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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793150/exploring-the-victimization%C3%A2-early-substance-misuse-relationship-in-search-of-moderating-and-mediating-effects
#1
Glenn D Walters, Dorothy L Espelage
This study was designed to address two research questions. The first research question asked whether physical abuse victimization at the hands of parents/guardians, bullying victimization at the hands of peers, and the abuse x bullying interaction encouraged early involvement in substance misuse. The second research question inquired as to whether the victimization‒substance misuse relationship was mediated by variables proposed by various theories and research studies-specifically, cognitive impulsivity, negative affect, and low self-esteem...
May 21, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793149/educational-and-emotional-health-outcomes-in-adolescence-following-maltreatment-in-early-childhood-a-population-based-study-of-protective-factors
#2
Nisreen Khambati, Liam Mahedy, Jon Heron, Alan Emond
Although childhood maltreatment is associated with long-term impairment, some children function well despite this adversity. This study aimed to identify the key protective factors for good educational attainment and positive emotional health in adolescents who experienced maltreatment in early childhood. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large UK prospective cohort study. The sample was defined by maternally reported exposure to physical or emotional maltreatment by a parent prior to 5 years...
May 21, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793111/desire-understanding-in-2-year-old-children-an-eye-tracking-study
#3
Amrisha Vaish, Robert Hepach, Tobias Grossmann
'Much research has investigated children's understanding of others' mental states in terms of beliefs, but far less is known about their understanding of others' desires. To fill this gap, we used an eye-tracking paradigm to test 2-year-old children's desire understanding by measuring their anticipatory looking behavior as well as changes in their internal arousal (i.e., changes in pupil dilation). Children showed increased pupil dilation when an adult reached for an object she had previously emoted negatively towards (the object incongruent with her desire)...
May 21, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793080/visualizing-the-shape-of-society-an-analysis-of-public-bads-and-burden-allocation-due-to-household-consumption-using-an-input-output-approach
#4
Andrew Chapman, Yosuke Shigetomi
This study investigates how our lifestyles can cause societal issue including a reduction in social equity due to the consumption of natural resources. Based on a range of household environmental footprints and their application to a quantitative social equity evaluation framework, a methodology is proposed which identifies the creation and origin of public bads within society. This research builds on the methodologies of energy policy sustainability evaluation incorporated with environmentally extended input output analysis in order to critically assess lifestyle-based consumption impacts, and to quantify the allocation of subsequent burdens across generations...
May 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793062/functional-mri-of-brain-physiology-in-aging-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#5
J Jean Chen
Brain aging and associated neurodegeneration constitute a major societal challenge as well as one for the neuroimaging community. A full understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration still eludes medical researchers, fuelling the development of in vivo neuroimaging markers. Hence it is increasingly recognized that our understanding of neurodegenerative processes likely will depend upon the available information provided by imaging techniques. At the same time, the imaging techniques are often developed in response to the desire to observe certain physiological processes...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792992/frailty-status-as-a-predictor-of-three-month-cognitive-and-functional-recovery-following-spinal-surgery-a-prospective-pilot-study
#6
Robert J Rothrock, Jeremy M Steinberger, Henry Badgery, Andrew C Hecht, Samuel K Cho, John M Caridi, Stacie Deiner
Background Context As increasing numbers of elderly Americans undergo spinal surgery, it is important to identify which patients are at highest risk for poor cognitive and functional recovery. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome which has been closely linked to poor outcomes, and short form screening may be a helpful tool for preoperative identification of at risk patients. Purpose To conduct a pilot study on the usefulness of a short-form screening tool to identify elderly patients at increased risk for prolonged cognitive and functional recovery following elective spine surgery...
May 21, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792940/a-randomized-control-trial-to-determine-the-effectiveness-and-physiological-effects-of-spinal-manipulation-and-spinal-mobilization-compared-to-each-other-and-a-sham-condition-in-patients-with-chronic-low-back-pain-study-protocol-for-the-relief-study
#7
Brian C Clark, David W Russ, Masato Nakazawa, Christopher R France, Stevan Walkowski, Timothy D Law, Megan Applegate, Niladri Mahato, Samuel Lietkam, James Odenthal, Daniel Corcos, Simeon Hain, Betty Sindelar, Robert J Ploutz-Snyder, James S Thomas
BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common reasons for seeking medical care. Manipulative therapies are a common treatment for LBP. Few studies have compared the effectiveness of different types of manipulative therapies. Moreover, the physiologic mechanisms underlying these treatments are not fully understood. Herein, we present the study protocol for The Researching the Effectiveness of Lumbar Interventions for Enhancing Function Study (The RELIEF Study). METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The RELIEF Study is a Phase II RCT with a nested mechanistic design...
May 21, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792892/beef-quality-labels-a-combination-of-sensory-acceptance-test-stated-willingness-to-pay-and-choice-based-conjoint-analysis
#8
Stephan G H Meyerding, Maria Gentz, Brianne Altmann, Lisa Meier-Dinkel
Consumer perspectives of beef quality are complex, leading to a market that is increasingly differentiating. Thus, ongoing monitoring and assessment of changes in consumer perspectives is essential to identify changing market conditions. Often only credence and search characteristics are evaluated in consumer studies; therefore the object of the present study is to examine consumer preferences and perceptions towards beef steaks, also including experience characteristics, using a mixed methods approach. For this reason, 55 consumers participated in an experiment in Germany, including a sensory acceptance test, stated willingness to pay, and choice-based conjoint analysis (CBCA)...
May 21, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792874/pet-staging-of-amyloidosis-using-striatum
#9
Bernard J Hanseeuw, Rebecca A Betensky, Elizabeth C Mormino, Aaron P Schultz, Jorge Sepulcre, John A Becker, Heidi I L Jacobs, Rachel F Buckley, Molly R LaPoint, Patrizia Vanini, Nancy J Donovan, Jasmeer P Chhatwal, Gad A Marshall, Kathryn V Papp, Rebecca E Amariglio, Dorene M Rentz, Reisa A Sperling, Keith A Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Amyloid PET data are commonly expressed as binary measures of cortical deposition. However, not all individuals with high cortical amyloid will experience rapid cognitive decline. Motivated by postmortem data, we evaluated a three-stage PET classification: low cortical; high cortical, low striatal; and high cortical, high striatal amyloid; hypothesizing this model could better reflect Alzheimer's dementia progression than a model based only on cortical measures. METHODS: We classified PET data from 1433 participants (646 normal, 574 mild cognitive impairment, and 213 AD), explored the successive involvement of cortex and striatum using 3-year follow-up PET data, and evaluated the associations between PET stages, hippocampal volumes, and cognition...
May 21, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792756/uterine-or-paracervical-lidocaine-application-for-pain-control-during-intrauterine-contraceptive-device-insertion-a-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#10
Faustino R Perez-Lopez, Samuel J Martinez-Dominguez, Gonzalo R Perez-Roncero, Adrian V Hernandez
OBJECTIVE: Systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of uterine or paracervical lidocaine application on pain control during IUD insertion. METHODS: PubMed and five other electronic research databases were searched through 15 November 2017 for RCTs comparing lidocaine treatment vs. a control (placebo or no-intervention) to prevent pain during IUD insertion. Searched terms included 'IUD insertion', 'lidocaine' and 'randomised controlled trial'. RCTs evaluating lidocaine treatment before IUD insertion without restriction of language, age and IUD type...
May 24, 2018: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792587/child-abuse-potential-in-mothers-with-early-life-maltreatment-borderline-personality-disorder-and-depression
#11
Katja Dittrich, Katja Boedeker, Dorothea Kluczniok, Charlotte Jaite, Catherine Hindi Attar, Daniel Fuehrer, Sabine C Herpertz, Romuald Brunner, Sibylle Maria Winter, Andreas Heinz, Stefan Roepke, Christine Heim, Felix Bermpohl
BACKGROUND: Early life maltreatment (ELM), borderline personality disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) have been shown to increase the potential of abuse. Emotion regulation is an identified mediator for the association of ELM and BPD with abuse potential. Until now, there has been no study to account for the co-occurrence of these risk factors in one analysis, although BPD and MDD are known as common sequelae of ELM. This is paired with a lack of studies investigating the effects of abuse potential on child well-being...
May 24, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792581/victimization-and-violence-an-exploration-of-the-relationship-between-child-sexual-abuse-violence-and-delinquency
#12
Rebecca Shoaf Kozak, Melinda Gushwa, Tamara J Cadet
Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a major public health issue with significant short- and long-term consequences. However, little contemporary research has examined the relationship between CSA and delinquent and violent behavior in adolescence. Children who have been sexually abused experience a unique form of victimization compared to children who have endured other forms of maltreatment, as CSA can result in feelings of shame, powerlessness and boundary violations. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of CSA on delinquent and violent behavior in adolescence...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792567/effects-of-age-and-body-mass-index-on-breast-characteristics-a-cluster-analysis
#13
Celeste E Coltman, Julie R Steele, Deirdre E McGhee
Limited research has quantified variation in the characteristics of the breasts among women and determined how these breast characteristics are influenced by age and body mass. The aim of this study was to classify the breasts of women in the community into different categories based on comprehensive and objective measurements of the characteristics of their breasts and torsos, and to determine the effect of age and body mass index (BMI) on the prevalence of these breast categories. Four breast characteristic clusters were identified (X-Large, Very-ptotic & Splayed; Large, Ptotic & Splayed; Medium & Mildly-ptotic; and Small & Non-ptotic), with age and BMI shown to significantly affect the breast characteristic clusters...
May 24, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792558/epidemiologic-features-and-intervention-effect-of-fall-injury-among-rural-school-aged-children-in-southwest-china-a-short-term-cohort-study
#14
Xiuquan Shi, Tao Wang, Chan Nie, Haiyan Wang, Lirong Luo, Yonghong Qi, Zhixia Jiang
Falls are the top one type in all unintentional injuries. In this study, we aim to explore the epidemiological characteristics of falls and assess the intervention effect. Our research had interviewed 2854 rural children in southwest China. Then, we used School-Family-Individual (SFI) comprehensive education model to conduct an intervention among 1506 children and follow up them for one year. The changes in injury knowledge and incidence rate before and after intervention were compared. We found the fall injury was 37...
May 24, 2018: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792557/improving-vaccine-related-pain-distress-or-fear-in-healthy-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-search-of-patient-focused-interventions
#15
Vivian Y Lee, Corinne Caillaud, Jacqueline Fong, Kate M Edwards
OBJECTIVE: The WHO recently highlighted the need for research into potential interventions that can be used to mitigate pain during mass vaccinations, in addition to interventions specific for adolescents. The current review examines the literature on potential interventions that can be used during mass vaccination settings in healthy individuals between the ages of 4 and 15 years old. METHODS: Criteria for inclusion were: 1)participants between the ages of 4-15 years, 2)interventions that were patient-focused, 3)vaccinations in healthy individuals, 4)outcome measures to include self-reported pain, fear or distress...
May 24, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792518/it-is-the-family-context-that-matters-concurrent-and-predictive-effects-of-aspects-of-parent-child-interaction-on-video-gaming-related-problems
#16
Angel Yee-Lam Li, Barbara Chuen-Yee Lo, Cecilia Cheng
Studies have shown that children frequently experiencing poor parent-child interaction are prone to video gaming-related problems, but it is unclear which specific aspects of such an interaction play a predictive role in the problems. To extend previous research that relies primarily on the self-report method to assess parent-child interaction, we conducted a longitudinal, mixed-methods study. In a laboratory setting, three major aspects of interaction (i.e., affectivity, cohesiveness, and parental behavior) were observed in 241 parent-child dyads (Children: 43 percent female, age range = 8-15, Mage  = 12...
May 24, 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792491/does-oral-language-underpin-the-development-of-later-behavior-problems-a-longitudinal-meta-analysis
#17
Jason C Chow, Erik Ekholm, Heather Coleman
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to estimate the overall weighted mean effect of the relation between early language skills and later behavior problems in school-aged children. METHOD: A systematic literature search yielded 19,790 unduplicated reports, and a structured search strategy and identification procedure yielded 25 unique data sets, with 114 effect sizes for analysis. Eligible reports were then coded, and effect sizes were extracted and synthesized via robust variance estimation and random-effects meta-analytic techniques...
May 24, 2018: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792487/ethnic-racial-typicality-and-its-relation-to-ethnic-identity-and-psychological-functioning
#18
Lauren L Mitchell, Ummul-Kiram Kathawalla, Alex A Ajayi, Jillian Fish, Sarah C Nelson, Lovey H M Peissig, Moin Syed
OBJECTIVES: Ethnic identity development is considered a central task of adolescence and emerging adulthood for ethnic minority individuals. Although the process of developing a coherent ethnic identity has received attention from researchers, there has been little work done to elucidate the content of ethnic identity. This study uses an inductive mixed-methods approach to address 1 aspect of ethnic identity content: typicality, or the degree of perceived similarity individuals feel to their ethnic-racial group...
May 24, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792485/telephone-assisted-parent-mediated-cbt-for-rural-latino-youth-with-anxiety-a-feasibility-trial
#19
Denise A Chavira, Cristina Bustos, Maritza Garcia, Francisco Reinosa Segovia, Afshan Baig, Bernardo Ng, Alvaro Camacho
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we tailor a child anxiety cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) program to fit the needs of rural Latino/a Spanish-speaking families and examine the feasibility, acceptability, tolerability, and safety of this intervention using 2 modes of service delivery. METHOD: Children (n = 31; age 8-13) with anxiety disorders were recruited from primary care settings and randomized to 1 of 2 modes of parent-mediated CBT bibliotherapy: (1) telephone-delivered, therapist-assisted bibliotherapy (TTB; n = 15), and (2) a more minimal contact, self-directed, bibliotherapy condition (SB; n = 16)...
May 24, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792479/-fewer-but-not-weaker-understanding-the-intersectional-identities-among-chinese-immigrant-young-gay-men-in-toronto
#20
Yu-Te Huang, Lin Fang
Sexual minorities of color in North America are frequently defined as a "double minority" group. Intersectionality theory has inspired investigations into how different forms of marginalization intersect to shape the lives of people with multiple minority statuses. In this constructivist grounded theory study, 18 Chinese immigrant gay men between 18 and 28 years of age participated in a semistructured individual interview to narrate their lived experiences in relation to their intersectional identities...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
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