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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918539/accelerating-vaccine-development-during-the-2013-2016-west-african-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak
#1
Elizabeth S Higgs, Sheri A Dubey, Beth A G Coller, Jakub K Simon, Laura Bollinger, Robert A Sorenson, Barthalomew Wilson, Martha C Nason, Lisa E Hensley
The Ebola virus disease outbreak that began in Western Africa in December 2013 was unprecedented in both scope and spread, and the global response was slower and less coherent than was optimal given the scale and pace of the epidemic. Past experience with limited localized outbreaks, lack of licensed medical countermeasures, reluctance by first responders to direct scarce resources to clinical research, community resistance to outside interventions, and lack of local infrastructure were among the factors delaying clinical research during the outbreak...
September 17, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918478/an-ibero-american-inter-laboratory-trial-to-evaluate-serological-tests-for-the-detection-of-anti-neospora-caninum-antibodies-in-cattle
#2
Lucía M Campero, Javier Moreno-Gonzalo, María C Venturini, Gastón Moré, Andrea Dellarupe, Magdalena Rambeaud, Ignacio E Echaide, Beatriz Valentini, Carlos M Campero, Dadín P Moore, Dora B Cano, Marcelo Fort, Rinaldo A Mota, Marcos E Serrano-Martínez, Carlos Cruz-Vázquez, Luis M Ortega-Mora, Gema Álvarez-García
We carried out an inter-laboratory trial to compare the serological tests commonly used for the detection of specific Neospora caninum antibodies in cattle in Ibero-American countries. A total of eight laboratories participated from the following countries: Argentina (n = 4), Brazil (n = 1), Peru (n = 1), Mexico (n = 1), and Spain (n = 1). A blind panel of well-characterized cattle sera (n = 143) and sera representative of the target population (n = 351) was tested by seven in-house indirect fluorescent antibody tests (IFATs 1-7) and three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs 1-3; two in-house and one commercial)...
September 16, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918448/a-systematic-review-of-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-screening-interventions-for-assessing-the-risk-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-women-considering-combined-oral-contraceptives
#3
REVIEW
Zanfina Ademi, C Simone Sutherland, Joris Van Stiphout, Jöelle Michaud, Goranka Tanackovic, Matthias Schwenkglenks
Use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) by women increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which can have a major impact on an individuals' quality of life. VTE is also associated with an increase in healthcare costs. Our aim was to systematically review cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) considering any screening for risk of VTE in women using COCs. The quality of reporting in each study was assessed, a summary of results was prepared, and the key drivers of cost effectiveness in each of the eligible CEAs were identified...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918419/-about-the-association-between-antipsychotic-medication-and-cardiovascular-morbidity-epidemiology-and-possible-background-mechanisms
#4
Gabor Gaszner, Gabor Barna, Peter Dome
The history of antipsychotics began with the discovery of chlorpromazine in the 1950s. Since then this group of medications has become one of the most important element of the armamentarium of psychopharmacology. While initially these pharmacons were used in the treatment of psychotic states (including psychotic mania) in the last approximately 10-15 years new indications - such as treatment of depressive, manic and mixed states and also mood-stabilization in bipolar disorder and also the treatment of major depressive disorder - for several second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) agents have been introduced...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918351/susceptibility-profiles-of-bacteria-causing-urinary-tract-infection-in-southern-tunisia
#5
Sonda Guermazi-Toumi, Sirine Boujlel, Mouna Assoudi, Riadh Issaoui, Sonia Tlili, Mohamed Ennaceur Hlaiem
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological profile and the antibiotic resistance of bacteria responsible for urinary infections diagnosed in the department of microbiology of the regional hospital Houcine Bouzaiene (Gafsa) in the south west of Tunisia. METHODS: All the cytobacteriological urine samples analyzed from 1 January 2015 to 30 June 2016 were included in the study. The adopted criteria to define urinary infection were: leukocyturia >10(4)/ml and bacteriuria >10(5)CFU/ml...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918344/accesses-for-alcohol-intoxication-to-the-emergency-department-and-the-risk-of-re-hospitalization-an-observational-retrospective-study
#6
Maurizio Baldassarre, Fabio Caputo, Raimondo Maria Pavarin, Matteo Massimo Bossi, Maria Elena Bonavita, Paolo Caraceni, Alice Grignaschi, Mimosa Balloni, Mario Cavazza, Mauro Bernardi, Marco Domenicali
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are a frequent cause of admission to emergency departments (EDs) for acute alcohol intoxication (AAI). Patients with AUD present a higher risk of readmission to EDs for AAI than the general population, however, the distinction between sporadic AAI and AAI in the context of AUD in the ED setting is difficult. AIMS: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of patients admitted to EDs because of AAI and to identify factors associated with repeated admissions in order to develop a risk stratification system for patients with AUD based on objective data that can be easily applied in an ED setting...
September 1, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918303/decoding-noises-in-hiv-computational-genotyping
#7
MingRui Jia, Timothy Shaw, Xing Zhang, Dong Liu, Ye Shen, Amara E Ezeamama, Chunfu Yang, Ming Zhang
Lack of a consistent and reliable genotyping system can critically impede HIV genomic research on pathogenesis, fitness, virulence, drug resistance, and genomic-based healthcare and treatment. At present, mis-genotyping, i.e., background noises in molecular genotyping, and its impact on epidemic surveillance is unknown. For the first time, we present a comprehensive assessment of HIV genotyping quality. HIV sequence data were retrieved from worldwide published records, and subjected to a systematic genotyping assessment pipeline...
September 14, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918277/lead-isotopic-fingerprint-in-human-scalp-hair-the-case-study-of-iglesias-mining-district-sardinia-italy
#8
D Varrica, G Dongarrà, M G Alaimo, F Monna, R Losno, E Sanna, G De Giudici, E Tamburo
The Sulcis-Iglesiente district (SW Sardinia, Italy) has been, until recently, one of the most important Italian polymetallic mining areas for the extraction of lead. Epidemiological studies conducted over several decades have indicated this site at high risk of environmental crisis with possible adverse effects on the public health. In the present paper we discuss Pb isotope signatures in human scalp hair and road dust collected from the Sulcis-Iglesiente area in order to trace the exposure of populations to potential Pb sources...
September 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918194/cleaning-and-asthma-a-systematic-review-and-approach-for-effective-safety-assessment
#9
Melissa J Vincent, Ann Parker, Andrew Maier
Research indicates a correlative relationship between asthma and use of consumer cleaning products. We conduct a systematic review of epidemiological literature on persons who use or are exposed to cleaning products, both in occupational and domestic settings, and risk of asthma or asthma-like symptoms to improve understanding of the causal relationship between exposure and asthma. A scoring method for assessing study reliability is presented. Although research indicates an association between asthma and the use of cleaning products, no study robustly investigates exposure to cleaning products or ingredients along with asthma risk...
September 13, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918144/short-communication-molecular-epidemiology-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-differs-between-countries
#10
J Reyes, M Chaffer, Juan Carlos Rodriguez-Lecompte, Javier Sánchez, Ruth N Zadoks, Natasha Robinson, Ximena Cardona, N Ramírez, G P Keefe
Group B Streptococcus or Streptococcus agalactiae continue to be challenging for milk quality programs in countries with emerging dairy industries, such as Colombia, where high prevalence has been reported. Molecular typing of isolates is needed to understand the variability and epidemiology of this pathogen and to develop effective control and eradication programs. We characterized the molecular profile of Strep. agalactiae isolated from cows with subclinical mastitis in 21 Colombian dairy herds and measured diversity within and between herds using multilocus sequence typing...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918127/clinical-laboratory-and-virological-data-from-suspected-zikv-patients-in-an-endemic-arbovirus-area
#11
Tatiana Elias Colombo, Cássia Fernanda Estofolete, Andréia Francesli Negri Reis, Natal Santos da Silva, Morgana Lima Aguiar, Eliana Márcia Sotello Cabrera, Izalco Nuremberg Penha Dos Santos, Fabiana Rodrigues Costa, Lilian Elisa Arão Antônio Cruz, Patrícia Lopes Rombola, Ana Carolina Bernardes Terzian, Maurício Lacerda Nogueira
BACKGROUND: The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) presents new challenges to both clinicians and public health authorities. Overlapping clinical features between the diseases caused by ZIKV, dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) and the lack of validated serological assays for ZIKV make accurate diagnosis difficult. Brazilian authorities largely rely on clinical and epidemiological data for the epidemiological and clinical classifications of most ZIKV cases. OBJECTIVE: To report the laboratory and clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with Zika fever based only on clinical and epidemiological data...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918076/simultaneous-detection-of-wheat-dwarf-virus-northern-cereal-mosaic-virus-barley-yellow-striate-mosaic-virus-and-rice-black-streaked-dwarf-virus-in-wheat-by-multiplex-rt-pcr
#12
Peipei Zhang, Yan Liu, Wenwen Liu, Sebastien Massart, Xifeng Wang
Wheat dwarf virus (WDV), barley yellow striate mosaic virus (BYSMV), rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and northern cereal mosaic virus (NCMV) are four viruses infecting wheat and causing similar symptoms. In this paper, a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (m-RT-PCR) method has been developed for the simultaneous detection and discrimination of these viruses. The protocol uses specific primer set for each virus and produces four distinct fragments (273, 565, 783 and 1296bp), detecting the presence of RBSDV, BYSMV, WDV and NCMV, respectively...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917957/betty-kirkwood-trailblazer-in-global-health-epidemiology
#13
Richard Lane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917679/epidemiology-of-left-ventricular-systolic%C3%A2-dysfunction-and-heart-failure-in%C3%A2-the-framingham-study-an-echocardiographic-study-over-3-decades
#14
Ramachandran S Vasan, Vanessa Xanthakis, Asya Lyass, Charlotte Andersson, Connie Tsao, Susan Cheng, Jayashri Aragam, Emelia J Benjamin, Martin G Larson
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe the temporal trends in prevalence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) in individuals without and with heart failure (HF) in the community over a 3-decade period of observation. BACKGROUND: Temporal trends in the prevalence and management of major risk factors may affect the epidemiology of HF. METHODS: We compared the frequency, correlates, and prognosis of LVSD (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] <50%) among Framingham Study participants without and with clinical HF in 3 decades (1985 to 1994, 1995 to 2004, and 2005 to 2014)...
September 9, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917451/postinflammatory-hyperpigmentation-a-comprehensive-overview-epidemiology-pathogenesis-clinical-presentation-and-noninvasive-assessment-technique
#15
REVIEW
Narumol Silpa-Archa, Indermeet Kohli, Suteeraporn Chaowattanapanit, Henry W Lim, Iltefat Hamzavi
Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) commonly occurs after various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, especially in dark-skinned individuals. PIH is one of the most common complications of procedures performed using laser and other light sources. The severity of PIH is determined by the inherent skin color, degree and depth of inflammation, degree of dermoepidermal junction disruption, inflammatory conditions, and the stability of melanocytes, leading to epidermal and dermal melanin pigment deposition...
October 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917321/a-panel-of-microsatellite-markers-to-discriminate-and-study-interactions-between-haemonchus-contortus-and-haemonchus-placei
#16
Michelle C Santos, Elizabeth Redman, Mônica R V Amarante, John S Gilleard, Alessandro F T Amarante
Haemonchus contortus and Haemonchus placei are two closely related economically important parasites of ruminants. Their close morphological similarity, common occurrence as co-infections and ability to hybridize makes definitive diagnosis and epidemiological studies in field populations challenging. In this paper, we describe the development of a panel of microsatellite markers that can be used to discriminate and study the genetics of these two parasite species in co-infections and mixed field populations...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917311/a-new-lyophilized-tachyzoite-based-elisa-to-diagnose-besnoitia-spp-infection-in-bovids-and-wild-ruminants-improves-specificity
#17
P García-Lunar, L M Ortega-Mora, G Schares, C Diezma-Díaz, G Álvarez-García
Recent studies have reported that routinely used whole or soluble Besnoitia besnoiti tachyzoite (TZ) extract-based ELISAs potentially give rise to a high number of false-positive results, which may compromise control and the epidemiological studies of bovine besnoitiosis. Thus, western blot (WB) has been recommended as a confirmatory test. In the present study, a new ELISA test that employs lyophilized tachyzoites for the first time (BbSALUVET ELISA 2.0) was developed and validated with cattle sera (n=606) under a worst-case scenario...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917307/evaluation-of-western-blot-elisa-and-latex-agglutination-tests-to-detect-toxoplasma-gondii-serum-antibodies-in-farmed-red-deer
#18
Kandarp Khodidas Patel, Laryssa Howe, Cord Heuer, Geoffery William Asher, Peter Raymond Wilson
Abortion due to Toxoplasma gondii has been suspected in New Zealand farmed red deer. However, knowledge around the epidemiology and prevalence of T. gondii in farmed red deer is limited. The aim of this study was to firstly, assess the sensitivity and specificity of two commercially available assays, ELISA and latex agglutination test (LAT), for use in deer and secondly, to estimate the sero-prevalence of T. gondii in red deer. A total of 252 sera from rising 2-year-old and adult hinds from 17 New Zealand red deer herds at early and late pregnancy scanning and from known aborted and/or non-aborted hinds were tested for the presence of T...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917303/the-evaluation-of-gm6-based-elisa-and-ict-as-diagnostic-methods-on-a-mongolian-farm-with-an-outbreak-of-non-tsetse-transmitted-horse-trypanosomosis
#19
Batdorj Davaasuren, Tovuu Amgalanbaatar, Simon Peter Musinguzi, Keisuke Suganuma, Davaajav Otgonsuren, Ehab Mossaad, Sandagdorj Narantsatsral, Banzragch Battur, Badgar Battsetseg, Xuenan Xuan, Noboru Inoue
Trypanosoma equiperdum, which is the etiological agent of dourine, spreads through sexual intercourse in equines. Dourine (T. equiperdum) has been reported in Mongolia, where it is considered an economically important disease of horses. T. evansi has also been reported in Mongolian domestic animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential application of recombinant T. evansi GM6 (rTeGM6-4r)-based diagnostic methods on a farm with an outbreak of non-tsetse transmitted horse trypanosomosis. Ninety-seven percent homology was found between the amino acid sequences of T...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917302/the-global-seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-among-wild-boars-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Ali Rostami, Seyed Mohammad Riahi, Yadollah Fakhri, Vafa Saber, Hooman Hanifehpour, Soghra Valizadeh, Majid Gholizadeh, Rokhsane Hosseini Pouya, H Ray Gamble
This systematic review and meta-analysis study was performed to evaluate the worldwide seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among wild boar. We searched PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane, Scopus, EBSCOhost and Google Scholar databases for studies reporting T. gondii seroprevalence in wild boars between January 1995 and March 2017. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. We estimated the pooled seroprevalence of T. gondii in wild boars using a random-effects model, and evaluated overall seroprevalence in different geographical areas...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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