subunit of the IKK complex. Binding of MC159 to NEMO does not disrupt the IKK complex, implying that MC159 prevents IKK activation via an as-yet-identified strategy. Here, we demonstrated that MC159 inhibited NEMO polyubiquitination, a post-translational modification required for IKK and downstream NF-κB activation...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508219/reverse-genetics-of-newcastle-disease-virus
#7
Stivalis Cardenas-Garcia, Claudio L Afonso
Reverse genetics allows for the generation of recombinant viruses or vectors used in functional studies, vaccine development, and gene therapy. This technique enables genetic manipulation and cloning of viral genomes, gene mutation through site-directed mutagenesis, along with gene insertion or deletion, among other studies. An in vitro infection-based system including the highly attenuated vaccinia virus Ankara strain expressing the T7 RNA polymerase from bacteriophage T7, with co-transfection of three helper plasmids and a full-length cDNA plasmid, was successfully developed to rescue genetically modified Newcastle disease viruses in 1999...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508216/rescue-of-sendai-virus-from-cloned-cdna
#8
Shringkhala Bajimaya, Tsuyoshi Hayashi, Toru Takimoto
Sendai virus (SeV) is a non-segment negative-sense RNA virus that naturally infects and causes pneumonia in mice. As a prototypic member of the family Paramyxoviridae, SeV has been characterized well, and these studies revealed numerous traits of paramyxovirus biology. The reverse genetics system to rescue SeV was first established in 1995. The virus was rescued from a cloned cDNA that contains full genome sequence flanked by T7 promoter and hepatitis delta virus ribozyme. To rescue SeV, it is necessary to infect cells with a recombinant vaccinia virus vTF7...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508215/reverse-genetics-system-for-the-avian-coronavirus-infectious-bronchitis-virus
#9
Erica Bickerton, Sarah M Keep, Paul Britton
We have developed a reverse genetics system for the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in which a full-length cDNA corresponding to the IBV genome is inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under the control of a T7 promoter sequence. Vaccinia virus as a vector for the full-length IBV cDNA has the advantage that modifications can be introduced into the IBV cDNA using homologous recombination, a method frequently used to insert and delete sequences from the vaccinia virus genome. Here, we describe the use of transient dominant selection as a method for introducing modifications into the IBV cDNA that has been successfully used for the substitution of specific nucleotides, deletion of genomic regions, and exchange of complete genes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502903/subclinical-bovine-vaccinia-an-important-risk-factor-in-the-epidemiology-of-this-zoonosis-in-cattle
#10
Izabelle Silva Rehfeld, Ana Carolina Diniz Matos, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho Guedes, Aristóteles Gomes Costa, Ana Luiza Soares Fraiha, Zélia Inês Portela Lobato
Bovine vaccinia (BV) is a zoonosis caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV) that mainly affects lactating cows and dairy farm milkers. The epidemiological role(s) of other cattle categories such as dry cows, bulls, and heifers in BV remains unclear. This study was performed to investigate VACV in affected dairy cattle herds and perifocal farms during an outbreak in Brazil. Crusts from lesions of cows' teats were collected from all farms with BV outbreaks. Milk, feces, blood, and serum were collected from symptomatic and asymptomatic lactating cows...
April 6, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498621/enhanced-production-of-enveloped-viruses-in-bst-2-deficient-cell-lines
#11
Eunbi Yi, Jinsoo Oh, Ngoc Quynh Giao, Soohwan Oh, Se-Ho Park
Despite all the advantages that cell-cultured influenza vaccines have over egg-based influenza vaccines, the inferior productivity of cell-culture systems is a major drawback that must be addressed. BST-2 (tetherin) is a host restriction factor which inhibits budding-out of various enveloped viruses from infected host cells. We developed BST-2-deficient MDCK and Vero cell lines to increase influenza virus release in cell culture. BST-2 gene knock-out resulted in increased release of viral particles into the culture medium, by at least 2-fold and up to 50-fold compared to release from wild-type counterpart cells depending on cell line and virus type...
May 12, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496337/immunogenicity-of-oncolytic-vaccinia-viruses-jx-gfp-and-tg6002-in-a-human-melanoma-in-vitro-model-studying-immunogenic-cell-death-dendritic-cell-maturation-and-interaction-with-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes
#12
B Heinrich, J Klein, M Delic, K Goepfert, V Engel, L Geberzahn, M Lusky, P Erbs, X Preville, M Moehler
Oncolytic virotherapy is an emerging immunotherapeutic modality for cancer treatment. Oncolytic viruses with genetic modifications can further enhance the oncolytic effects on tumor cells and stimulate antitumor immunity. The oncolytic vaccinia viruses JX-594-GFP+/hGM-CSF (JX-GFP) and TG6002 are genetically modified by secreting granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or transforming 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We compared their properties to kill tumor cells and induce an immunogenic type of cell death in a human melanoma cell model using SK29-MEL melanoma cells...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495463/development-of-an-animal-model-of-progressive-vaccinia-in-nu-nu-mice-and-the-use-of-bioluminescence-imaging-for-assessment-of-the-efficacy-of-monoclonal-antibodies-against-vaccinial-b5-and-l1-proteins
#13
Marina Zaitseva, Antonia Thomas, Clement A Meseda, Charles Y K Cheung, Claudia G Diaz, Yan Xiang, Shane Crotty, Hana Golding
Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was used to follow dissemination of recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV) expressing luciferase (IHD-J-Luc) in BALB/c nu/nu mice treated post-challenge with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against L1 and B5 VACV proteins in a model of Progressive Vaccinia (PV). Areas Under the flux Curve (AUC) were calculated for viral loads in multiple organs in individual mice. Following scarification with 10(5) pfu, IHD-J-Luc VACV undergoes fast replication at the injection site and disseminates rapidly to the inguinal lymph nodes followed by spleen, liver, and axillary lymph nodes within 2-3 days and before primary lesions are visible at the site of scarification...
May 8, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495317/cross-sectional-study-involving-healthcare-professionals-in-a-vaccinia-virus-endemic-area
#14
Jaqueline Silva de Oliveira, Galileu Barbosa Costa, Ana Paula Moreira Franco Luiz, Juliana Almeida Leite, Cláudio Antônio Bonjardim, Jônatas Santos Abrahão, Betânia Paiva Drumond, Erna Geessien Kroon, Giliane de Souza Trindade
Orthopoxviruses (OPV) are emerging viruses with great importance in human and veterinary medicine, such as Vaccinia virus (VACV), which causes outbreaks of bovine vaccinia (BV) in South America. The clinical aspects of BV are similar to other vesicular infections, complicating the clinical diagnosis. This cross-sectional study evaluated the knowledge of Healthcare Professionals about BV and revealed their unpreparedness about BV in a VACV hyper-endemic area in Brazil, highlighting the public health issues associated with VACV infections...
June 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490596/deletion-of-the-vaccinia-virus-i2-protein-interrupts-virion-morphogenesis-leading-to-retention-of-the-scaffold-protein-and-mislocalization-of-membrane-associated-entry-proteins
#15
Seong-In Hyun, Andrea Weisberg, Bernard Moss
The I2L open reading frame of vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes a conserved 72-amino acid protein with a putative C-terminal transmembrane domain. Previous studies with a tetracycline-inducible mutant demonstrated that I2-deficient virions are defective in cell entry. The purpose of the present study was to determine the step of replication or entry that is affected by loss of the I2 protein. Fluorescence microscopy experiments showed that I2 co-localized with a major membrane protein of immature and mature virions...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490594/dok-1-and-dok-2-are-required-to-maintain-herpes-simplex-virus-1-specific-cd8-t-cells-in-a-murine-model-of-ocular-infection
#16
Soumia Lahmidi, Mitra Yousefi, Slimane Dridi, Pascale Duplay, Angela Pearson
Dok-1 and Dok-2 negatively regulate responses downstream of several immune receptors in lymphoid and myeloid cells. Recent evidence showed that Dok proteins are essential in the formation of memory CD8(+) T cells to an exogenous epitope expressed by vaccinia virus; however, the importance of Dok-1 and Dok-2 in the control of viral infection is unknown. Herein, we investigated the role of Dok proteins in modulating the immune response against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) in a mouse model of ocular infection...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490586/deletion-of-the-k1l-gene-results-in-a-vaccinia-virus-that-is-less-pathogenic-due-to-muted-innate-immune-responses-yet-still-elicits-protective-immunity
#17
Ariana G Bravo Cruz, Aiguo Han, Edward J Roy, Arielle B Guzmán, Rita J Miller, Elizabeth A Driskell, William D O'Brien, Joanna L Shisler
All viruses strategically alter the anti-viral immune response to their benefit. The vaccinia virus (VACV) K1 protein has multiple immunomodulatory effects in tissue culture models of infection, including NF-κB antagonism. However, the effect of K1 during animal infection is poorly understood. We determined that a K1L-less vaccinia virus (vΔK1L) was less pathogenic than wild-type VACV in intranasal and intradermal models of infection. Decreased pathogenicity correlated with diminished virus replication in intranasally-infected mice...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488579/evolutionary-cancer-favoring-engineered-vaccinia-virus-for-metastatic-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
So Young Yoo, Su-Nam Jeong, Dae Hwan Kang, Jeong Heo
Engineered vaccinia virus-based therapy shows promising results in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, although a strategic virus design for the metastatic liver and the study of its efficacy in treating the cancer has not been well assessed. In this paper, we proposed a simple and strategic virus design for targeting metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. We developed an evolutionary cancer-favoring engineered vaccinia virus (CVV, which is produced by repeated selective replication in cancerous tissues and then deleting viral thymidine kinase genes) and investigated its therapeutic effects on metastatic liver cancer...
April 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487055/recombinant-vaccinia-vector-based-vaccine-tiantan-boosting-a-novel-hbv-subunit-vaccine-induced-more-robust-and-lasting-immunity-in-rhesus-macaques
#19
Yao Deng, Xia Chuai, Pan Chen, Hong Chen, Wen Wang, Li Ruan, Wenhui Li, Wenjie Tan
This study explored several prime-boost strategies in rhesus macaques using various novel hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines that showed promise as prophylactic and therapeutic approaches in our previous study using in a mouse model. The tested vaccines included an HBV particle subunit (HBSS1) vaccine and the recombinant vaccinia (RVJSS1) or adenoviral (rAdSS1) vector-based vaccines containing S (1-223aa) and PreS1 (21-47aa). The strength and maintenance of humoral activity (IgG and neutralizing antibodies) and cellular immunity (interferon-γ production assessed by IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assay) were investigated in a longitudinal study following various vaccination protocols until 79weeks post-vaccination...
June 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486133/rhod-inhibits-rhoc-rock-dependent-cell-contraction-via-pak6
#20
Charlotte H Durkin, Flavia Leite, João V Cordeiro, Yutaka Handa, Yoshiki Arakawa, Ferran Valderrama, Michael Way
RhoA-mediated regulation of myosin-II activity in the actin cortex controls the ability of cells to contract and bleb during a variety of cellular processes, including cell migration and division. Cell contraction and blebbing also frequently occur as part of the cytopathic effect seen during many different viral infections. We now demonstrate that the vaccinia virus protein F11, which localizes to the plasma membrane, is required for ROCK-mediated cell contraction from 2 hr post infection. Curiously, F11-induced cell contraction is dependent on RhoC and not RhoA signaling to ROCK...
May 8, 2017: Developmental Cell
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