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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634494/antiviral-activity-of-fridericia-formosa-bureau-l-g-lohmann-bignoniaceae-extracts-and-constituents
#1
Geraldo Célio Brandão, Erna G Kroon, José D Souza Filho, Alaíde Braga Oliveira
A phytochemical study of Fridericia formosa (Bignoniaceae) ethanol extracts of leaves, stems, and fruits was guided by in vitro assays against vaccinia virus Western Reserve (VACV-WR), human herpes virus 1 (HSV-1), murine encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) by the MTT method. All the ethanol extracts were active against DENV-2, HSV-1, and VACV-WR with best results for the fruits extract against DENV-2 (SI > 38.2). For VACV-WR and HSV-1, EC50 values > 200 μg mL(-1) were determined, while no inhibition of the cytopathic effect was observed with EMCV...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633702/impact-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-on-the-evaluation-of-long-term-effectiveness-of-infant-mva85a-vaccination
#2
E W Bunyasi, A K K Luabeya, M Tameris, H Geldenhuys, H Mulenga, B S Landry, T J Scriba, B-M Schmidt, W A Hanekom, H Mahomed, H McShane, M Hatherill
SETTING: South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of infant modified vaccinia Ankara virus-expressing antigen 85A (MVA85A) vaccination against tuberculosis (TB). DESIGN: We analysed data from a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled Phase 2b MVA85A infant TB vaccine trial (2009-2012), with extended post-trial follow-up (2012-2014). Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) was provided by public health services according to national guidelines...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631604/vaccinia-virus-egress-mediated-by-virus-protein-a36-is-reliant-on-the-f12-protein
#3
David C J Carpentier, Alexander Van Loggerenberg, Nele M G Dieckmann, Geoffrey L Smith
Egress of vaccinia virus from its host cell is mediated by the microtubule-associated motor kinesin-1, and three viral proteins, A36 and the F12/E2 complex, have been implicated in this process. Deletion of F12 expression causes a more severe reduction in egress than deletion of A36 but whether these proteins are involved in the same or different mechanisms of kinesin-1 recruitment is unknown. Here it is shown that a virus lacking both proteins forms a smaller plaque than mutants lacking either gene alone, indicating non-redundant functions...
June 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629922/vaccination-with-a-codon-optimized-a27l-containing-plasmid-decreases-virus-replication-and-dissemination-after-vaccinia-virus-challenge
#4
Osmarie Martínez, Ariana Bravo Cruz, Saritza Santos, Maite Ramírez, Eric Miranda, Joanna Shisler, Miguel Otero
Smallpox is a disease caused by Variola virus (VARV). Although eradicated by WHO in 1980, the threat of using VARV on a bioterror attack has increased. The current smallpox vaccine ACAM2000, which consists of live vaccinia virus (VACV), causes complications in individuals with a compromised immune system or with previously reported skin diseases. Thus, a safer and efficacious vaccine needs to be developed. Previously, we reported that our virus-free DNA vaccine formulation, a pVAX1 plasmid encoding codon-optimized VACV A27L gene (pA27LOPT) with and without Imiquimod adjuvant, stimulates A27L-specific production of IFN-γ and increases humoral immunity 7days post-vaccination...
June 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628829/ectromelia-virus-accumulates-less-double-stranded-rna-compared-to-vaccinia-virus-in-bs-c-1-cells
#5
Tiffany R Frey, Michael H Lehmann, Colton M Ryan, Marie C Pizzorno, Gerd Sutter, Adam R Hersperger
Most orthopoxviruses, including vaccinia virus (VACV), contain genes in the E3L and K3L families. The protein products of these genes have been shown to combat PKR, a host defense pathway. Interestingly, ectromelia virus (ECTV) contains an E3L ortholog but does not possess an intact K3L gene. Here, we gained insight into how ECTV can still efficiently evade PKR despite lacking K3L. Relative to VACV, we found that ECTV-infected BS-C-1 cells accumulated considerably less double-stranded (ds) RNA, which was due to lower mRNA levels and less transcriptional read-through of some genes by ECTV...
June 16, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625523/induction-treatment-and-prevention-of-eczema-vaccinatum-in-atopic-dermatitis-mouse-models
#6
Hagit Achdout, Shlomo Lustig, Tomer Israely, Noam Erez, Boaz Politi, Hadas Tamir, Ofir Israeli, Trevor Waner, Sharon Melamed, Nir Paran
Eczema vaccinatum is a severe and occasionally lethal complication of smallpox vaccine, characterized by systemic viral dissemination, distant from the initial inoculation site of the vaccine. A major risk factor for eczema vaccinatum is a background of atopic dermatitis, a chronic, common allergic, relapsing disorder, manifested by dry and inflamed skin, itchy rash, Th2 biased immune response and hypersensitivity to various antigens. Unlike the severe manifestations of eczema vaccinatum in humans, current models present only mild symptoms that limits examination of potential therapeutics for eczema vaccinatum...
June 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620810/c-jun-integrates-signals-from-both-mek-erk-and-mkk-jnk-pathways-upon-vaccinia-virus-infection
#7
Flávia G G Leite, Alice A Torres, Leonardo C De Oliveira, André F P Da Cruz, Jamária A P Soares-Martins, Anna C T C Pereira, Giliane S Trindade, Jonatas S Abrahão, Erna G Kroon, Paulo C P Ferreira, Cláudio A Bonjardim
Usurpation of the host's signalling pathways is a common strategy employed by viruses to promote their successful replication. Here we show that infection with the orthopoxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) leads to sustained stimulation of c-Jun activity during the entire infective cycle. This stimulation is temporally regulated through MEK/ERK or MKK/JNK pathways, i.e. during the early/mid phase (1 to 6 hpi) and in the late phase (9 to 24 hpi) of the infective cycle, respectively. As a transcriptional regulator, upon infection with VACV, c-Jun is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where it binds to the AP-1 DNA sequence found at the promoter region of its target genes...
June 15, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618160/vaccinia-virus-a11-is-required-for-membrane-rupture-and-viral-membrane-assembly
#8
Cristina Suarez, Simone Hoppe, Esthel Pénard, Paul Walther, Jacomine Krijnse Locker
While most enveloped viruses acquire their membrane from the host by budding or a wrapping process, collective data argue that nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) may be an exception. The prototype member of NCLDVs, vaccinia virus (VACV) may induce rupture of ER-derived membranes to build an open membrane sphere that closes after DNA uptake. This unconventional membrane assembly pathway is also used by at least three other members of the NCLDVs. In this study we identify the VACV gene product of A11, as required for membrane rupture, hence for VACV-membrane assembly and virion formation...
June 15, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614791/human-vaccination-against-plasmodium-vivax-duffy-binding-protein-induces-strain-transcending-antibodies
#9
Ruth O Payne, Sarah E Silk, Sean C Elias, Kathryn H Milne, Thomas A Rawlinson, David Llewellyn, A Rushdi Shakri, Jing Jin, Geneviève M Labbé, Nick J Edwards, Ian D Poulton, Rachel Roberts, Ryan Farid, Thomas Jørgensen, Daniel Gw Alanine, Simone C de Cassan, Matthew K Higgins, Thomas D Otto, James S McCarthy, Willem A de Jongh, Alfredo Nicosia, Sarah Moyle, Adrian Vs Hill, Eleanor Berrie, Chetan E Chitnis, Alison M Lawrie, Simon J Draper
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread human malaria geographically; however, no effective vaccine exists. Red blood cell invasion by the P. vivax merozoite depends on an interaction between the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) and region II of the parasite's Duffy-binding protein (PvDBP_RII). Naturally acquired binding-inhibitory antibodies against this interaction associate with clinical immunity, but it is unknown whether these responses can be induced by human vaccination...
June 15, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614386/a-systemic-macrophage-response-is-required-to-contain-a-peripheral-poxvirus-infection
#10
Michael L Davies, Nikhil J Parekh, Lauren W Kaminsky, Chetna Soni, Irene E Reider, Tracy E Krouse, Matthew A Fischer, Nico van Rooijen, Ziaur S M Rahman, Christopher C Norbury
The goal of the innate immune system is to reduce pathogen spread prior to the initiation of an effective adaptive immune response. Following an infection at a peripheral site, virus typically drains through the lymph to the lymph node prior to entering the blood stream and being systemically disseminated. Therefore, there are three distinct spatial checkpoints at which intervention to prevent systemic spread of virus can occur, namely: 1) the site of infection, 2) the draining lymph node via filtration of lymph or 3) the systemic level via organs that filter the blood...
June 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607950/chemovirotherapy-of-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-by-combining-oncolytic-vaccinia-virus-glv-1h68-with-nab-paclitaxel-plus-gemcitabine
#11
Eike Binz, Susanne Berchtold, Julia Beil, Martina Schell, Christine Geisler, Irina Smirnow, Ulrich M Lauer
Oncolytic viruses have proven their therapeutic potential against a variety of different tumor entities both in vitro and in vivo. Their ability to selectively infect and lyse tumor cells, while sparing healthy tissues, makes them favorable agents for tumor-specific treatment approaches. Particularly, the addition of virotherapeutics to already established chemotherapy protocols (so-called chemovirotherapy) is of major interest. Here we investigated the in vitro cytotoxic effect of the oncolytic vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 combined with dual chemotherapy with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine in four human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines (AsPc-1, BxPc-3, MIA-PaCa-2, and Panc-1)...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606813/comparative-efficacy-of-intramuscular-and-scarification-routes-of-administration-of-live-smallpox-vaccine-in-a-murine-challenge-model
#12
A Phelps, A J Gates, L Eastaugh, M Hillier, D O Ulaeto
In recent years concern has mounted regarding the possibility of a re-emergence of smallpox through biowarfare or bioterrorism. There is also concern over the incidence of human monkeypox in endemic areas and the potential for monkeypox to be accidentally transported to non-endemic areas. In the event of re-emergence of smallpox or emergence of monkeypox, the accepted route of administration for live replicating smallpox vaccine is dermal scarification, which generates a virus-shedding lesion that persists for several days at the vaccination site...
June 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604604/classification-of-cowpox-viruses-into-several-distinct-clades-and-identification-of-a-novel-lineage
#13
Annika Franke, Florian Pfaff, Maria Jenckel, Bernd Hoffmann, Dirk Höper, Markus Antwerpen, Hermann Meyer, Martin Beer, Donata Hoffmann
Cowpox virus (CPXV) was considered as uniform species within the genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV). Previous phylogenetic analysis indicated that CPXV is polyphyletic and isolates may cluster into different clades with two of these clades showing genetic similarities to either variola (VARV) or vaccinia viruses (VACV). Further analyses were initiated to assess both the genetic diversity and the evolutionary background of circulating CPXVs. Here we report the full-length sequences of 20 CPXV strains isolated from different animal species and humans in Germany...
June 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601525/anti-mycobacterial-alkaloids-cyclic-3-alkyl-pyridinium-dimers-from-the-indonesian-marine-sponge-haliclona-sp
#14
Wilmar Maarisit, Delfly B Abdjul, Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Hajime Kato, Henki Rotinsulu, Defny S Wewengkang, Deiske A Sumilat, Magie M Kapojos, Kazuyo Ukai, Michio Namikoshi
Three new dimeric 3-alkyl pyridinium alkaloids, named haliclocyclamines A-C (1-3), were isolated together with five known congeners, cyclostellettamines A (4), B (5), C (6), E (7), and F (8), from the Indonesian marine sponge Haliclona sp. The structures of 1-3 were assigned based on their spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR, HRFABMS, ESIMS/MS, UV, and IR). Compounds 1-8 exhibited antimicrobial activities against Mycobacterium smegmatis with inhibition zones of 17, 10, 13, 14, 8, 8, 12, and 12mm, respectively, at 10μg/disc...
May 23, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594571/zmpste24-is-downstream-effector-of-interferon-induced-transmembrane-ifitm-antiviral-activity
#15
Shitao Li, Bishi Fu, Lingyan Wang, Martin E Dorf
The zinc metalloprotease ZMPSTE24 is a constitutively and ubiquitously expressed host restriction factor that is responsible for limiting infection by a broad spectrum of enveloped viruses, including influenza A, vesicular stomatitis, zika, ebola, Sindbis, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses, but not murine leukemia or adenovirus. Antiviral function is independent of ZMPSTE24 enzymatic activity. Protein interaction and genetic complementation studies indicate that ZMPSTE24 is a component of a common antiviral pathway that is associated with interferon-induced transmembrane proteins...
June 8, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589082/genetically-engineered-vaccinia-viruses-as-agents-for-cancer-treatment-imaging-and-transgene-delivery
#16
REVIEW
Dana Haddad
Despite advances in technology, the formidable challenge of treating cancer, especially if advanced, still remains with no significant improvement in survival rates, even with the most common forms of cancer. Oncolytic viral therapies have shown great promise for the treatment of various cancers, with the possible advantages of stronger treatment efficacy compared to conventional therapy due to higher tumor selectivity, and less toxicity. They are able to preferentially and selectively propagate in cancer cells, consequently destroying tumor tissue mainly via cell lysis, while leaving non-cancerous tissues unharmed...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588133/novel-nonreplicating-vaccinia-virus-vector-enhances-expression-of-heterologous-genes-and-suppresses-synthesis-of-endogenous-viral-proteins
#17
Linda S Wyatt, Wei Xiao, Jeffrey L Americo, Patricia L Earl, Bernard Moss
Viruses are used as expression vectors for protein synthesis, immunology research, vaccines, and therapeutics. Advantages of poxvirus vectors include the accommodation of large amounts of heterologous DNA, the presence of a cytoplasmic site of transcription, and high expression levels. On the other hand, competition of approximately 200 viral genes with the target gene for expression and immune recognition may be disadvantageous. We describe a vaccinia virus (VACV) vector that uses an early promoter to express the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase; has the A23R intermediate transcription factor gene deleted, thereby restricting virus replication to complementing cells; and has a heterologous gene regulated by a T7 promoter...
June 6, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577520/duration-of-neutralizing-antibody-persisting-in-thai-individuals-after-childhood-vaccination-against-smallpox
#18
Kannikar Kwanchum, Silawun Ampol, Anchalee Thongput, Navin Horthongkham, Suthiphol Udomphunthurak, Sontana Siritantikorn, Wannee Kantakamalakul
BACKGROUND: Although smallpox was completely eliminated by 1980, it remains possible that variola virus could be intentionally released in an act of bioterrorism. Thus, several studies have been performed to detect antibody levels after smallpox vaccination of the current population in various countries to indicate the duration of maintenance of immunological memory. Our study endeavored to investigate the level of neutralizing (Nt) antibody responses of Thai individuals who had been immunized with smallpox vaccine during childhood...
June 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576556/correlative-super-resolution-fluorescence-and-electron-microscopy-using-conventional-fluorescent-proteins-in-vacuo
#19
Christopher J Peddie, Marie-Charlotte Domart, Xenia Snetkov, Peter O'Toole, Banafshe Larijani, Michael Way, Susan Cox, Lucy M Collinson
Super-resolution light microscopy, correlative light and electron microscopy, and volume electron microscopy are revolutionising the way in which biological samples are examined and understood. Here, we combine these approaches to deliver super-accurate correlation of fluorescent proteins to cellular structures. We show that YFP and GFP have enhanced blinking properties when embedded in acrylic resin and imaged under partial vacuum, enabling in vacuo single molecule localisation microscopy. In conventional section-based correlative microscopy experiments, the specimen must be moved between imaging systems and/or further manipulated for optimal viewing...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570045/characterization-of-dna-binding-by-the-isolated-n-terminal-domain-of-vaccinia-virus-dna-topoisomerase-ib
#20
Benjamin R Reed, Lyudmila Yakovleva, Stewart Shuman, Ranajeet Ghose
Vaccinia TopIB (vTopIB), a 314-amino acid eukaryal type IB topoisomerase, recognizes and transesterifies at the DNA sequence 5'-(T/C)CCTT, leading to the formation of a covalent DNA-(3'-phosphotyrosyl274)-enzyme intermediate in the supercoil relaxation reaction. The C-terminal segment of vTopIB (amino acids 81-314), which engages the DNA minor groove at the scissile phosphodiester, comprises an autonomous catalytic domain that retains cleavage specificity, albeit with lower cleavage site affinity compared to the full-length enzyme...
June 1, 2017: Biochemistry
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