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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449630/prime-and-boost-vaccination-elicit-a-distinct-innate-myeloid-cell-immune-response
#1
Jean-Louis Palgen, Nicolas Tchitchek, Jamila Elhmouzi-Younes, Simon Delandre, Inana Namet, Pierre Rosenbaum, Nathalie Dereuddre-Bosquet, Frédéric Martinon, Antonio Cosma, Yves Lévy, Roger Le Grand, Anne-Sophie Beignon
Understanding the innate immune response to vaccination is critical in vaccine design. Here, we studied blood innate myeloid cells after first and second immunization of cynomolgus macaques with the modified vaccinia virus Ankara. The inflammation at the injection site was moderate and resolved faster after the boost. The blood concentration of inflammation markers increased after both injections but was lower after the boost. The numbers of neutrophils, monocytes, and dendritic cells were transiently affected by vaccination, but without any major difference between prime and boost...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447249/a-paralogous-pair-of-mammalian-host-restriction-factors-form-a-critical-host-barrier-against-poxvirus-infection
#2
Xiangzhi Meng, Fushun Zhang, Bo Yan, Chuanping Si, Hiroaki Honda, Akiko Nagamachi, Lu-Zhe Sun, Yan Xiang
Host restriction factors constitute a formidable barrier for viral replication to which many viruses have evolved counter-measures. Human SAMD9, a tumor suppressor and a restriction factor for poxviruses in cell lines, is antagonized by two classes of poxvirus proteins, represented by vaccinia virus (VACV) K1 and C7. A paralog of SAMD9, SAMD9L, is also encoded by some mammals, while only one of two paralogs is retained by others. Here, we show that SAMD9L functions similarly to SAMD9 as a restriction factor and that the two paralogs form a critical host barrier that poxviruses must overcome to establish infection...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446492/bayesian-reconstruction-of-the-evolutionary-history-and-cross-species-transition-of-variola-virus-and-orthopoxviruses
#3
Gianguglielmo Zehender, Alessia Lai, Carla Veo, Annalisa Bergna, Massimo Ciccozzi, Massimo Galli
Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, is an exclusively human virus belonging to the genus Orthopoxvirus, which includes many other viral species covering a wide range of mammal hosts, such as vaccinia, cowpox, camelpox, taterapox, ectromelia and monkeypox virus. The tempo and mode of evolution of Orthopoxviruses were reconstructed using a Bayesian phylodynamic framework by analysing 80 hemagglutinin sequences retrieved from public databases. Bayesian phylogeography was used to estimate their putative ancestral hosts...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445265/new-frontiers-in-oncolytic-viruses-optimizing-and-selecting-for-virus-strains-with-improved-efficacy
#4
REVIEW
Kenneth Lundstrom
Oncolytic viruses have demonstrated selective replication and killing of tumor cells. Different types of oncolytic viruses - adenoviruses, alphaviruses, herpes simplex viruses, Newcastle disease viruses, rhabdoviruses, Coxsackie viruses, and vaccinia viruses - have been applied as either naturally occurring or engineered vectors. Numerous studies in animal-tumor models have demonstrated substantial tumor regression and prolonged survival rates. Moreover, clinical trials have confirmed good safety profiles and therapeutic efficacy for oncolytic viruses...
2018: Biologics: Targets & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444943/vaccinia-virus-c9-ankyrin-repeat-f-box-protein-is-a-newly-identified-antagonist-of-the-type-i-interferon-induced-antiviral-state
#5
Ruikang Liu, Bernard Moss
Type I interferons (IFNs) induce expression of more than 300 cellular genes that provide protection against viruses and other pathogens. For survival, viruses evolved defenses to prevent the IFN response or counteract the IFN-induced antiviral state. However, because viruses and cells co-evolved, the dynamic relationship between virus and host is difficult to discern. In the present study, we demonstrated that vaccinia virus with a large deletion near the left end of the genome had a diminished ability to replicate in cells that had been pre-treated with IFNβ, suggesting that one or more of the missing 17 open reading frames (ORFs) encodes an antagonist of the IFN-induced antiviral state...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439476/virus-like-vaccines-against-hiv
#6
REVIEW
Anne-Marie C Andersson, Melanie Schwerdtfeger, Peter J Holst
Protection against chronic infections has necessitated the development of ever-more potent vaccination tools. HIV seems to be the most challenging foe, with a remarkable, poorly immunogenic and fragile surface glycoprotein and the ability to overpower the cell immune system. Virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccines have emerged as potent inducers of antibody and helper T cell responses, while replication-deficient viral vectors have yielded potent cytotoxic T cell responses. Here, we review the emerging concept of merging these two technologies into virus-like-vaccines (VLVs) for the targeting of HIV...
February 11, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433897/high-cell-density-cultivations-to-increase-mva-virus-production
#7
Daniel Vázquez-Ramírez, Yvonne Genzel, Ingo Jordan, Volker Sandig, Udo Reichl
Increasing the yield and the productivity in cell culture-based vaccine manufacturing using high-cell-density (HCD) cultivations faces a number of challenges. For example, medium consumption should be low to obtain a very high concentration of viable host cells in an economical way but must be balanced against the requirement that accumulation of toxic metabolites and limitation of nutrients have to be avoided. HCD cultivations should also be optimized to avoid unwanted induction of apoptosis or autophagy during the early phase of virus infection...
February 9, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427676/in-vitro-susceptibility-to-st-246-and-cidofovir-corroborates-the-phylogenetic-separation-of-brazilian-vaccinia-virus-into-two-clades
#8
Mariana A Pires, Nathália F S Rodrigues, Danilo B de Oliveira, Felipe L de Assis, Galileu B Costa, Erna G Kroon, Bruno E F Mota
The Orthopoxvirus (OPV) genus of the Poxviridae family contains several human pathogens, including Vaccinia virus (VACV), which have been implicating in outbreaks of a zoonotic disease called Bovine Vaccinia in Brazil. So far, no approved treatment exists for OPV infections, but ST-246 and Cidofovir (CDV) are now in clinical development. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility of five strains of Brazilian VACV (Br-VACV) to ST-246 and Cidofovir. The susceptibility of these strains to both drugs was evaluated by plaque reduction assay, extracellular virus's quantification in the presence of ST-246 and one-step growth curve in cells treated with CDV...
February 7, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427674/phage-display-antibodies-against-ectromelia-virus-that-neutralize-variola-virus-selection-and-implementation-for-p35-neutralizing-epitope-mapping
#9
Yana Khlusevich, Andrey Matveev, Ivan Baykov, Leonid Bulychev, Nikolai Bormotov, Ivan Ilyichev, Georgiy Shevelev, Vera Morozova, Dmitrii Pyshnyi, Nina Tikunova
In this study, five phage display antibodies (pdAbs) against ectromelia virus (ECTV) were selected from vaccinia virus (VACV)-immune phage-display library of human single chain variable fragments (scFv). ELISA demonstrated that selected pdAbs could recognize ECTV, VACV, and cowpox virus (CPXV). Atomic force microscopy visualized binding of the pdAbs to VACV. Three of the selected pdAbs neutralized variola virus (VARV) in the plaque reduction neutralization test. Western blot analysis of ECTV, VARV, VACV, and CPXV proteins indicated that neutralizing pdAbs bound orthopoxvirus 35 kDa proteins, which are encoded by the open reading frames orthologous to the ORF H3L in VACV...
February 7, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425504/functional-cd169-on-macrophages-mediates-interaction-with-dendritic-cells-for-cd8-t-cell-cross-priming
#10
Dieke van Dinther, Henrike Veninga, Salvador Iborra, Ellen G F Borg, Leoni Hoogterp, Katarzyna Olesek, Marieke R Beijer, Sjoerd T T Schetters, Hakan Kalay, Juan J Garcia-Vallejo, Kees L Franken, Lamin B Cham, Karl S Lang, Yvette van Kooyk, David Sancho, Paul R Crocker, Joke M M den Haan
Splenic CD169+ macrophages are located in the marginal zone to efficiently capture blood-borne pathogens. Here, we investigate the requirements for the induction of CD8+ T cell responses by antigens (Ags) bound by CD169+ macrophages. Upon Ag targeting to CD169+ macrophages, we show that BATF3-dependent CD8α+ dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for DNGR-1-mediated cross-priming of CD8+ T cell responses. In addition, we demonstrate that CD169, a sialic acid binding lectin involved in cell-cell contact, preferentially binds to CD8α+ DCs and that Ag transfer to CD8α+ DCs and subsequent T cell activation is dependent on the sialic acid-binding capacity of CD169...
February 6, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419802/neurotropin%C3%A2-accelerates-the-differentiation-of-schwann-cells-and-remyelination-in-a-rat-lysophosphatidylcholine-induced-demyelination-model
#11
Hozo Matsuoka, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Junichi Sayanagi, Toru Iwahashi, Koji Suzuki, Shunsuke Nishimoto, Kiyoshi Okada, Tsuyoshi Murase, Hideki Yoshikawa
Neurotropin® (NTP), a non-protein extract of inflamed rabbit skin inoculated with vaccinia virus, is clinically used for the treatment of neuropathic pain in Japan and China, although its effect on peripheral nerve regeneration remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of NTP on Schwann cells (SCs) in vitro and in vivo, which play an important role in peripheral nerve regeneration. In SCs, NTP upregulated protein kinase B (AKT) activity and Krox20 and downregulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 activity under both growth and differentiation conditions, enhanced the expression of myelin basic protein and protein zero under the differentiation condition...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415160/genital-autoinoculation-with-vaccinia-a-look-at-two-cases
#12
Julie R Whittington, Nanette L Rollene, Richard S Gist
Introduction: Smallpox, or vaccinia, has been eradicated worldwide as a disease; however, it may be weaponized and is thus a required immunization when military members deploy to certain parts of the world. Materials and Methods: We report two unusual cases of genital autoinoculation following smallpox vaccination. Results: Both patients' lesions resolved without sequelae within 20 d. Conclusions: We advocate for thorough education on this potential vaccination adverse event...
February 5, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399408/oncolytic-viruses-sensitize-human-tumor-cells-for-ny-eso-1-tumor-antigen-recognition-by-cd4-effector-t-cells
#13
Tiphaine Delaunay, Mathilde Violland, Nicolas Boisgerault, Soizic Dutoit, Virginie Vignard, Christian Münz, Monique Gannage, Brigitte Dréno, Kristine Vaivode, Dace Pjanova, Nathalie Labarrière, Yaohe Wang, E Antonio Chiocca, Fabrice Le Boeuf, John C Bell, Philippe Erbs, Frédéric Tangy, Marc Grégoire, Jean-François Fonteneau
Oncolytic immunotherapy using oncolytic viruses (OV) has been shown to stimulate the antitumor immune response by inducing the release of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) and danger signals from the dying infected tumor cells. In this study, we sought to determine if the lysis of tumor cells induced by different OV: measles virus, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, herpes simplex type I virus, adenovirus or enterovirus, has consequences on the capacity of tumor cells to present TAA, such as NY-ESO-1...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399394/intra-tumoral-delivery-of-cxcl11-via-a-vaccinia-virus-but-not-by-modified-t-cells-enhances-the-efficacy-of-adoptive-t-cell-therapy-and-vaccines
#14
Edmund K Moon, Liang-Chuan S Wang, Kheng Bekdache, Rachel C Lynn, Albert Lo, Stephen H Thorne, Steven M Albelda
T cell trafficking into tumors depends on a "match" between chemokine receptors on effector cells (e.g., CXCR3 and CCR5) and tumor-secreted chemokines. There is often a chemokine/chemokine receptor "mismatch", with tumors producing minute amounts of chemokines, resulting in inefficient targeting of effectors to tumors. We aimed to alter tumors to produce higher levels of CXCL11, a CXCR3 ligand, to attract more effector cells following immunotherapy. Mice bearing established subcutaneous tumors were studied...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393023/a-comparison-of-the-effect-of-molluscum-contagiosum-virus-mc159-and-mc160-proteins-on-vaccinia-virus-virulence-in-intranasal-and-intradermal-infection-routes
#15
Sunetra Biswas, Geoffrey L Smith, Edward J Roy, Brian Ward, Joanna L Shisler
Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) causes persistent, benign skin neoplasm in children and adults. MCV is refractive to growth in standard tissue culture and there is no relevant animal model of infection. Here we investigated whether another poxvirus (vaccinia virus; VACV) could be used to examine MCV immunoevasion protein properties in vivo. The MCV MC159L or MC160L genes, which encode NF-κB antagonists, were inserted into an attenuated VACV lacking an NF-κB antagonist (vΔA49), creating vMC159 and vMC160...
February 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392930/labeling-and-single-particle-tracking-based-entry-mechanism-study-of-vaccinia-virus-from-the-tiantan-strain
#16
Li-Li Huang, Li-Li Wu, Xue Li, Kejiang Liu, Dongxu Zhao, Hai-Yan Xie
Entry is the first and critical step of viral infection, while the entry mechanisms of many viruses are still unclear due to the lack of efficient technology. In this report, by taking advantage of the single-virion fluorescence tracking technique and simultaneous dual-labeling methods for viruses, we developed; the entry pathway of vaccinia virus from tiantan strain (VACV-TT) was studied in real-time. By combining with the technologies of virology and cell biology, we found that VACV-TT moved toward the Vero cell body along the filopodia induced by the virions interaction, and then, they were internalized through macropinocytosis, which was an actin-, ATP-dependent but clathrin-, caveolin-independent endocytosis...
February 2, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391793/ultrasound-mediated-cavitation-does-not-decrease-the-activity-of-small-molecule-antibody-or-viral-based-medicines
#17
Rachel Myers, Megan Grundy, Cliff Rowe, Christian M Coviello, Luca Bau, Philippe Erbs, Johann Foloppe, Jean-Marc Balloul, Colin Story, Constantin C Coussios, Robert Carlisle
The treatment of cancer using nanomedicines is limited by the poor penetration of these potentially powerful agents into and throughout solid tumors. Externally controlled mechanical stimuli, such as the generation of cavitation-induced microstreaming using ultrasound (US), can provide a means of improving nanomedicine delivery. Notably, it has been demonstrated that by focusing, monitoring and controlling the US exposure, delivery can be achieved without damage to surrounding tissue or vasculature. However, there is a risk that such stimuli may disrupt the structure and thereby diminish the activity of the delivered drugs, especially complex antibody and viral-based nanomedicines...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386289/immunisation-of-pigs-by-dna-prime-and-recombinant-vaccinia-virus-boost-to-identify-and-rank-african-swine-fever-virus-immunogenic-and-protective-proteins
#18
James K Jankovich, Dave Chapman, Debra T Hansen, Mark D Robida, Andrey Loskutov, Felicia Craciunescu, Alex Borovkov, Karen Kibler, Lynnette Goatley, Katherine King, Christopher L Netherton, Geraldine Taylor, Bertram Jacobs, Kathryn Sykes, Linda K Dixon
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes an acute haemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs with high socio-economic impact. No vaccine is available limiting options for control. Although live attenuated ASFV can induce up to one hundred percent protection against lethal challenge, little is known of the antigens which induce this protective response. To identify additional ASFV immunogenic and potentially protective antigens we cloned 47 viral genes in individual plasmids for gene vaccination and in recombinant vaccinia viruses...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385169/fowlpoxvirus-recombinants-coding-for-the-ciita-gene-increase-the-expression-of-endogenous-mhc-ii-and-fowlpox-gag-pro-and-env-siv-transgenes
#19
Massimiliano Bissa, Greta Forlani, Carlo Zanotto, Giovanna Tosi, Carlo De Giuli Morghen, Roberto S Accolla, Antonia Radaelli
A complete eradication of an HIV infection has never been achieved by vaccination and the search for new immunogens that can induce long-lasting protective responses is ongoing. Avipoxvirus recombinants are host-restricted for replication to avian species and they do not have the undesired side effects induced by vaccinia recombinants. In particular, Fowlpox (FP) recombinants can express transgenes over long periods and can induce protective immunity in mammals, mainly due to CD4-dependent CD8+ T cells. In this context, the class II transactivator (CIITA) has a pivotal role in triggering the adaptive immune response through induction of the expression of class-II major histocompatibility complex molecule (MHC-II), that can present antigens to CD4+ T helper cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380046/low-pass-single-chromosome-sequencing-of-human-small-supernumerary-marker-chromosomes-ssmcs-and-apodemus-b-chromosomes
#20
Alexey I Makunin, Marija Rajičić, Tatyana V Karamysheva, Svetlana A Romanenko, Anna S Druzhkova, Jelena Blagojević, Mladen Vujošević, Nikolay B Rubtsov, Alexander S Graphodatsky, Vladimir A Trifonov
Supernumerary chromosomes sporadically arise in many eukaryotic species as a result of genomic rearrangements. If present in a substantial part of species population, those are called B chromosomes, or Bs. This is the case for 70 mammalian species, most of which are rodents. In humans, the most common types of extra chromosomes, sSMCs (small supernumerary marker chromosomes), are diagnosed in approximately 1 of 2000 postnatal cases. Due to low frequency in population, human sSMCs are not considered B chromosomes...
January 30, 2018: Chromosoma
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