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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166638/predictors-of-surgical-outcomes-of-traumatic-peripheral-nerve-injuries-in-children-an-institutional-experience
#1
Bhagavatula Indira Devi, Subhas K Konar, Dhananjaya I Bhat, Dhaval P Shukla, R Bharath, M S Gopalakrishnan
AIM: This study was undertaken to address the epidemiological characteristics, operative details, and surgical outcome of peripheral nerve injuries in children treated in a tertiary hospital in India (NIMHANS, Bangalore). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of epidemiology, operative findings, and surgical outcomes over the period of 2000-2016. Our series includes 102 children with peripheral nerve injuries of various causes. RESULTS: Intramuscular injections were the most common cause (52...
November 23, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166503/stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-epidemiological-and-clinical-outcomes-analysis-in-public-hospitals
#2
Luana Bernardes Arantes, Carmélia Santiago Reis, Alice Garbi Novaes, Marta Rodrigues de Carvalho, Leila Bernarda Donato Göttems, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi Novaes
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions are harmful and involuntary responses to drugs that occur at doses normally used for a given condition. Among them are Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, both rare and potentially fatal conditions. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the epidemiological and clinical characteristics related to patients diagnosed with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in public hospitals in the Federal District - Brazil...
September 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166497/epidemiologic-analysis-of-prevalence-of-the-hyperhidrosis
#3
Fernanda Alvarenga Estevan, Marina Borri Wolosker, Nelson Wolosker, Pedro Puech-Leão
BACKGROUND: The present paper aims to study the prevalence of the various manifestations of hyperhidrosis in patients who sought treatment in a specialized ambulatory in the state of São Paulo. OBJECTIVES: Opposite to previous studies, this paper studies the different combinations of sweating sites, not being restricted to the main complaint site of the patients, but taking into consideration secondary complaints patients may present. METHODS: This was a retrospective approach of a database containing more than 1200 patients in which were mapped: combination of sweating sites, age of onset, age spectrum, mean age, body mass index and gender of patients...
September 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166494/sporotrichosis-an-update-on-epidemiology-etiopathogenesis-laboratory-and-clinical-therapeutics
#4
Rosane Orofino-Costa, Priscila Marques de Macedo, Anderson Messias Rodrigues, Andréa Reis Bernardes-Engemann
In the late 90's there was a change in both the route of transmission and the people at risk for sporotrichosis. This zoonotic cat-man alternative transmission route elicited changes in strategies to control the epidemic. There was a progressive increase in the number of cases involving especially children and the elderly. In addition to becoming hyperendemic, uncommon clinical pictures like immunoreactive clinical presentations or severe systemic cases have emerged. New species were identified and classified through molecular tools using more virulent clinical isolates, like S...
September 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166491/10-th-brazilian-congress-of-epidemiology-building-our-field-with-solidarity
#5
EDITORIAL
Maria Amelia de Sousa Mascena Veras, Antonio Fernando Boing
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166403/integration-of-molecular-typing-results-into-tuberculosis-surveillance-in-germany-a-pilot-study
#6
Marta Andrés, Elke Göhring-Zwacka, Lena Fiebig, Martin Priwitzer, Elvira Richter, Sabine Rüsch-Gerdes, Walter Haas, Stefan Niemann, Bonita Brodhun
An integrated molecular surveillance for tuberculosis (TB) improves the understanding of ongoing TB transmission by combining molecular typing and epidemiological data. However, the implementation of an integrated molecular surveillance for TB is complex and requires thoughtful consideration of feasibility, demand, public health benefits and legal issues. We aimed to pilot the integration of molecular typing results between 2008 and 2010 in the German Federal State of Baden-Württemberg (population 10.88 Million) as preparation for a nationwide implementation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166302/hierarchical-semi-bayes-methods-for-misclassification-in-perinatal-epidemiology
#7
Richard F MacLehose, Lisa M Bodnar, Craig Meyer, Haitao Chu, Timothy L Lash
BACKGROUND: Validation data are used to estimate the extent of misclassification in epidemiologic studies. In the Penn MOMS cohort, prepregnancy BMI is subject to misclassification and validation data are available to estimate the extent of misclassification. We use these data to estimate the association between maternal prepregnancy body mass index and early preterm (<32 weeks) birth using a semi-Bayes hierarchical model allowing for more flexible adjustment for misclassification...
November 18, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166301/can-we-train-machine-learning-methods-to-outperform-the-high-dimensional-propensity-score-algorithm
#8
Mohammad Ehsanul Karim, Menglan Pang, Robert W Platt
The use of retrospective healthcare claims datasets is frequently criticized for the lack of complete information on potential confounders. Utilizing patient's health status-related information from claims datasets as surrogates or proxies for mismeasured and unobserved confounders, the high-dimensional propensity score algorithm enables us to reduce bias. Using a previously published cohort study of post-myocardial infarction statin use (1998 - 2012), we compare the performance of the algorithm with a number of popular machine learning approaches for confounder selection in high-dimensional covariate spaces: random forest, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, and elastic net...
November 18, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166281/epidemiological-study-of-canine-mast-cell-tumours-according-to-the-histological-malignancy-grade
#9
Anna Śmiech, B Ślaska, W Łopuszyński, A Jasik, M Szczepanik, P Wilkołek
The aim of the study was to identify significant relationships between the tumour malignancy grade and dogs' age, breed, sex, size, and location of mast cell tumours (MCTs). MCTs accounted for 13.27% of all diagnosed canine skin tumours. The highest incidence was recorded among Boxers, Labrador Retrievers, American Staffordshire Terriers, and Golden Retrievers. Statistical analysis revealed significantly higher probability of occurrence of the grade I mast cell tumour in the French Bulldog in the head, neck, torso, and limb regions, the grade-II mast cell tumour in Boxer, Doberman, Dachshund, shepherds, and setters in the scrotal region, and the grade III mast cell tumour in Shar-Pei in the axilla region...
September 26, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165706/cholera-epidemics-of-the-past-offer-new-insights-into-an-old-enemy
#10
Matthew Phelps, Mads Linnet Perner, Virginia E Pitzer, Viggo Andreasen, Peter K M Jensen, Lone Simonsen
Background: Although cholera is considered the quintessential long-cycle waterborne disease, studies have emphasized the existence of short-cycle (food, household) transmission. We investigated singular Danish cholera epidemics (1853) to elucidate epidemiological parameters and modes of spread. Methods: Using time series data from cities with different water systems, we estimated the intrinsic transmissibility (R0). Accessing cause-specific mortality data we studied clinical severity, age-specific impact...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165673/molecular-identification-of-trichophyton-benhamiae-in-strasbourg-france-a-9-year-retrospective-study
#11
Marcela Sabou, Julie Denis, Nathalie Boulanger, Faezeh Forouzanfar, Isabelle Glatz, Dan Lipsker, Philippe Poirier, Ermanno Candolfi, Valérie Letscher-Bru
Trichophyton benhamiae is a zoophilic dermatophyte transmitted to humans mostly from guinea pigs and occasionally other animals. It presents two distinct phenotypes: yellow and white. T. benhamiae was formerly known as Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae; it was considered part of the T. mentagrophytes species complex, and some authors have incorrectly described the yellow phenotype of T. benhamiae as T. mentagrophytes var. porcellae. Identification of T. benhamiae has been difficult, as it was described under more than three names, two phenotypes, and in several different possible host species...
November 17, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165631/instrumental-variables-estimation-under-a-structural-cox-model
#12
Torben Martinussen, Ditte Nørbo Sørensen, Stijn Vansteelandt
Instrumental variable (IV) analysis is an increasingly popular tool for inferring the effect of an exposure on an outcome, as witnessed by the growing number of IV applications in epidemiology, for instance. The majority of IV analyses of time-to-event endpoints are, however, dominated by heuristic approaches. More rigorous proposals have either sidestepped the Cox model, or considered it within a restrictive context with dichotomous exposure and instrument, amongst other limitations. The aim of this article is to reconsider IV estimation under a structural Cox model, allowing for arbitrary exposure and instruments...
November 20, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165613/exposure-to-concentrated-ambient-pm2-5-compromises-spermatogenesis-in-a-mouse-model-role-of-suppression-of-hypothalamus-pituitary-gonads-axis
#13
Lianglin Qiu, Minjie Chen, Xiaoke Wang, Xiaobo Qin, Sufang Chen, Yingyun Qian, Zhenzhen Liu, Qi Cao, Zhekang Ying
Background: Epidemiological studies link ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution to abnormalities in the male reproductive system. However, few toxicological studies have investigated this potentially important adverse effect of PM2.5 pollution. Therefore, in the present study, we analyzed the effects of PM2.5 exposure on spermatogenesis and hypothalamic-pituitary- gonadal (HPG) axis in a murine model. Methods: Fourteen male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a 4-month exposure to filtered air (FA) or concentrated ambient PM2...
November 20, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165604/carbapenemase-producing-organisms-a-global-scourge
#14
Robert A Bonomo, Eileen M Burd, John Conly, Brandi M Limbago, Laurent Poirel, Julie A Segre, Lars F Westblade
The dramatic increase in the prevalence and clinical impact of infections caused by bacteria producing carbapenemases is a global health concern. Carbapenemase production is especially problematic when encountered in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Due to their ability to readily spread and colonize patients in health care environments, preventing the transmission of these organisms is a major public health initiative and coordinated international effort is needed to contain the risk of infection...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165596/molecular-relatedness-of-esbl-ampc-producing-escherichia-coli-from-humans-animals-food-and-the-environment-a-pooled-analysis
#15
Alejandro Dorado-García, Joost H Smid, Wilfrid van Pelt, Marc J M Bonten, Ad C Fluit, Gerrita van den Bunt, Jaap A Wagenaar, Joost Hordijk, Cindy M Dierikx, Kees T Veldman, Aline de Koeijer, Wietske Dohmen, Heike Schmitt, Apostolos Liakopoulos, Ewa Pacholewicz, Theo J G M Lam, Annet G Velthuis, Annet Heuvelink, Maaike A Gonggrijp, Engeline van Duijkeren, Angela H A M van Hoek, Ana Maria de Roda Husman, Hetty Blaak, Arie H Havelaar, Dik J Mevius, Dick J J Heederik
Background: In recent years, ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL/AmpC-EC) have been isolated with increasing frequency from animals, food, environmental sources and humans. With incomplete and scattered evidence, the contribution to the human carriage burden from these reservoirs remains unclear. Objectives: To quantify molecular similarities between different reservoirs as a first step towards risk attribution. Methods: Pooled data on ESBL/AmpC-EC isolates were recovered from 35 studies in the Netherlands comprising >27 000 samples, mostly obtained between 2005 and 2015...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165572/principled-approaches-to-missing-data-in-epidemiologic-studies
#16
Neil J Perkins, Stephen R Cole, Ofer Harel, Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen, BaoLuo Sun, Emily M Mitchell, Enrique F Schisterman
Principled methods to appropriately analyze missing data have long existed; however, broad implementation of these methods remains challenging. In this and companion papers, we discuss issues of missing data in the epidemiologic literature. We provide details regarding missing data mechanisms and nomenclature and motivate principled analyses through a detailed comparison of multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting. We do so in the setting of a masked data-analytic challenge with missing data induced by known mechanisms to data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a multisite US study conducted from 1959 to 1974...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165557/inverse-probability-weighted-estimation-for-monotone-and-nonmonotone-missing-data
#17
BaoLuo Sun, Neil J Perkins, Stephen R Cole, Ofer Harel, Emily Mitchell, Enrique F Schisterman, Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen
Missing data is of common occurrence in epidemiologic research. In this paper, three data sets with induced missing values from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a multisite United States study conducted from 1959 to 1974, are provided as examples of prototypical epidemiologic studies with missing data. Our goal is to estimate the effect of maternal smoking behavior on spontaneous abortion while adjusting for numerous confounders. At the same time, we do not necessarily wish to evaluate the joint distribution among potentially unobserved covariates, which is seldom the subject of substantive scientific interest...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165547/multiple-imputation-for-incomplete-data-in-epidemiologic-studies
#18
Ofer Harel, Emily M Mitchell, Neil J Perkins, Stephen R Cole, Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen, BaoLuo Sun, Enrique F Schisterman
Epidemiologic studies are frequently susceptible to missing information. Omitting observations with missing variables remains a common strategy in epidemiologic studies, yet this simple approach can often severely bias parameter estimates of interest if the values are not missing completely at random. Even when missingness is completely random, complete case analysis can reduce efficiency of estimated parameters, because large amounts of available data are simply tossed out with the incomplete observations...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165526/-epidemiological-characteristics-of-hiv-infection-in-paraguay-during-2015
#19
Gloria Aguilar, Carlos Miguel Ríos-González, Tania Samudio, Aníbal Kawabata
To characterize the epidemiology of HIV in Paraguay, from january to december, in 2015. The epidemic remains focused in those groups under risk, predominantly male. The characteristics of the study population shows that most of the affected were from the central area and from the capital city, and sexual transmission remains the most common pathway, with delayed diagnosis, which is reflected by the percentage of people presenting a low CD4 cell count.
August 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165515/-statement-of-the-advisory-committee-on-immunizations-of-sociedad-chilena-de-infectolog%C3%A3-a-about-outbreaks-of-hepatitis-a-in-chile
#20
Rodolfo Villena, Jan Wilhelm, Ximena Calvo, Jaime Cerda, Carola Escobar, Gabriela Moreno, Liliana Veliz, Marcela Potin
This document represents the position of the Chilean Infectious Diseases Society Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices regarding hepatitis A epidemiological situation in Chile. The recommendations are based on local epidemiological data, the hepatitis A virus infection characteristics and the global experience with the available vaccines. In relation to hepatitis A, Chile is no longer a highly endemic area but actually an intermediate one, currently concentrating cases in individuals over 15 years of age, with frequent outbreaks...
August 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
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