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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813761/epidemiologic-study-of-bacteria-zoonotic-diseases-in-south-dakota-2010-2014
#1
Jessica L Ludvik, Susan M Anderson, Mark K Huntington
BACKGROUND: Although the burden of infectious diseases has decreased dramatically due to advances in health care, disease prevention and numerous public health efforts and innovations, zoonotic diseases continue to pose a problem in terms of both existing and emerging diseases. These risks are of particular concern in rural areas, in which there is more contact with animals for occupational and recreational purposes. As a rural and agricultural state, South Dakota has a large percentage of its population at risk of exposure to zoonotic diseases through their substantial contact time with animals...
June 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813716/no-correlation-of-the-disease-severity-of-influenza-a-virus-infection-with-the-rs12252-polymorphism-of-the-interferon-induced-transmembrane-protein-3-gene
#2
Yong-Chan Kim, Byung-Hoon Jeong
The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, which involved a more pathogenic virus than seasonal influenza viruses, rapidly spread around the world and caused many deaths in humans. The members of the interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) protein family prevent viral replication and are crucial for defending the host cell against influenza A virus (IAV). Several studies suggest that the CC genotype at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs12252 of IFITM3 confers a genetic predisposition to pandemic influenza A in Europeans and Han Chinese, although one study in a British cohort failed to show an association...
August 17, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813690/deep-coal-mining-and-meningococcal-meningitis-in-england-and-wales-1931-38-ecological-study-with-implications-for-deep-shaft-mining-activities-worldwide
#3
Matthew R Smallman-Raynor, Andrew D Cliff
The hypothesized role of deep coal mining in the development of community-based outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis has gone largely unexplored. Taking the coalfields of Britain as a historical testbed, techniques of linear and binomial logistic regression were used to assess the association between meningococcal meningitis rates and male occupation rates for coal mining in England and Wales during the national epidemic of 1931-32 and in its aftermath. Adjusting for the epidemiological effects of age, residential density, recent changes in the number of families, housing stock and low social class, the analysis yielded evidence of a significant and positive association between coal mining occupation rates and notified levels of meningitis activity in the epidemic period...
August 13, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813531/short-term-leprosy-forecasting-from-an-expert-opinion-survey
#4
Michael S Deiner, Lee Worden, Alex Rittel, Sarah F Ackley, Fengchen Liu, Laura Blum, James C Scott, Thomas M Lietman, Travis C Porco
We conducted an expert survey of leprosy (Hansen's Disease) and neglected tropical disease experts in February 2016. Experts were asked to forecast the next year of reported cases for the world, for the top three countries, and for selected states and territories of India. A total of 103 respondents answered at least one forecasting question. We elicited lower and upper confidence bounds. Comparing these results to regression and exponential smoothing, we found no evidence that any forecasting method outperformed the others...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813514/the-helicobacter-pylori-type-iv-secretion-system-promotes-il-8-synthesis-in-a-model-of-pediatric-airway-epithelium-via-p38-map-kinase
#5
Myra G Dela Pena-Ponce, Monica T Jimenez, Lori M Hansen, Jay V Solnick, Lisa A Miller
Epidemiologic studies have reported an inverse relationship between childhood Helicobacter pylori infection and development of allergic asthma. Because lung epithelium plays an important role in allergic asthma pathogenesis, we hypothesized that H. pylori may directly influence airway epithelial cell innate immune function, particularly in early childhood. To test our hypothesis, we established an in vitro H. pylori infection model using primary tracheobronchial epithelial cell cultures derived from infant, juvenile and adult rhesus monkeys...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813461/epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-in-infants-in-oxfordshire-uk-risk-factors-for-colonization-and-carriage-and-genetic-overlap-with-regional-c-difficile-infection-strains
#6
Nicole Stoesser, David W Eyre, T Phuong Quan, Heather Godwin, Gemma Pill, Emily Mbuvi, Alison Vaughan, David Griffiths, Jessica Martin, Warren Fawley, Kate E Dingle, Sarah Oakley, Kazimierz Wanelik, John M Finney, Melina Kachrimanidou, Catrin E Moore, Sherwood Gorbach, Thomas V Riley, Derrick W Crook, Tim E A Peto, Mark H Wilcox, A Sarah Walker
BACKGROUND: Approximately 30-40% of children <1 year of age are Clostridium difficile colonized, and may represent a reservoir for adult C. difficile infections (CDI). Risk factors for colonization with toxigenic versus non-toxigenic C. difficile strains and longitudinal acquisition dynamics in infants remain incompletely characterized. METHODS: Predominantly healthy infants (≤2 years) were recruited in Oxfordshire, UK, and provided ≥1 fecal samples. Independent risk factors for toxigenic/non-toxigenic C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813451/schistosoma-mansoni-reinfection-analysis-of-risk-factors-by-classification-and-regression-tree-cart-modeling
#7
Andréa Gazzinelli, Roberta Oliveira-Prado, Leonardo Ferreira Matoso, Bráulio M Veloso, Gisele Andrade, Helmut Kloos, Jeffrey M Bethony, Renato M Assunção, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira
Praziquantel (PZQ) is an effective chemotherapy for schistosomiasis mansoni and a mainstay for its control and potential elimination. However, it does not prevent against reinfection, which can occur rapidly in areas with active transmission. A guide to ranking the risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni reinfection would greatly contribute to prioritizing resources and focusing prevention and control measures to prevent rapid reinfection. The objective of the current study was to explore the relationship among the socioeconomic, demographic, and epidemiological factors that can influence reinfection by S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813443/monitoring-of-schmallenberg-virus-in-spanish-wild-artiodactyls-2006-2015
#8
Ignacio García-Bocanegra, David Cano-Terriza, Gema Vidal, Rosa Rosell, Jorge Paniagua, Saúl Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos Expósito, Antonio Rivero-Juarez, Antonio Arenas, Joan Pujols
Schmallenberg disease is an emerging disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants in Europe. An epidemiological survey was carried out to assess exposure to Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in wild artiodactyls in Spain between 2006 and 2015. A total of 1751 sera from wild artiodactyls, including 1066 red deer, 304 fallow deer, 192 mouflon, 109 wild boar, 49 roe deer and 31 Spanish ibex were tested for antibodies against SBV by ELISA and confirmed by virus neutralization test. SBV was not detected between the 2006/2007 and the 2010/2011 hunting seasons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813340/athletes-with-eating-disorder-symptomatology-a-specific-population-with-specific-needs
#9
REVIEW
A P Karin de Bruin
This review presents recent studies into the prevalence, process, treatment and prevention of eating disorders in athletes. Most prevalence studies showed that increased risk for athletes exists. Methodological challenges for future prevalence studies concern the choice of methods, measurements, categorization, and sampling. To determine why athletes are at increased risk, more prospective studies using multi-factorial models and multiple risk pathways are needed. Epidemiological risk factor studies, however, do not provide us with a true understanding of the eating disorder process...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813327/recent-developments-in-understanding-ethnocultural-and-race-differences-in-trauma-exposure-and-ptsd
#10
REVIEW
Anu Asnaani, Brittany Hall-Clark
Our understanding of demographic specifications that put certain individuals at greater risk for trauma exposure and subsequent development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has grown significantly over the past few decades. This brief review specifically examines the studies exploring the potential influence of ethnocultural and racial group status on trauma exposure and PTSD, with a focus on findings published recently in the past five years. We first provide a brief review of current epidemiological data examining associations among ethnicity/culture/race and trauma exposure/PTSD...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813268/parents-with-intellectual-disability
#11
REVIEW
Carlo Schuengel, Sabina Kef, Marja W Hodes, Marieke Meppelder
Questions around parents with intellectual disability have changed according to sociocultural shifts in the position and rights of people with intellectual disability. The early research focus on capacity for parenting has given way to a contextual model of parenting and child outcomes, increasingly tested in population-based samples. Epidemiological research shows that contextual variables such as low income, exposure to violence, and poor mental health partly account for negative outcomes. As theoretical models developed for other at risk populations prove increasingly helpful for understanding the challenges of parenting with intellectual disability, it becomes viable to adapt existing evidence-based parenting interventions and test these for this population...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813232/understanding-peripartum-cardiomyopathy
#12
Zoltan Arany
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is the unexplained loss of maternal cardiac systolic function in the period surrounding parturition. PPCM affects women worldwide and is a leading cause of maternal mortality. The cause of PPCM has remained elusive until recently. We review here the epidemiology of PPCM, recent findings that strongly indicate hormonal and genetic contributions to the development of PPCM, and implications for the management of women with PPCM. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine Volume 69 is January 29, 2018...
August 16, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813182/impact-of-selection-bias-on-treatment-effect-size-estimates-in-randomized-trials-of-oral-health-interventions-a-meta-epidemiological-study
#13
H Saltaji, S Armijo-Olivo, G G Cummings, M Amin, B R da Costa, C Flores-Mir
Emerging evidence suggests that design flaws of randomized controlled trials can result in over- or underestimation of the treatment effect size (ES). The objective of this study was to examine associations between treatment ES estimates and adequacy of sequence generation, allocation concealment, and baseline comparability among a sample of oral health randomized controlled trials. For our analysis, we selected all meta-analyses that included a minimum of 5 oral health randomized controlled trials and used continuous outcomes...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813105/a-scientific-survey-on-1550-cases-of-oral-lesions-diagnosed-in-a-brazilian-referral-center
#14
Artur C Vasconcelos, Carlos Aburad, Igor F P Lima, Sheila M M Santos, Silas Antonio J DE Freitas, Ademir Franco, Sigmar M Rode, Luiz R Paranhos
The present study aimed to perform an epidemiological survey on the prevalence rate of oral lesions diagnosed in a referral center in Brazil and to establish association between the lesions and the age and gender of the affected patients. This analytical observational study analyzed 3521 medical records of anatomopathological exams of the Pathological Anatomy and Cytopathology Laboratory of the Cancer Hospital of the state of Mato Grosso (Brazil), from December 2011 to September 2015. A total of 1550 relevant medical records was detected...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813081/epidemiological-and-clinical-factors-impact-on-the-benefit-of-riluzole-in-the-survival-rates-of-patients-with-als
#15
Francis Meire Fávero, Mariana Callil Voos, Isac de Castro, Fátima Aparecida Caromano, Acary Souza Bulle Oliveira
Objective: To investigate the impact of epidemiological and clinical factors on the benefit of riluzole in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: The survival rate of 578 patients with ALS (1999-2011) was analyzed by descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier curves. Considering the median of the sample survival time (19 months), patients were divided in two groups: below (B19) and above the median (A19). Kaplan-Meier curves compared the survival rates of patients treated with riluzole and with patients who did not take the medication...
August 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812915/kardiovize-brno-2030-a-prospective-cardiovascular-health-study-in-central-europe-methods-baseline-findings-and-future-directions
#16
Narine K Movsisyan, Manlio Vinciguerra, Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, Šárka Kunzová, Martin Homolka, Jana Jaresova, Renata Cífková, Ondřej Sochor
Background Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in Eastern and Central Europe, where the incidence is the highest in the world. The Kardiovize Brno 2030 study was designed as a prospective cohort study to investigate the complex relationships of cardiovascular disease and outcomes with a range of biological, psychosocial, environmental, behavioral, and economic factors in an urban population of the Czech Republic. Methods We randomly selected a 1% sample of the city of Brno residents aged 25-64 years stratified by sex and age...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812707/the-rise-and-fall-of-malaria-under-land-use-change-in-frontier-regions
#17
Andres Baeza, Mauricio Santos-Vega, Andrew P Dobson, Mercedes Pascual
Land-use change is the main force behind ecological and social change in many countries around the globe; it is primarily driven by resource needs and external economic incentives. Concomitantly, transformations of the land are the main drivers for the emergence and re-emergence of malaria. An understanding of malaria population dynamics in transforming landscapes is lacking, despite its relevance for developmental and public health policies. We develop a mathematical model that couples malaria epidemiology with the socio-economic and demographic processes that occur in a landscape undergoing land-use change...
March 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812540/quantifying-transmission
#18
Mark Woolhouse
Transmissibility is the defining characteristic of infectious diseases. Quantifying transmission matters for understanding infectious disease epidemiology and designing evidence-based disease control programs. Tracing individual transmission events can be achieved by epidemiological investigation coupled with pathogen typing or genome sequencing. Individual infectiousness can be estimated by measuring pathogen loads, but few studies have directly estimated the ability of infected hosts to transmit to uninfected hosts...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812422/novel-influenza-d-virus-epidemiology-pathology-evolution-and-biological-characteristics
#19
Shuo Su, Xinliang Fu, Gairu Li, Fiona Kerlin, Michael Veit
In 2011, a new virus was isolated from pigs with influenza-like symptoms and subsequently also from cattle, which are the main reservoir of the virus. It is similar to Influenza C virus (ICV), a (predominantly) human pathogen, causing respiratory disease in children. Since the virus is unable to reassort with ICV (and based on a number of other criteria as discussed in the text) it is now officially named as Influenzavirus D (IDV), a new genus of the Orthomyxoviridae. We summarize the epidemiology, pathology and evolution of IDV and its biological characteristics with emphasis on the only glycoprotein HEF...
August 16, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812287/racial-discrimination-and-mental-health-in-the-usa-testing-the-reverse-racism-hypothesis
#20
Bongki Woo
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined whether the health disadvantages consequent of racial discrimination experienced by four racial/ethnic minority groups are equivalent with that of the dominant racial group. METHOD: Data was derived from the 2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression and heterogeneous choice models were used to test the moderating role of race/ethnicity in regards to the associations between racial discrimination and ten DSM-V diagnoses...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
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