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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540373/in-vitro-cellular-behaviors-and-toxicity-assays-of-small-sized-fluorescent-silicon-nanoparticles
#1
Zhaohui Cao, Fei Peng, Zhilin Hu, Binbin Chu, Yiling Zhong, Yuanyuan Su, Sudan He, Yao He
Extensive investigations have been carried out for evaluating the toxicology of various nanomaterials (e.g., carbon- and metal-based nanomaterials), which offer invaluable information for assessing the feasibility of nanomaterial-based wide-ranging applications. In recent years, sufficient efforts have been made to develop fluorescent small-sized silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) as a novel optical material simultaneously featuring strong fluorescence and ultrahigh photostability, providing high promise for a myriad of biological, biomedical and electronic applications...
May 25, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533468/vacuolation-activity-and-intracellular-trafficking-of-artb-the-binding-subunit-of-an-ab5-toxin-produced-by-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#2
Brock P Herdman, James C Paton, Hui Wang, Travis Beddoe, Adrienne W Paton
Various Salmonella enterica serovars, including S Typhi, encode an AB5 toxin (ArtAB), the A subunit of which is an ADP-ribosyltransferase related to the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin. However, although the A subunit is able to catalyse ADP-ribosylation of host G proteins, a cytotoxic phenotype has yet to be identified for the holotoxin. Here we show that its B subunit pentamer (ArtB) binds to receptors on the surface of Vero (African green monkey kidney), CHO (Chinese hamster ovary), U937 (human monocyte) and HBMEC (human brain microvascular endothelial) cell lines...
May 22, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526875/endophilinas-regulate-endosomal-sorting-of-bdnf-trkb-to-mediate-survival-signaling-in-hippocampal-neurons
#3
Katja Burk, John D Murdoch, Siona Freytag, Melanie Koenig, Vinita Bharat, Ronja Markworth, Susanne Burkhardt, Andre Fischer, Camin Dean
The sorting of activated receptors into distinct endosomal compartments is essential to activate specific signaling cascades and cellular events including growth and survival. However, the proteins involved in this sorting are not well understood. We discovered a novel role of EndophilinAs in sorting of activated BDNF-TrkB receptors into late endosomal compartments. Mice lacking all three EndophilinAs accumulate Rab7-positive late endosomes. Moreover, EndophilinAs are differentially localized to, co-traffic with, and tubulate, distinct endosomal compartments: In response to BDNF, EndophilinA2 is recruited to both early and late endosomes, EndophilinA3 is recruited to Lamp1-positive late endosomes, and co-trafficks with Rab5 and Rab7 in both the presence and absence of BDNF, while EndophilinA1 colocalizes at lower levels with endosomes...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522830/inhibition-of-endocytic-lipid-antigen-presentation-by-common-lipophilic-environmental-pollutants
#4
Manju Sharma, Xiang Zhang, Shuangmin Zhang, Liang Niu, Shuk-Mei Ho, Aimin Chen, Shouxiong Huang
Environmental pollutants as non-heritable factors are now recognized as triggers for multiple human inflammatory diseases involving T cells. We postulated that lipid antigen presentation mediated by cluster of differentiation 1 (CD1) proteins for T cell activation is susceptible to lipophilic environmental pollutants. To test this notion, we determined whether the common lipophilic pollutants benzo[a]pyrene and diesel exhaust particles impact on the activation of lipid-specific T cells. Our results demonstrated that the expression of CD1a and CD1d proteins, and the activation of CD1a- and CD1d-restricted T cells were sensitively inhibited by benzo[a]pyrene even at the low concentrations detectable in exposed human populations...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522593/small-gtpase-rab1b-is-associated-with-atg9a-vesicles-and-regulates-autophagosome-formation
#5
Soichiro Kakuta, Junji Yamaguchi, Chigure Suzuki, Mitsuho Sasaki, Saiko Kazuno, Yasuo Uchiyama
ATG9 is a membrane protein that is essential for autophagy and is considered to be directly involved in the early steps of autophagosome formation. Yeast Atg9 is mainly localized to small vesicles (Atg9 vesicles), whereas mammalian ATG9A is reportedly localized to the trans-Golgi network, the endosomal compartment, and other unidentified membrane structures. To dissect the ATG9A-containing membranes, we examined the subcellular localization of ATG9A and performed immunoisolation of those membranes. ATG9A-green fluorescent protein in human culture cells was observed as numerous puncta that move rapidly throughout the cytoplasm...
May 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521780/ultrasound-and-microbubble-induced-release-from-intracellular-compartments
#6
Farah Hussein, Costin Antonescu, Raffi Karshafian
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound and microbubbles (USMB) have been shown to enhance the intracellular uptake of molecules, generally thought to occur as a result of sonoporation. The underlying mechanism associated with USMB-enhanced intracellular uptake such as membrane disruption and endocytosis may also be associated with USMB-induced release of cellular materials to the extracellular milieu. This study investigates USMB effects on the molecular release from cells through membrane-disruption and exocytosis...
May 18, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518215/the-tlr9-signaling-pathway-regulates-mr1-mediated-bacterial-antigen-presentation-in-b-cells
#7
Jianyun Liu, Randy R Brutkiewicz
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are conserved T cells that express a semi-invariant TCR (Vα7.2 in humans and Vα19 in mice). The development of MAIT cells requires the antigen (Ag) presenting MHC-related protein 1 (MR1), as well as commensal bacteria. The mechanisms that regulate the functional expression of MR1 molecules and their loading with bacterial Ag in APCs are largely unknown. We have found that treating B cells with the TLR9 agonist CpG increases MR1 surface expression. Interestingly, activation of TLR9 by CpG-A (but not CpG-B) enhances MR1 surface expression...
May 18, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509532/nanodiamonds-mediate-oral-delivery-of-proteins-for-stem-cell-activation-and-intestinal-remodeling-in-drosophila
#8
Xingjie Hu, Xiaojiao Li, Min Yin, Ping Li, Ping Huang, Lihua Wang, Yiguo Jiang, Hui Wang, Nan Chen, Chunhai Fan, Haiyun Song
Introduction of exogenous biomacromolecules into living systems is of great interest in genome editing, cancer immunotherapy, and stem cell reprogramming. Whereas current strategies generally depend on nucleic acids transfection, direct delivery of functional proteins that provides enhanced specificity, increased safety, and fast and temporal regulation is highly desirable. Nevertheless, intracellular delivery of intact and bioactive proteins, especially in vivo, remains poorly explored. In this study, we developed a nanodiamonds (NDs)-based protein delivery system in cultured cells and in Drosophila that showed high adsorption, high efficiency, and effective cytosolic release of fully functional proteins...
May 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507272/phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate-4-kinase-regulates-early-endosomal-dynamics-during-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis
#9
Kumari Kamalesh, Deepti Trivedi, Sarah Toscano, Sanjeev Sharma, Sourav Kolay, Padinjat Raghu
Endocytic turnover is essential to regulate the protein composition and function of the plasma membrane thus regulating the plasma membrane levels of many receptors. In Drosophila photoreceptors, photon absorption by the GPCR rhodopsin 1 (Rh1) triggers its endocytosis by clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). We find that CME of Rh1 is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 5 phosphate 4-kinase (PIP4K). Flies lacking PIP4K show mislocalization of Rh1 on expanded endomembranes within the cell body. This mislocalization of Rh1 was dependent on the formation of an expanded Rab5 compartment...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477385/in-vitro-recapitulation-of-the-site-specific-editing-to-wild-type-of-mutant-ids-mrna-transcripts-and-the-characterization-of-ids-protein-translated-from-the-edited-mrnas
#10
Susanna Lualdi, Genny Del Zotto, Olga Zegarra-Moran, Nicoletta Pedemonte, Fabio Corsolini, Maurizio Bruschi, Valeria Tomati, Giulia Amico, Giovanni Candiano, Andrea Dardis, David N Cooper, Mirella Filocamo
The transfer of genomic information into the primary RNA sequence can be altered by RNA editing. We have previously shown that genomic variants can be RNA-edited to wild-type. The presence of distinct "edited" iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS) mRNA transcripts ex vivo evidenced the correction of a nonsense and frameshift variant, respectively, in three unrelated Hunter syndrome patients. This phenomenon was confirmed in various patient samples by a variety of techniques, and was quantified by single-nucleotide primer extension...
May 6, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475030/characterizing-the-spatio-temporal-role-of-sorting-nexin-17-in-human-papillomavirus-trafficking
#11
Martina Bergant, Špela Peternel, David Pim, Justyna Broniarczyk, Lawrence Banks
The human papillomavirus (HPV) L2 capsid protein plays an essential role during the early stages of viral infection. Previous studies have shown that the interaction between HPV L2 and endosomal sorting nexin 17 (SNX17) is conserved across multiple PV types where it plays an essential role in infectious entry, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved pathway of PV trafficking. Here we show that the peak time of interaction between HPV-16 L2 and SNX17 is rather early, at 2 h post-infection. Interestingly, the L2-SNX17 interaction appears to be important for facilitating capsid disassembly and L1 dissociation, suggesting that L2 recruitment of SNX17 occurs prior to capsid disassembly...
April 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472658/releasing-syntaphilin-removes-stressed-mitochondria-from-axons-independent-of-mitophagy-under-pathophysiological-conditions
#12
Mei-Yao Lin, Xiu-Tang Cheng, Prasad Tammineni, Yuxiang Xie, Bing Zhou, Qian Cai, Zu-Hang Sheng
Chronic mitochondrial stress is a central problem associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Early removal of defective mitochondria from axons constitutes a critical step of mitochondrial quality control. Here we investigate axonal mitochondrial response to mild stress in wild-type neurons and chronic mitochondrial defects in Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)- and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked neurons. We show that stressed mitochondria are removed from axons triggered by the bulk release of mitochondrial anchoring protein syntaphilin via a new class of mitochondria-derived cargos independent of Parkin, Drp1, and autophagy...
May 3, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465262/non-thermal-plasma-induces-a-stress-response-in-mesothelioma-cells-resulting-in-increased-endocytosis-lysosome-biogenesis-and-autophagy
#13
Lei Shi, Fumiya Ito, Yue Wang, Yasumasa Okazaki, Hiromasa Tanaka, Masaaki Mizuno, Masaru Hori, Tasuku Hirayama, Hideko Nagasawa, Des R Richardson, Shinya Toyokuni
Non-thermal plasma (NTP) is a potential new therapeutic modality for cancer. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Herein, we studied the effect of NTP on mesothelioma cells and fibroblasts to understand its anti-proliferative efficacy. Interestingly, NTP demonstrated greater selective anti-proliferative activity against mesothelioma cells relative to fibroblasts than cisplatin, which is used for mesothelioma treatment. The anti-proliferative effect of NTP was enhanced by pre-incubation with the cellular iron donor, ferric ammonium citrate (FAC), and inhibited by iron chelation using desferrioxamine (DFO)...
May 2, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463988/translocation-of-the-papillomavirus-l2-vdna-complex-across-the-limiting-membrane-requires-the-onset-of-mitosis
#14
Christine M Calton, Matthew P Bronnimann, Ariana R Manson, Shuaizhi Li, Janice A Chapman, Marcela Suarez-Berumen, Tatum R Williamson, Sudheer K Molugu, Ricardo A Bernal, Samuel K Campos
The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) L2 protein acts as a chaperone to ensure that the viral genome (vDNA) traffics from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and eventually the nucleus, where HPV replication occurs. En route to the nucleus, the L2/vDNA complex must translocate across limiting intracellular membranes. The details of this critical process remain poorly characterized. We have developed a system based on subcellular compartmentalization of the enzyme BirA and its cognate substrate to detect membrane translocation of L2-BirA from incoming virions...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462045/on-the-entry-of-an-emerging-arbovirus-into-host-cells-mayaro-virus-takes-the-highway-to-the-cytoplasm-through-fusion-with-early-endosomes-and-caveolae-derived-vesicles
#15
Carlos A M Carvalho, Jerson L Silva, Andréa C Oliveira, Andre M O Gomes
Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an emergent sylvatic alphavirus in South America, related to sporadic outbreaks of a chikungunya-like human febrile illness accompanied by severe arthralgia. Despite its high potential for urban emergence, MAYV is still an obscure virus with scarce information about its infection cycle, including the corresponding early events. Even for prototypical alphaviruses, the cell entry mechanism still has some rough edges to trim: although clathrin-mediated endocytosis is quoted as the putative route, alternative paths as distinct as direct virus genome injection through the cell plasma membrane seems to be possible...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458669/differences-in-granule-morphology-yet-equally-impaired-exocytosis-among-cytotoxic-t-cells-and-nk-cells-from-chediak-higashi-syndrome-patients
#16
Samuel C C Chiang, Stephanie M Wood, Bianca Tesi, Himmet Haluk Akar, Waleed Al-Herz, Sandra Ammann, Fatma Burcu Belen, Umran Caliskan, Zühre Kaya, Kai Lehmberg, Turkan Patiroglu, Huseyin Tokgoz, Ayşegül Ünüvar, Wendy J Introne, Jan-Inge Henter, Magnus Nordenskjöld, Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren, Marie Meeths, Stephan Ehl, Konrad Krzewski, Yenan T Bryceson
Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in LYST, resulting in enlarged lysosomal compartments in multiple cell types. CHS patients display oculocutaneous albinism and may develop life-threatening hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). While NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity has been reported to be uniformly defective, variable defects in T cell-mediated cytotoxicity has been observed. The latter has been linked to the degree of HLH susceptibility. Since the discrepancies in NK cell- and T cell-mediated cellular cytotoxicity might result from differences in regulation of cytotoxic granule release, we here evaluated perforin-containing secretory lysosome size and number in freshly isolated lymphocytes from CHS patients and furthermore compared their exocytic capacities...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457591/from-mucolipidosis-type-iv-to-ebola-trpml-and-two-pore-channels-at-the-crossroads-of-endo-lysosomal-trafficking-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Christian Grimm, Elisabeth Butz, Cheng-Chang Chen, Christian Wahl-Schott, Martin Biel
What do lysosomal storage disorders such as mucolipidosis type IV have in common with Ebola, cancer cell migration, or LDL-cholesterol trafficking? LDL-cholesterol, certain bacterial toxins and viruses, growth factors, receptors, integrins, macromolecules destined for degradation or secretion are all sorted and transported via the endolysosomal system (ES). There are several pathways known in the ES, e.g. the degradation, the recycling, or the retrograde trafficking pathway. The ES comprises early and late endosomes, lysosomes and recycling endosomes as well as autophagosomes and lysosome related organelles...
April 23, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455099/membrane-localization-and-dynamics-of-geranylgeranylated-rab5-hypervariable-region
#18
Eileen Edler, Eric Schulze, Matthias Stein
The small GTPase Rab5 is a key regulator of endosomal trafficking processes and a marker for the early endosome. The C-terminal hypervariable region (HVR) of Rab5 is post-translationally modified at residues Cys(212) and Cys(213) to accommodate two geranylgeranyl anchors (C20 carbon chain length) in order to associate Rab5 with the membrane. The structural role of the HVR regarding protein-early endosome membrane recruitment is not resolved due to its high degree of flexibility and lack of crystallographic information...
April 25, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445739/autophagy-associated-cytotoxicity-and-cellular-uptake-mechanisms-of-bismuth-nanoparticles-in-human-kidney-cells
#19
Yongming Liu, Jing Zhuang, Xihui Zhang, Cong Yue, Ning Zhu, Liecheng Yang, Yong Wang, Tao Chen, Yangyun Wang, Leshuai W Zhang
Bismuth compounds have been used for treatment of bacterial infection, and recently bismuth nanoparticles (BiNP) were synthesized for imaging and diagnostic purpose, while safety concern of bismuth cannot be ignored. Here, we prepared ultrasmall BiNP and showed an enhanced tumor imaging, but BiNP revealed a differentiated cytotoxicity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK293) compared to other cell types. For the first time, we found that BiNP can induce autophagy, shown as the increase of monodansylcadaverine fluorescence staining and the amount of LC3II that can be inhibited by 3-MA...
April 23, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437167/the-fgvps39-fgvam7-fgsso1-complex-mediates-vesicle-trafficking-and-is-important-for-the-development-and-virulence-of-fusarium-graminearum
#20
Bing Li, Luping Liu, Ying Li, Xin Dong, Haifeng Zhang, Huaigu Chen, Xiaobo Zheng, Zhengguang Zhang
Vesicle trafficking is an important event in eukaryotic organisms. Many proteins and lipids transported between different organelles or compartments are essential for survival. These processes are mediated by soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins, Rab-GTPases, and multisubunit tethering complexes such as class C core vacuole or endosome tethering and homotypic fusion or vacuole protein sorting (HOPS). Our previous study has demonstrated that FgVam7, which encodes a SNARE protein involving in vesicle trafficking, plays crucial roles in growth, asexual or sexual development, deoxynivalenol production, and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum...
May 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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