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María Del Pino, Amado Andrés, Ana Ávila Bernabéu, Joaquín de Juan-Rivera, Elvira Fernández, Juan de Dios García Díaz, Domingo Hernández, José Luño, Isabel Martínez Fernández, José Paniagua, Manuel Posada de la Paz, José Carlos Rodríguez-Pérez, Rafael Santamaría, Roser Torra, Joan Torras Ambros, Pedro Vidau, Josep-Vicent Torregrosa
Fabry disease (FD) is a rare, X-linked disorder caused by mutations in the GLA gene encoding the enzyme α-galactosidase A. Complete or partial deficiency in this enzyme leads to intracellular accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and other glycosphingolipids in many cell types throughout the body, including the kidney. Progressive accumulation of Gb3 in podocytes, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, and tubular cells contribute to the renal symptoms of FD, which manifest as proteinuria and reduced glomerular filtration rate leading to renal insufficiency...
March 16, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Ivan Martinka, Miriam Fulova, Margita Spalekova, Peter Spalek
PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to evaluate changes of epidemiological parameters in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) in Slovakia during the period 1977-2015. METHODS: Data from medical records of MG patients registered in Slovakia were analyzed. Epidemiological rates (incidence, prevalence, mortality) were assessed for several periods to identify changes and drifts over the period of study. RESULTS: Out of 2,074 patients, 892 were males (43...
March 20, 2018: Neuroepidemiology
Vanesa Bellou, Lazaros Belbasis, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Evangelos Evangelou
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global epidemic associated with increased health expenditure, and low quality of life. Many non-genetic risk factors have been suggested, but their overall epidemiological credibility has not been assessed. METHODS: We searched PubMed to capture all meta-analyses and Mendelian randomization studies for risk factors of T2DM. For each association, we estimated the summary effect size, its 95% confidence and prediction interval, and the I2 metric...
2018: PloS One
Michael Leung, Nandita Perumal, Elnathan Mesfin, Aditi Krishna, Seungmi Yang, William Johnson, Diego G Bassani, Daniel E Roth
Metrics to quantify child growth vary across studies of the developmental origins of health and disease. We conducted a scoping review of child growth studies in which length/height, weight or body mass index (BMI) was measured at ≥ 2 time points. From a 10% random sample of eligible studies published between Jan 2010-Jun 2016, and all eligible studies from Oct 2015-June 2016, we classified growth metrics based on author-assigned labels (e.g., 'weight gain') and a 'content signature', a numeric code that summarized the metric's conceptual and statistical properties...
2018: PloS One
Xingyu Zhang, Di Chen, Guifeng Xu, Weichun Huang, Xing Wang
Infection by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) is a public health challenge worldwide, in particular among children, which was associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There was limited data in pediatric populations, thus this study aimed to investigate molecular epidemiology and drug resistant mechanism of CR-KP strains from pediatric patients in Shanghai, China. A total of 41 clinical CR-KP isolates from sputum, urine, blood or drainage fluid were collected between July 2014 and May 2015 in Shanghai Children's Medical Center...
2018: PloS One
Mary Freire de Carvalho, Marco A N Vigilato, Julio A Pompei, Felipe Rocha, Alexandra Vokaty, Baldomero Molina Flores, Ottorino Cosivi, Victor J Del Rio Vilas
Through national efforts and regional cooperation under the umbrella of the Regional Program for the Elimination of Rabies, dog and human rabies have decreased significantly in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries over the last three decades. To achieve this decline, LAC countries had to develop national plans, and consolidate capabilities such as regular mass dog vaccination, opportune post-exposure prophylaxis and sensitive surveillance. This paper presents longitudinal data for 21 LAC countries on dog vaccination, PEP and rabies surveillance collected from the biannual regional meeting for rabies directors from 1998-2014 and from the Regional Epidemiologic Surveillance System for Rabies (SIRVERA)...
March 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Rihlat Said-Mohamed, Alessandra Prioreschi, Lukhanyo H Nyati, Alastair van Heerden, Richard J Munthali, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen M Tollman, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Brian Houle, David B Dunger, Shane A Norris
BACKGROUND: The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. AIMS: This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We compared 18-23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province...
March 20, 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Andrea Parraguez Arévalo, Francisco Rojas Navarro, Macarena Ruz Céspedes, Paul Medina González, Máximo Escobar Cabello, Rodrigo Muñoz Cofré
INTRODUCTION: Child and adolescent obesity is an epidemiological problem in developing countries. Its prevalence among preschoolers and schoolchildren is over 30%. It has been associated with a wide range of health complications, including rapid loss of lung function leading to changes in physiology and ventilatory mechanics. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between obesity and the increase in specific airway resistance (sRaw) in a sample of obese children and adolescents from the district of Talca...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Esmeralda Highton, M Guadalupe Pérez, Carola Cedillo Villamagua, María I Sormani, María S Mussini, Adela Isasmendi, José Pinheiró, Vanesa Reijtman, Moira Taicz, Alejandra Mastroianni, María E García, María T Rosanova
INTRODUCTION: Osteoarticular infections are an important cause of morbidity and may present with bacteremia. The epidemiology has changed in recent years. OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiological, clinical, and evolutionary characteristics of children with osteoarticular infections and compare patients with and without bacteremia. POPULATION AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort. Patients younger than 18 years admitted between January 1st, 2016 and December 31st, 2016 suspected of osteoarticular infections who had undergone an arthrocentesis and/or joint biopsy were included...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Gabriela Ensinck, Adriana Ernst, Gustavo Lazarte, Antonela Romagnoli, Yanina Sguassero, Nanci Míguez, Santiago López Papucci, Alicia Aletti, Ana Chiossone, Fernanda Pigozzi, Matías Pinotti, Ana Cantador
INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are a common reason for consultation in pediatrics. Most of them present as skin and soft tissue infections; however, invasive infections have increased during the last decade. OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to describe the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of CA-MRSA infections. The secondary objective was to compare prevalence, clinical presentation and antibiotic susceptibility with a pre-study period (1/2004-12/2007)...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Ana M Lenz, Elena Andion, Silvina Ruvinsky, Clarisa Aguirre, Julieta Alvarez Parma, Facundo Jorro, Gabriela López Cruz, Martín Pascutto, Matías Penazzi, Silvia Santos, Marcela Zuázaga, Norma Aquino, Juan C Vassallo, Guillermo Moreno, Ricardo Magliola, Aldo Haimovich, Luis Landry, Rosa Bologna
INTRODUCTION: Catheter-related infections (CRIs) cause a high level of morbidity and mortality with the increasing use of hospital resources. OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcomes of a program implemented to reduce the rate of CRIs in pediatric intensive care units in Argentina. POPULATION AND METHODS: Collaborative, multi center, clinical-epidemiological, quasiexperimental, before-and-after intervention study. Children who had a central venous catheter during hospitalization in 9 pediatric intensive care units in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, Greater Buenos Aires, and other provinces between June 2011 and April 2012 were included...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Tchin Darré, Bayaki Saka, Abas Mouhari-Toure, Mazamaesso Tchaou, Améyo Monique Dorkenoo, Kwamé Doh, Atchi Walla, Koffi Amégbor, Vincent Palokinam Pitché, Gado Napo-Koura
BACKGROUND: Mycetoma is a chronic inflammatory process caused either by fungi (eumycetoma) or bacteria (actinomycetoma). In this retrospective study, we report epidemiologic and histopathological data of mycetoma observed in the Lome Hospital, Togo in a 25-year period (1992-2016). METHODOLOGY: This is a retrospective study, over a period of 25 years, to analyze epidemiological and etiological findings of mycetomas seen in the single laboratory of pathological anatomy of the Lomé, Togo...
March 20, 2018: Mycopathologia
Rena Kaneko, Yuzuru Sato, Yasuki Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer that is difficult to diagnose and has a poor prognosis. Currently, knowledge concerning its etiology, tumor localization, and pathological features remains limited. The present study aimed to clarify the clinico-epidemiologic nature of cholangiocarcinoma with its clinical subtypes using the largest regional cancer registry in Japan. METHODS: Using a regional cancer registry in Kanagawa prefecture, Japan, we estimated three-year and five-year survival rates of cholangiocarcinoma patients, who were classified into two groups: intrahepatic (i-CCA) and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (e-CCA) cases...
March 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Hsin-Hua Li, Chih-Li Lin, Chien-Ning Huang
A growing body of evidence suggests that disruption of the homeostasis of lipid metabolism affects the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis in the brain has been reported to considerably increase the risk of developing AD. Thus, dysregulation of lipid homeostasis may increase the amyloid β (Aβ) levels by affecting amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage, which is the most important risk factor involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Previous research demonstrated that Aβ can trigger neuronal insulin resistance, which plays an important role in response to Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in AD...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Christine F Markwalter, Lauren E Gibson, Lwiindi Mudenda, Danielle W Kimmel, Saidon Mbambara, Philip E Thuma, David W Wright
A rapid, on-bead ELISA for Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase ( p LDH) and Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) was adapted for use with dried blood spot (DBS) samples. This assay detected both biomarkers from a single DBS sample with only 45 minutes of total incubation time and detection limits of 600 ± 500 pM ( p LDH) and 69 ± 30 pM (HRP2), corresponding to 150 and 24 parasites/μL, respectively. This sensitive and reproducible on-bead detection method was used to quantify p LDH and HRP2 in patient DBS samples from rural Zambia collected at multiple time points after treatment...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Richard Wennberg, Carmen Hiploylee, Peter Tai, Charles H Tator
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have suggested that concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is associated with a twofold or greater increase in relative risk for the development of post-traumatic epilepsy. To assess the clinical validity of these findings, we analyzed the incidence of epilepsy in a large cohort of post-concussion patients in whom concussion was strictly defined according to international guidelines. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 330 consecutive post-concussion patients followed by a single concussion specialist...
March 20, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
A J Mercer
The main feature of the epidemiological transition is a shift in the recorded causes of death from infectious diseases to other morbid conditions. This paper outlines modifications made to Omran's original model and stages of transition, and suggests that without a focus on aetiology and morbidity, these have been basically descriptive rather than explanatory, and potentially misleading because infections have been confirmed as causes of various chronic diseases. Common infections and related immune responses or inflammatory processes contribute to the multifactorial aetiology of morbid conditions that together make a substantial contribution to overall mortality, and infectious causation is suspected for many others because of strong evidence of association...
March 20, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Kristen Anzaldi, Kim Shifren
Few published studies exist on how individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) deal with their disease. We conducted this study to examine the relationship between optimism, pessimism, coping strategies, and depressive symptoms in individuals with PD. Specifically, we assessed the possible mediator role of optimism and pessimism on the relation between coping strategies and depressive symptoms in those with PD. Seventy individuals with PD (35 females and 35 males) were assessed with the Brief COPE scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised, and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
Fernanda Nunes, Daniela Pochmann, Amanda Staldoni Almeida, Daniela Melo Marques, Lisiane de Oliveira Porciúncula
Epidemiological studies suggest sex differences in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. The potential benefits of caffeine have been reported in the management of ADHD, but its effects were not properly addressed with respect to sex differences. The present study examined the effects of caffeine (0.3 g/L) administered since childhood in the behavior and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its related proteins in both sexes of a rat model of ADHD (spontaneously hypertensive rats-SHR)...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Zeyan Liew, Houman Goudarzi, Youssef Oulhote
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed and summarized the epidemiological evidence for the influence that pre- and postnatal exposures to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may have on health outcomes in offspring, with a particular focus on birth outcomes and postnatal growth, immunomodulatory effects and neurodevelopment. RECENT FINDINGS: PFASs are persistent organic pollutants that have been widely produced and used in a range of commercial products since the 1950s. Human exposures to PFASs are nearly ubiquitous globally, but studies that addressed potential health effects of PFASs have only begun to accumulate in recent years...
March 19, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
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