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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933493/norovirus-gii-pe-genotype-tracking-a-foodborne-outbreak-on-a-cruise-ship-through-molecular-epidemiology-brazil-2014
#1
Simone Guadagnucci Morillo, Adriana Luchs, Audrey Cilli, Cibele Daniel Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia Compagnoli Carmona, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares Timenetsky
Norovirus (NoV) is recognized as the most common cause of foodborne outbreaks. In 2014, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred on a cruise ship in Brazil, and NoV became the suspected etiology. Here we present the molecular identification of the NoV strains and the use of sequence analysis to determine modes of virus transmission. Food (cream cheese, tuna salad, grilled fish, orange mousse, and vegetables soup) and clinical samples were analyzed by ELISA, conventional RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, and sequencing...
December 8, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933451/association-between-adjuvant-chemotherapy-and-risk-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-elderly-women-diagnosed-with-early-stage-breast-cancer
#2
Shuling Li, Jiannong Liu, Beth A Virnig, Allan J Collins
PURPOSE: We studied elderly Medicare enrollees newly diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer to examine the association between adjuvant chemotherapy and acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: Using the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, we conducted a retrospective cohort study including women diagnosed with stages I-III breast cancer at ages 66-89 years between 1992 and 2007. We performed one-to-one matching on time-dependent propensity score on the day of adjuvant chemotherapy initiation within 6 months after the first cancer-directed surgery based on the estimated probability of chemotherapy initiation at each day for each patient, using a Cox proportional hazards model...
December 8, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933286/viral-infection-in-the-development-and-progression-of-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#3
REVIEW
Steven Nye, Richard J Whitley, Michele Kong
Viral infections are an important cause of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Numerous viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A (H1N1) virus, have been implicated in the progression of pneumonia to ARDS; yet the incidence of progression is unknown. Despite acute and chronic morbidity associated with respiratory viral infections, particularly in "at risk" populations, treatment options are limited. Thus, with few exceptions, care is symptomatic. In addition, mortality rates for viral-related ARDS have yet to be determined...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933049/high-diversity-of-genogroup-i-picobirnaviruses-in-mammals
#4
Patrick C Y Woo, Jade L L Teng, Ru Bai, Annette Y P Wong, Paolo Martelli, Suk-Wai Hui, Alan K L Tsang, Candy C Y Lau, Syed S Ahmed, Cyril C Y Yip, Garnet K Y Choi, Kenneth S M Li, Carol S F Lam, Susanna K P Lau, Kwok-Yung Yuen
In a molecular epidemiology study using 791 fecal samples collected from different terrestrial and marine mammals in Hong Kong, genogroup I picobirnaviruses (PBVs) were positive by RT-PCR targeting the partial RdRp gene in specimens from five cattle, six monkeys, 17 horses, nine pigs, one rabbit, one dog, and 12 California sea lions, with 11, 9, 23, 17, 1, 1, and 15 sequence types in the positive specimens from the corresponding animals, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PBV sequences from each kind of animal were widely distributed in the whole tree with high diversity, sharing 47...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933043/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-flavobacterium-psychrophilum-from-chilean-salmon-farms-and-their-epidemiological-cut-off-values-using-agar-dilution-and-disk-diffusion-methods
#5
Claudio D Miranda, Peter Smith, Rodrigo Rojas, Sergio Contreras-Lynch, J M Alonso Vega
Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the most important bacterial pathogen for freshwater farmed salmonids in Chile. The aims of this study were to determine the susceptibility to antimicrobials used in fish farming of Chilean isolates and to calculate their epidemiological cut-off (COWT) values. A number of 125 Chilean isolates of F. psychrophilum were isolated from reared salmonids presenting clinical symptoms indicative of flavobacteriosis and their identities were confirmed by 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933010/differential-recall-bias-intermediate-confounding-and-mediation-analysis-in-life-course-epidemiology-an-analytic-framework-with-empirical-example
#6
Mashhood A Sheikh, Birgit Abelsen, Jan Abel Olsen
The mechanisms by which childhood socioeconomic status (CSES) affects adult mental health, general health, and well-being are not clear. Moreover, the analytical assumptions employed when assessing mediation in social and psychiatric epidemiology are rarely explained. The aim of this paper was to explain the intermediate confounding assumption, and to quantify differential recall bias in the association between CSES, childhood abuse, and mental health (SCL-10), general health (EQ-5D), and subjective well-being (SWLS)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932782/cdc-grand-rounds-modeling-and-public-health-decision-making
#7
Leah S Fischer, Scott Santibanez, Richard J Hatchett, Daniel B Jernigan, Lauren Ancel Meyers, Phoebe G Thorpe, Martin I Meltzer
Mathematical models incorporate various data sources and advanced computational techniques to portray real-world disease transmission and translate the basic science of infectious diseases into decision-support tools for public health. Unlike standard epidemiologic methods that rely on complete data, modeling is needed when there are gaps in data. By combining diverse data sources, models can fill gaps when critical decisions must be made using incomplete or limited information. They can be used to assess the effect and feasibility of different scenarios and provide insight into the emergence, spread, and control of disease...
December 9, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932781/influenza-vaccination-coverage-during-pregnancy-selected-sites-united-states-2005-06-through-2013-14-influenza-vaccine-seasons
#8
Stephen Kerr, Carla M Van Bennekom, Allen A Mitchell
Seasonal influenza vaccine is recommended for all pregnant women because of their increased risk for influenza-associated complications. In addition, receipt of influenza vaccine by women during pregnancy has been shown to protect their infants for several months after birth (1). As part of its case-control surveillance study of medications and birth defects, the Birth Defects Study of the Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University has recorded data on vaccinations received during pregnancy since the 2005-06 influenza vaccination season...
December 9, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932603/poststroke-depression-a-scientific-statement-for-healthcare-professionals-from-the-american-heart-association-american-stroke-association
#9
Amytis Towfighi, Bruce Ovbiagele, Nada El Husseini, Maree L Hackett, Ricardo E Jorge, Brett M Kissela, Pamela H Mitchell, Lesli E Skolarus, Mary A Whooley, Linda S Williams
Poststroke depression (PSD) is common, affecting approximately one third of stroke survivors at any one time after stroke. Individuals with PSD are at a higher risk for suboptimal recovery, recurrent vascular events, poor quality of life, and mortality. Although PSD is prevalent, uncertainty remains regarding predisposing risk factors and optimal strategies for prevention and treatment. This is the first scientific statement from the American Heart Association on the topic of PSD. Members of the writing group were appointed by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee and the American Heart Association's Manuscript Oversight Committee...
December 8, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932530/affective-alterations-in-patients-with-cushing-s-syndrome-in-remission-are-associated-with-decreased-bdnf-and-cortisone-levels
#10
E Valassi, I Crespo, B G Keevil, A Aulinas, E Urgell, A Santos, P J Trainer, S M Webb
OBJECTIVE: Affective alterations and poorer quality of life often persist in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) in remission. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and is highly expressed in brain areas controlling mood and response to stress. Our aims were to assess affective alterations after long-term remission of CS and evaluate whether they are associated with serum BDNF, salivary cortisol (SalF) and/or cortisone (SalE) concentrations...
February 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932358/association-between-lower-limb-osteoarthritis-and-incidence-of-depressive-symptoms-data-from-the-osteoarthritis-initiative
#11
Nicola Veronese, Brendon Stubbs, Marco Solmi, Toby O Smith, Marianna Noale, Cyrus Cooper, Stefania Maggi
BACKGROUND: osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with a number of medical morbidities. Although the prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms is presumed to be high in people with OA, no prospective comparative study has analyzed its incidence. OBJECTIVE: to determine whether OA was associated with an increased odds of developing depressive symptoms. DESIGN: longitudinal cohort study (follow-up: 4.2 years). SETTING: data were gathered from the North American Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) dataset...
December 7, 2016: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932337/development-of-a-critical-appraisal-tool-to-assess-the-quality-of-cross-sectional-studies-axis
#12
Martin J Downes, Marnie L Brennan, Hywel C Williams, Rachel S Dean
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop a critical appraisal (CA) tool that addressed study design and reporting quality as well as the risk of bias in cross-sectional studies (CSSs). In addition, the aim was to produce a help document to guide the non-expert user through the tool. DESIGN: An initial scoping review of the published literature and key epidemiological texts was undertaken prior to the formation of a Delphi panel to establish key components for a CA tool for CSSs...
December 8, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932304/vitamin-d-and-type-2-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
Paul Lips, Marelise Eekhoff, Natasja Vzn Schoor, Mirjam Oosterwerff, Renate de Jongh, Yvonne Krul-Poel, Suat Simsek
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a decreased insulin release, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in experimental and epidemiological studies. Animal studies show that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) stimulates the pancreatic β-cell to secrete insulin. The relationship between vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance could develop through inflammation, as vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased inflammatory markers. In addition, genetic polymorphisms of vitamin D -related genes may predispose to impaired glycemic control and type 2 diabetes...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932106/assessment-of-kidney-graft-function-evolution-measured-by-creatinine-and-cystatin-c
#14
M A Ramos-Barron, I Hernandez Bejarano, E Rodrigo, E Cruz Iglesias, A Benito Hernandez, C Agueros Blanco, A I Morales Martin, M Prieto Vicente, F Lopez Hernandez, M Arias, C Gomez-Alamillo
INTRODUCTION: The 2013 Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative Clinical Practice Guideline suggests measuring cystatin C (sCys) in adults with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) based on creatinine (sCr) between 45 and 59 mL/min/1.73 m(2) if confirmation of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is required. There is not enough evidence to recommend the use of sCys or sCr to estimate GFR in kidney transplant recipients. OBJECTIVES: Our aims were to describe the evolution of sCr, sCys, and GFR in a group of kidney transplant patients and to determine their association with some markers of morbidity at 1 year...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931995/descriptive-epidemiology-of-deployment-related-medical-conditions-and-shipboard-training-related-injuries-in-a-chinese-navy-population
#15
R-R Qi, J-Q Wang, L-L Pan, W Zhou, J-L Liu, J-T Ju, Y-L Cai
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the deployment-related medical conditions and shipboard tactical training-related injuries in a Chinese Navy population. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study with the Chinese Navy was conducted. METHODS: The medical records of 1543 Navy crewmembers from 2011 to 2015 were collected. The distribution and incidence rate (IR) of different types of medical conditions were provided and compared between the Aden Gulf deployment and nondeployment periods...
December 2016: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931933/diagnostic-evaluation-of-assays-for-detection-of-antibodies-against-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-pedv-in-pigs-exposed-to-different-pedv-strains
#16
Priscilla F Gerber, Davide Lelli, Jianqiang Zhang, Bertel Strandbygaard, Ana Moreno, Antonio Lavazza, Simona Perulli, Anette Bøtner, Loic Comtet, Mickael Roche, Philippe Pourquier, Chong Wang, Tanja Opriessnig
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused economic losses in the Americas, Asia and Europe in recent years. Reliable serological assays are essential for epidemiological studies and vaccine evaluation. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect antibodies against different PEDV strains in pig serum. A total of 732 serum samples from North American or European pigs were tested. Samples included experimental samples from pigs infected with classical (G1a PEDV) or variant genogroup 1 PEDV (G1b PEDV), pandemic genogroup 2 PEDV (G2b PEDV) or non-infected controls...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931923/assessing-the-sensitivity-of-european-surveillance-for-detecting-bse-in-cattle-according-to-international-standards
#17
Amie Adkin, Robin Simons, Mark Arnold
European surveillance for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), initiated in 2001, has shown a steady exponential decline in the number of infected cattle, demonstrating that control measures have been effective. In 2016 23 European countries out of 28 demonstrated negligible risk status for the disease. The international standard setting body, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), prescribes that for countries where there is a non-negligible BSE risk, surveillance should allow the detection of one case per 100,000 in the adult cattle population with 95% confidence (Type A surveillance)...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931896/relationship-between-coping-flexibility-and-the-risk-of-depression-in-indian-adults
#18
Tsukasa Kato
According to the dual-process theory of coping flexibility, coping flexibility is the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy and produce and implement an alternative coping strategy. In order to test the coping flexibility hypothesis, which posits that flexible coping produces adaptive outcomes, the relationship between coping flexibility and the risk of depression was examined in the context of Indian adults. Participants (150 men and 150 women) answered questionnaires measuring coping flexibility and depressive symptoms...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931895/self-stigma-in-depressive-patients-association-of-cognitive-schemata-depression-and-self-esteem
#19
Sakie Shimotsu, Naoshi Horikawa
Many empirical studies have indicated that various psychosocial and psychiatric variables are correlated with levels of self-stigma. Treatment methods for reducing self-stigma have been investigated in recent years, especially those examining the relationship between negative cognitive schemata and self-stigma. This study examined the relationship of self-stigma with cognitive schemata, depression, and self-esteem in depressive patients. Furthermore, structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to evaluate three hypothetical models...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931680/reactivation-or-reinfection-in-adult-tuberculosis-is-that-the-question
#20
Pere-Joan Cardona
Looking at the chapter on "natural history" in any tuberculosis (TB) reference book, there is a kind of certainty regarding TB in adults. That is the concept of "post-primary" TB described as the reactivation of dormant bacilli hidden in an old lesion developed during infancy due to a type of local immunosuppression. Intriguingly, this concept involves at least two major uncertainties: how can dormant bacilli remain for such a long period, almost a lifetime, in an old lesion, taking into account granuloma dynamism; and what sort of local immunosuppression is the one that facilitates reactivation? The controversy between reactivation and exogenous reinfection as the cause of active TB started very soon in TB research...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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