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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793197/association-of-low-moderate-urine-arsenic-and-qt-interval-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-evidence-from-the-strong-heart-study
#1
Katherine A Moon, Yiyi Zhang, Eliseo Guallar, Kevin A Francesconi, Walter Goessler, Jason G Umans, Lyle G Best, Barbara V Howard, Richard B Devereux, Peter M Okin, Ana Navas-Acien
Epidemiologic studies suggest that chronic exposure to arsenic is related to cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the pathophysiological link remains uncertain. We evaluated the association of chronic low-moderate arsenic exposure and arsenic metabolism with baseline difference and annual change in ECG measures (QT interval, JT interval, PR interval, QRS duration, and QT dispersion) using linear mixed models in the Strong Heart Study main cohort (N = 1174, median age 55 years) and family study (N = 1695 diabetes-free, median age 36 years)...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793190/comparative-hazards-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-among-hospitalized-patients-with-methamphetamine-or-cocaine-use-disorders-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Russell C Callaghan, Montana Halliday, Jodi Gatley, Jenna Sykes, Lawren Taylor, Claire Benny, Stephen J Kish
BACKGROUND: It is assumed that recreational use of methamphetamine can trigger acute myocardial infarction (AMI) events, but estimates of longitudinal hazards of AMI among methamphetamine users are lacking. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study: Competing-risks analysis was used to estimate time-to-AMI patterns in methamphetamine versus matched appendicitis (population-proxy) and matched cocaine (drug-control) groups. Cohorts were propensity-score-matched using demographic and clinical variables...
April 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793188/prioritization-of-reproductive-toxicants-in-unconventional-oil-and-gas-operations-using-a-multi-country-regulatory-data-driven-hazard-assessment
#3
Salmaan H Inayat-Hussain, Masao Fukumura, A Muiz Aziz, Chai Meng Jin, Low Wei Jin, Rolando Garcia-Milian, Vasilis Vasiliou, Nicole C Deziel
BACKGROUND: Recent trends have witnessed the global growth of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production. Epidemiologic studies have suggested associations between proximity to UOG operations with increased adverse birth outcomes and cancer, though specific potential etiologic agents have not yet been identified. To perform effective risk assessment of chemicals used in UOG production, the first step of hazard identification followed by prioritization specifically for reproductive toxicity, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity is crucial in an evidence-based risk assessment approach...
May 21, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792989/novel-genotypes-and-multilocus-genotypes-of-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-in-pigs-in-northwestern-china-a-public-health-concern
#4
Sha-Sha Wang, Jun-Qiang Li, Yun-Hui Li, Xiang-Wei Wang, Xian-Chen Fan, Xin Liu, Zi-Juan Li, Jun-Ke Song, Long-Xian Zhang, Guang-Hui Zhao
Enterocytozoon bieneusi, the most important and common microsporidian species, inhabits in most animals and humans causing diarrhea and systemic diseases. The objectives of the present study were to examine the prevalence and genetic variability of E. bieneusi in pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 560 pig faecal samples were collected from five different farms in Shaanxi province and molecularly characterized using multilocus genotyping (MLST) technology. High E. bieneusi infection rate (78...
May 21, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792943/the-development-of-a-screening-protocol-for-salmonella-spp-and-enteropathogenic-yersinia-spp-in-samples-from-wild-boar-sus-scrofa-also-generating-mlva-data-for-y-enterocolitica-and-y-pseudotuberculosis
#5
Axel Sannö, Magdalena Jacobson, Sandra Sterner, Susanne Thisted-Lambertz, Anna Aspán
Salmonellosis and yersiniosis are notifiable human diseases that are commonly associated with contaminated food. Domestic pigs as well as wild boars and other wild-life have been identified as reservoirs of these bacteria. Methods for cultivation and molecular epidemiological investigations of Salmonella spp. are well established, however, cultivation of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. is time- consuming and the commonly used method for molecular epidemiological investigations, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, lack in discriminatory power...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792781/is-bla-ctx-m-1-riding-the-same-plasmid-among-horses-in-sweden-and-france
#6
Agnese Lupo, Marisa Haenni, Estelle Saras, Joanna Gradin, Jean-Yves Madec, Stefan Börjesson
A predominance of the blaCTX-M-1 /IncHI1 plasmid combination in horses has been reported in Czech-Republic, Denmark, and The Netherlands. To clarify a possible specific plasmid epidemiology of blaCTX-M-1 in horses in a European perspective, a collection of 74 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli recovered from diseased horses in France and Sweden during the period 2009-2014 was investigated in respect of their genetic relatedness, plasmid content, and molecular features. Overall, 80% of E...
May 24, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792780/cardiovascular-screening-practices-and-attitudes-from-the-ncaa-autonomous-power-5-conferences
#7
Christopher W Miars, Andreas Stamatis, Grant B Morgan, Jonathan A Drezner
BACKGROUND: The development of athlete-specific electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation standards, along with recent rates of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes being higher than previously estimated, has heightened the debate in the sports medicine community regarding cardiovascular screening of the college athlete, including whether certain high-risk subsets, such as male basketball athletes, should undergo more intensive screening. HYPOTHESIS: ECG and/or echocardiography screening in National Collegiate Athletic Association Autonomous 5 Division I (A5DI) schools will be more common than previous reports, and there will be more frequent use of noninvasive cardiac screening for men's basketball players than the general athlete population...
May 1, 2018: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792734/clinical-updates-on-perianal-fistulas-in-crohn-s-disease
#8
Ori Rackovsky, Robert Hirten, Ryan Ungaro, Jean-Frederic Colombel
Perianal fistulizing disease is an aggressive and debilitating phenotype of Crohn's disease (CD), representing a significant therapeutic challenge. New work has led to advancement in epidemiology and long term outcomes of perianal disease. The range of therapeutic options continues to expand, including new biologic agents, biosimilars, and stem cell therapy. Areas covered: We discuss updates to all aspects of management of perianal disease, with a focus on the last three years of published data. Areas considered include new data on epidemiology and prognostication, medical and surgical therapy, and stem cell therapy...
May 24, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792558/epidemiologic-features-and-intervention-effect-of-fall-injury-among-rural-school-aged-children-in-southwest-china-a-short-term-cohort-study
#9
Xiuquan Shi, Tao Wang, Chan Nie, Haiyan Wang, Lirong Luo, Yonghong Qi, Zhixia Jiang
Falls are the top one type in all unintentional injuries. In this study, we aim to explore the epidemiological characteristics of falls and assess the intervention effect. Our research had interviewed 2854 rural children in southwest China. Then, we used School-Family-Individual (SFI) comprehensive education model to conduct an intervention among 1506 children and follow up them for one year. The changes in injury knowledge and incidence rate before and after intervention were compared. We found the fall injury was 37...
May 24, 2018: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792483/when-anger-expression-might-be-beneficial-for-african-americans-the-moderating-role-of-chronic-discrimination
#10
Jiyoung Park, Abdiel J Flores, Kirstin Aschbacher, Wendy Berry Mendes
OBJECTIVES: Anger expression is assumed to have mostly negative health effects. Yet, evidence is mixed on how anger expression influences African Americans' cardiovascular health. The present research aimed to clarify this link by examining moderating effects of chronic discrimination on the relationship between anger expression and cardiovascular risk among African Americans in experimental (Study 1) and epidemiological (Study 2) studies. METHOD: Study 1 examined how African Americans' trait anger expression was linked to (a) physiologic reactivity to acute social rejection during an interracial encounter (Session 1); and (b) total/HDL cholesterol assessed two months later (Session 2)...
May 24, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792293/recruitment-and-participation-of-recreational-runners-in-a-large-epidemiological-and-genetic-research-study-retrospective-data-analysis
#11
Silvia Manzanero, Maria Kozlovskaia, Nicole Vlahovich, David C Hughes
BACKGROUND: With the increasing capacity for remote collection of both data and samples for medical research, a thorough assessment is needed to determine the association of population characteristics and recruitment methodologies with response rates. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to assess population representativeness in a two-stage study of health and injury in recreational runners, which consisted of an epidemiological arm and genetic analysis. METHODS: The cost and success of various classical and internet-based methods were analyzed, and demographic representativeness was assessed for recruitment to the epidemiological survey, reported willingness to participate in the genetic arm of the study, actual participation, sample return, and approval for biobank storage...
May 23, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792262/chronic-kidney-disease-as-a-cardiovascular-risk-factor-lessons-from-kidney-donors
#12
REVIEW
Anna M Price, Nicola C Edwards, Manvir K Hayer, William E Moody, Richard P Steeds, Charles J Ferro, Jonathan N Townend
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is often associated with other risks such as diabetes and hypertension and can be both a cause and an effect of cardiovascular disease. Although epidemiologic data of an independent association of reduced glomerular filtration rate with cardiovascular risk are strong, causative mechanisms are unclear. Living kidney donors provide a useful model for assessing the "pure" effects of reduced kidney function on the cardiovascular system...
May 9, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792233/antibiotic-resistance-and-molecular-characterization-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-and-non-typhoidal-salmonella-strains-isolated-from-infections-in-southwest-china
#13
Shun-Xian Zhang, Yong-Ming Zhou, Li-Guang Tian, Jia-Xu Chen, Rita Tinoco-Torres, Emmanuel Serrano, Shi-Zhu Li, Shao-Hong Chen, Lin Ai, Jun-Hu Chen, Shang Xia, Yan Lu, Shan Lv, Xue-Jiao Teng, Wen Xu, Wen-Peng Gu, Si-Tang Gong, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Lan-Lan Geng, Wei Hu
BACKGROUND: Bacterial diarrhea is one of the most common causes for medical consultations, mortality and morbidity in the world. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are major intestinal pathogens in developing countries, and the indiscriminate use of antibiotics has greatly contributed to resistant strains. Hence, the aim of the present study is to identify the antimicrobial resistance patterns and the molecular characteristics of DEC and NTS in southwest, China...
May 7, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792222/longevity-and-pleural-mesothelioma-age-period-cohort-analysis-of-incidence-data-from-the-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-seer-program-1973-2013
#14
Brent D Kerger
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the hypothesis that an increasing fraction of incident pleural mesothelioma (PM) in the US population may be related to longevity, i.e., to expansion of the population over age 75 years with an age-related elevation in risk. An age-period-cohort analysis of the SEER 9 cancer registries (1973-2013) was conducted using 5-year intervals of age, calendar period, and birth cohort after stratification into four gender-age groups (male and female; 0-74 and 75+ years)...
May 23, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792197/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-campylobacter-jejuni-and-campylobacter-coli-comparison-between-etest-and-a-broth-dilution-method
#15
Maya Azrad, Linda Tkhawkho, Natalia Isakovich, Orna Nitzan, Avi Peretz
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne gasteroenteritis worldwide. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Campylobacter spp. is not routinely performed by most clinical laboratories. However, the emergence of resistant isolates strengthens the importance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing and the critical need for epidemiologic surveillance. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of Etest and Sensititre kit (a broth microdilution method) as methods for susceptibility tests and the critical need for epidemiologic surveillance...
May 23, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792175/pulse-actinomycin-d-as-first-line-treatment-of-low-risk-post-molar-non-choriocarcinoma-gestational-trophoblastic-neoplasia
#16
Lei Li, Xirun Wan, Fengzhi Feng, Tong Ren, Junjun Yang, Jun Zhao, Fang Jiang, Yang Xiang
BACKGROUND: Little data exists predicting the resistance to actinomycin D (Act-D) single-agent for gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). The objective was to determine the overall success of pulse Act-D and the factors predictive of resistance to pulse Act-D in the treatment of low-risk, non-choriocarcinoma post-molar GTN. METHODS: From January 2013 to October 2016, according to the FIGO criteria for the diagnosis of post-molar disease and the FIGO risk-factor scoring system for GTN, a total of 135 patients with post-molar non-choriocarcinoma GTN who were chemotherapy-naive with a FIGO score < 7 were treated with single-agent pulse Act-D as a first-line regimen, in Peking Union Medical College Hospital...
May 23, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791959/sarcopenia-beyond-muscle-atrophy-and-into-the-new-frontiers-of-opportunistic-imaging-precision-medicine-and-machine-learning
#17
Leon Lenchik, Robert D Boutin
As populations continue to age worldwide, the impact of sarcopenia on public health will continue to grow. The clinically relevant and increasingly common diagnosis of sarcopenia is at the confluence of three tectonic shifts in medicine: opportunistic imaging, precision medicine, and machine learning. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art imaging of sarcopenia and provides context for such imaging by discussing the epidemiology, pathophysiology, consequences, and future directions in the field of sarcopenia...
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791949/the-global-neurological-burden-of-tuberculosis
#18
Kiran Thakur, Mitashee Das, Kelly E Dooley, Amita Gupta
Central nervous system (CNS) involvement of tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe manifestation of TB and accounts for approximately 5 to 10% of all extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) cases and approximately 1% of all TB cases. TB meningitis (TBM) is the most common form of CNS TB, though other forms occur, often in conjunction with TBM, including intracranial tuberculomas, tuberculous brain abscesses, and spinal tubercular arachnoiditis. CNS TB often presents with nonspecific clinical features that mimic symptoms of other neurological conditions, often making diagnosis difficult...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791947/global-burden-of-stroke
#19
Mira Katan, Andreas Luft
Stroke is the second leading cause of death and a major cause of disability worldwide. Its incidence is increasing because the population ages. In addition, more young people are affected by stroke in low- and middle-income countries. Ischemic stroke is more frequent but hemorrhagic stroke is responsible for more deaths and disability-adjusted life-years lost. Incidence and mortality of stroke differ between countries, geographical regions, and ethnic groups. In high-income countries mainly, improvements in prevention, acute treatment, and neurorehabilitation have led to a substantial decrease in the burden of stroke over the past 30 years...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791946/global-health-pediatric-neurology
#20
David R Bearden, Ornella Ciccone, Archana A Patel
Neurologic disorders contribute significantly to both morbidity and mortality among children in resource-limited settings, but there are a few succinct studies summarizing the epidemiology of neurologic disorders in these settings. A review of available literature was performed to identify data on the prevalence, etiology, outcomes, and treatment of neurologic disorders in children in resource-limited settings. The burden of neurologic disorders in children is high in resource-limited settings. Barriers to optimal care include lack of trained personnel, limited access to diagnostic technology, and limited availability of drugs used to treat common conditions...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
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